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泻药的原理 – 译学馆
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泻药的原理

How Do Laxatives Work?

[♪♩INTRO]
[开头音乐]
Everybody poops.
每个人都要排便
It’s one of those facts of life.
这是无可争辩的事实
The average person does it anywhere
正常人在任何地方都会有排便行为
between three times a week and three times a day — so
介于每周三次到每天三次之间 所以
by the time you’re an adult, you’re a very experienced pooper.
当你是成人时 你就是一个有经验的便便者了
But sometimes, even with the right diet and exercise,
但有时候就算你健康饮食规律也锻炼
you need a little help with your
也需要一些辅助方法
number two.
才能顺畅地排便
And that’s where laxatives come in.
这就需要泻药了
Constipation is pretty common,
便秘相当常见
with anywhere between two and 30 % of people experiencing
在任何时间 任何地点都有2%到30%的人
symptoms at any given time.
会出现便秘的症状
It can be caused by lack of exercise,
这有可能是由缺乏锻炼
many medications, or certain diets.
药物治疗或某些饮食引起的
Changing your habits might solve the problem, but if not,
改变习惯或许能解决这个问题 如若不能
there are a whole bunch of laxatives
有很多泻药
to make your pooping experience more enjoyable.
能让你在排便时感觉更舒畅
The most common type are called bulk-formers,
最常见的粪便形态是成型的块状
and they ’ re basically concentrated doses
它们基本上是聚集的
of dietary fiber.
膳食纤维
Dietary fiber is a broad term for the parts of plants we eat,
膳食纤维是可食用的植物部分的广义术语
but that our bodies can ’ t digest,
但是我们的身体无法吸收
and you ’ ll find it
你会在
in things like whole wheat breads and vegetables.
比如全麦面包和蔬菜中发现它(膳食纤维)
There are two kinds of it:
它有两种类型
soluble fiber, which can dissolve in water and form gels,
可以在水中溶解并形成凝胶的可溶性纤维
and insoluble fiber, which doesn’t.
和不可溶于其中的不溶性纤维
Bulk-forming laxatives add soluble fiber to your intestines,
容积性泻药通过在你的肠道中增添可溶性纤维
which makes your stool full
来使你的粪便充满
of soft, squishy fiber-gel.
柔软黏腻的纤维凝胶
That makes them larger and heavier,
它会让粪便更大且重
while keeping them soft and easy to pass.
也保持粪便柔软以便通过肠道
These are some of the safest laxatives to take long-term,
这是一些最安全的 可长期使用的泻药
which makes them popular.
这一点也使它们很受欢迎
But if fiber-gels aren’t your style, you have some other options.
如果纤维凝胶不适合你 也有其他备选
Another kind, osmotic laxatives,
另一种 渗透性泻药
work by making the concentration of certain salts or sugars
通过使肠内的盐或糖的浓度
higher in your intestines than outside them.
高于肠外的方式来奏效
To equalize the concentrations and get things back to normal,
为了使内外浓度相等 让一切回归正常
water from the rest of your
肠道就会吸收
body is pulled into your intestines.
你身体的剩余水份
And that creates a waterslide for anything inside your colon.
来为你的结肠里面的东西创建一条水滑梯
If you ’ ve ever had to hit the bathroom
如果你曾在吃了无糖的小熊糖果后
after eating sugar-free gummy bears, this is why.
就得去趟厕所 这就是原因了
They ’ re sweetened using sugar alcohols like maltitol,
小熊糖果用的是诸如麦芽糖醇这类的糖醇来充当甜味剂的
which is a potent osmotic laxative.
这是一种强力渗透性泻药
There are also stimulant laxatives,
也有刺激性的泻药
which increase the number of contractions in your
它可以通过刺激控制肠壁的神经
intestinal walls by stimulating the nerves controlling them.
来增加其收缩次数
The contractions cause stool to travel faster
这种收缩让粪便更快地
through your digestive tract, so this kind
通过消化道 所以这种类型的
of laxative tends to act the fastest. Now,
泻药通常起效最快 现在
most laxatives are known for helping out with constipation,
大多泻药因可助通便而为人所知
but they can be helpful
但它们在其它方面
for other things, too — like,
也是有帮助的 比如
if you ’ ve just had surgery and shouldn ’ t be straining
当你刚做完手术并且上厕所时无法绷紧
your muscles in the bathroom.
肌肉时
To make regular bowel movements easier to pass,
想要肠道正常蠕动以排便更为通畅
there are lubricant laxatives, like
就可用润滑性泻药 比如
mineral oil, that coat your intestinal walls to make them slippery,
矿物油 它附着在你的肠壁使其变滑
and emollient laxatives,
还有软化性泻药
also called stool softeners.
也被称为粪便软化剂
Those decrease the surface tension of fatty stools,
它们可以降低脂肪型粪便的表面张力
allowing them to absorb water and
让粪便吸收水分变软
become soft — like how soaps and detergents
跟肥皂和清洁剂在你洗手时
let water and oils mix when you ’ re washing
将水和油相混合的过程
your hands.
类似
So no matter your poop situation, there’s a laxative for you.
所以无论你是什么排便状况 总有适合你的泻药
At the end of the day,
最后
a healthy diet and exercise go a long way in keeping your body
健康饮食和规律锻炼对保持身体健康
running smoothly.
大有帮助
But the next time you ’ re feeling bloated and wishing
但你下一次感到肚子发胀并且期望
for a visit from the poop fairy,
便便仙女的来访
you have options for helping nature along.
你就可以选择合适的泻药
Just maybe don’t choose that bag of gummy bears.
就不用去吃小熊糖了
Thanks for asking, and thanks to all
感谢提问 并且感谢众筹网站上
of our patrons on Patreon who keep the answers coming!
的所有支持者 他们总是能给我们灵感
If you ’ d like to submit a question,
如果你想要向我们提问题
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
你可以访问网站patreon. com/ scishow
[♪♩OUTRO]
[结尾音乐]

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视频来源

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