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虎鲸的不同狩猎过程

How do killer whales hunt? | Natural History Museum

From years of killer whale studies, we know that, really,
通过对虎鲸多年的研究 我们了解到
killer whales are kind of mummy’s boys and mummy’s girls.
虎鲸是一群离不开妈妈的孩子
They have these really tight family groups that stay together for a long, long time
它们和家庭成员长期紧密地生活在一起
and it allows them to pass on what they’ve learnt to the next generation, and to the next generation.
这使它们能够将所学的本领代代相传
And we also see that in the hunting strategies.
在它们的捕食策略中 我们也发现如此
And what we see across the globe,
在全球范围内我们发现
is different strategies associated with hunting mammals
虎鲸在捕猎哺乳动物或者鱼时
or hunting fish.
有不同的捕食策略
And I wanted to investigate this variation closer to home,
我想在自家附近研究这种差异
so in the waters around the UK.
也就是英国附近水域
And that actually first started here in the Natural History Museum.
实际上研究是从自然历史博物馆开始的
When we’re working in the field
当我们在野外工作时
we can observe the behaviour in the animals.
我们可以观察到动物的行为
but museum specimens can give us something else
但博物馆标本可以给我们一些其他东西
they can actually give us a picture through time.
他们可以展示出久远的历史
[Yeah, so this is the jaw that I wanted to show you…]
是的 这是我想给你看的虎鲸下颌
It’s something that was really surprising
当我们看到这些收藏品时
when we first started to look at the ones in the collection here,
相当地惊奇
and that was some big differences in the teeth.
我们发现虎鲸的牙齿有很大的不同
Some had very worn down teeth, and others had very little wear.
有的牙齿磨损严重 有的几乎没有磨损
We wanted to find out whether this variation in tooth wear
我们想知道这种牙齿磨损的变化
was related to what the animal had been feeding upon during its lifetime,
是否与它们一生中捕食的食物有关
and what the feeding strategy might have been.
以及它们的捕食策略是什么
To do this, we looked at the chemical composition of the teeth.
为此 我们研究了虎鲸牙齿的化学成分
It can tell us roughly where the animal was feeding within the food chain.
其可大致透露虎鲸的食物在食物链中的位置
Is it low down? So, for example, feeding upon fish?
是在食物链低端吗?比如吃鱼
Or is it feeding higher up in the food chain?
或者是位于食物链的高处?
So, is it feeding on a seal that ate the fish?
所以它是以吃鱼的海豹为食吗?
And that gave us some exciting results.
实验给了我们一些令人兴奋的结果
The specimens with unworn teeth had a signature
牙齿未磨损的虎鲸与以哺乳动物为食的动物
that was consistent with them feeding on mammals,
有相同特征
for example like seals or porpoise.
比如那些捕食海豹或者鼠海豚的
Whereas those with the worn teeth had a signature of them feeding upon fish
而牙齿磨损的则与以鱼为食的动物有相同特征
such as herring or mackerel.
比如捕食鲱鱼或鲭鱼的
With some individuals also showing a signature that suggested
但有些其中个体也表现出了
some of the time they’re feeding upon mammals.
偶尔以哺乳动物为食的特征
So in other places, we find that killer whales that feed on different things
在其它海域 我们发现不同虎鲸捕食不同食物
are actually genetically different as well.
也是由于基因上的差异
Probably because the way that these behaviours are inherited,
可能是因为这些行为具有遗传性
which has been passed on through mother to her calf through learning process,
而这些行为是母虎鲸在技能学习中教给幼崽的
it sort of mimics the transmission of genetics as well from mother to calf.
这有点像基因从母亲向幼崽的传递
And that was something that we wanted to see with these museum specimens as well.
这些推论我们也想从博物馆标本中得到验证
We managed to extract a little bit of DNA,
我们设法提取到一些DNA
and when we looked we did find indeed that the animals with the worn teeth
研究时我们发现有牙齿磨损的虎鲸
came from a really different genetic lineage to the animals with the unworn teeth.
和无牙齿磨损的虎鲸有完全不同的遗传谱系
They would have diverged from a common female ancestor a long, long time ago.
它们可能很久前就从一个共同的雌性祖先分化
What this study told us was that
这项研究告诉我们
we have two different cultural lineages,
虎鲸有两套不同文化谱系
but also that these cultural lineages are distinct genetic lineages.
这些文化谱系也是不同的基因谱系
So we have quite a bit of diversity in the waters around the UK,
所以在英国周边水域和宽广的大西洋东北
and in the broader North-East Atlantic.
虎鲸的种类相当丰富
Around the world, at the moment,
目前 在全世界范围内
we just consider the killer whale as a single species,
我们只是把虎鲸看作是一个单一物种
but really we probably need to start
但实际上我们可能需要
thinking of them as being different units.
把它们看作不同的单位
And it’s interesting to try and project forward
尝试预测该过程是否终将导致
whether or not this process eventually leads to them becoming different species.
它们变成不同的物种 是非常有趣的

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视频概述

本视频主要讲述研究人员通过对虎鲸牙齿的磨损以及化学成分检测,DNA检测发现虎鲸的不同捕猎方式,这在基因中也被证实存在着差异。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

彤彤

审核员

审核员HJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Tt7BO9bvik

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