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怎样让手机电池寿命更长? – 译学馆
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怎样让手机电池寿命更长?

How Do I Make My Batteries Last Longer?

很多日常生活中使用的设备都要用到电池
So many of the devices we use every day have batteries
似乎大家都会有一些能使电池使用寿命延长的方法
and it seems like everyone has their own rituals for making them last
有人把电池放在冰箱里
Some people store them in the fridge
有人在电池充满后就马上拔掉电源
or unplug as soon as the battery is charged
有的甚至坚持到电池没电时才充电
or even insist on only charging when the battery is on the brink of dying.
但是当你给手机和手提电脑之类的设备充电时
But when it comes to charging the batteries in things like your phone and laptop,
会发现以上大部分方法都没有显著效果
it turns out that many of these strategies don’t do very much.
事实上 有些还会适得其反
And some are actually counter productive.
电池的放电原理是电子在两个电极之间的流动
Batteries work using electrons that try to flow between electrodes.
但是电子在电池内部的移动受到电解质的阻碍
But they’re blocked by an electrolyte,
只有当电池两极被外部电线连接时才会产生电流
which only lets charges flow when the two sides are directly connected by wires.
一旦所有的电子都流向正极
Once all the electrons have reached the positive electrode,
电池则放电完毕 电量耗尽
the battery is considered discharged, meaning it’s out of power.
对电池重新充电涉及到一个过程
Recharging the battery just involves pushing those electrons
即通过外部的能量使电子重新回到负极由此电池得以再次放电
back onto the negative electrode to reset the whole process.
随着电解质的消耗和电极的钝化
All rechargeable batteries lose the ability to hold charge over time
所有可充电电池都将逐渐失去储存电能的能力
as the electrolyte breaks down and the pieces wear out.
但电池电极的制作材料
But what those pieces are made of
很大程度上决定了让电池寿命更久的方法
determines a lot about how to make a battery last as long as possible.
你听到的很多关于延长电池寿命的小窍门
A lot of those battery life myths you might hear
仅适用于镍镉和镍氢电池
apply to nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries.
它们常用于电视遥控器中
The kind you might have in your TV remote.
由于在这种电池里自由电子通过化学反应产生
With those, because of the chemical reaction that produces the electrons,
在对其充电前应该完全放电
it really is better to let them run all the way down before recharging them,
而充满电后应立即停止充电
and to stop charging pretty much as soon as they’re fully charged.
否则会在电池极板上产生许多晶体 导致电池损坏
Otherwise, crystals can form on the electrolyte and the batteries can break
或者造成电池容量损失
or at least not hold as much charge as they should.
但如今大多数便携式设备 如手机和笔记本电脑
But most portable devices these days, like your phone and your laptop,
使用的锂离子电池其工作原理不同
use lithium-ion batteries which work differently.
过度充电确实会损坏锂离子电池
Lithium-ion batteries do get damaged if they’re overcharged
但电池和充电器通常拥有自动在过度充电前停止充电的功能
but the batteries and chargers are usually designed to stop charging before that happens.
因此您无需考虑在手机或笔记本电脑充电后立即拔下电源插头的问题
So you don’t have to worry about unplugging your phone or laptop as soon as it’s charged.
并且等到锂离子电池电量即将用完再充电的电池
And waiting until lithium-ion batteries are close to dead before charging them
实际上其寿命比放电深度达到70%就充电的电池寿命短5倍
can actually make their lives up to 5 times shorter than always charging before they dip below 70%.
充电前电量越高 电池寿命越长
The higher the charge before you plug in, the longer the battery will last.
因此 如果想要一个指标
With that said, if you have something that tells you
来衡量电池剩余使用时间而不只是可用电量的百分比
how much time you have left on your battery, not just the percentage,
你应该每个月进行一次完全放电帮助电脑重新校正电池总使用时间的估计值
you should fully discarge it about once a month to help the computer recalibrate its estimate.
但是影响电池寿命的最大因素是温度
But the biggest thing that affects all batteries is temperature.
温度越高 电化学反应越快
Electrochemical reactions happen faster when it’s hotter.
所以电池在持续受热的情况下会快速老化
So batteries do break down faster in prolonged heat.
但这并不意味着你应该把电池储存在冰箱中
But that doesn’t mean you should store your batteries in the freezer.
冰箱里的空气或者用来放进冰箱的装电池的袋子里的空气
The air in the freezer, or in the bag with batteries in it you put in the freezer
含有大量水蒸气 能快速依附在介质上结晶成冰
has plenty of water vapor just waiting for a place to crystallize into ice.
没人想要一个湿漉 结冰的电池吧
And you really, really don’t want wet, icy batteries.
所以如果想要手机或笔记本电脑的电池寿命更长
So if you want your phone and laptop batteries to last,
应该尽可能让它们多充电
keep them plugged in as much as possible.
不管你用的是哪种电池
And no matter what kinds of batteries you’re storing,
储存的时候放在抽屉里就行了
they’ll be just fine if you stick them in a drawer.
感谢来自Patreon的用户Dorian提出的这个问题
Thanks to Patreon patron Dorian for asking this question
感谢在Patroen上不断为大家提供解答的所有用户
and thanks to all of our patrons who keep these answers coming.
如果你想提交一个问题供别人解答 只需访问patreon.com/scishow
If you’d like to submit a question to be answered, just go to patreon.com/scishow.
别忘了去youtube.com/scishow观看和订阅我们的视频
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

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