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绣球花为何能改变颜色?

How Do Hydrangeas Change Colors?

Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
感谢CuriositStream对PBS数字工作室的支持
Hey so remember that time in the 3rd grade
嘿 还记得三年级的时候
when you drowned a carnation in food coloring
当你把康乃馨浸在食用色素中
and… this happened ?
然后……这样的事情发生了吗?
We’re about to try something similar…but not.
我们也来做一个差不多但又不太一样的实验
This experiment shows that carnations take up water
这个实验证明康乃馨吸收水
and whatever’s dissolved in the water,
及溶解在水里的任何东西
which is cool.
这很酷
But what if we switch out the carnations for some hydrangeas,
但是如果我们把康乃馨换成绣球花
and instead of food coloring, use this completely colorless solution.
并用这种完全无色的溶液来代替食用色素
Will they change color?
会怎么样呢?它们会变色吗?
But why would they?
它们为什么会这样呢?
Hydrangeas have an unusual property.
绣球花有个不寻常的特性
Their blossoms can change color depending on the pH of the soil they’re planted in.
它们的花朵会根据所种植的土壤的pH值改变颜色
Acidic soil grows blue flowers, while more basic soil grows red ones
酸性土壤会开出蓝色的花 而碱性土壤会开出红色的花
and borderline conditions turn out purple.
两者之间的中性土壤会开出紫色的花
By the way, before we go any further
在我们继续讨论前 顺便说一下
I am contractually obligated by all botanists in the world to tell you
和世界上所有的植物学家一样 我有义务告诉你们
that these things that look like petals
这些看起来像花瓣的东西
— they’re not actually petals, they’re sepals
它们实际上不是花瓣 而是花萼
same as the little star-shaped thing at the base of a rosebud.
就和玫瑰花蕾底部的星形的东西一样的
OK, so anyway: You can change the color of a hydrangea’s sepals
总之 你可以通过调整土壤pH值
in your garden by adjusting the soil pH.
来改变花园中绣球花萼片的颜色
You can add stuff like garden sulfur to lower the pH
你可以添加一些东西 比如硫磺
and get bluer blossoms,
降低pH值 让花朵变得更蓝
or you can add stuff like calcium hydroxide to raise the pH
或者加点氢氧化钙提高pH值
and get redder blossoms.
让花儿更红
But it’s not the pH that’s making the color change — not directly.
但pH值并未直接影响颜色的变化
See, soil contains some aluminum
土壤中含铝
which is not that surprising
这并不奇怪
since it makes about 8 percent of the Earth’s crust .
因为地壳中含有约8%的铝
In acidic soils, that aluminum dissolved in the water in the soil,
在酸性土壤中 铝溶解在土壤中的水里
so it’s in its ionic form.
所以它是离子形式
This dissolved Al3+ is toxic to plants,
这种溶解的Al3+对植物有毒
it can be taken up by the roots and damage the plants.
它会被根部吸收 对植物造成伤害
To avoid that damage,
为了避免这种伤害
some plants, including hydrangeas,
一些植物 包括绣球花
secrete chemicals into the soil
会向土壤中分泌化学物质
that can bind to that Al3+ ,
可以和这个Al3+结合
in this case, citric acid.
绣球花分泌的是柠檬酸
That citric acid forms a complex with the Al3+ ,
柠檬酸与Al3+形成一种化合物
and that complex is not toxic.
这种化合物是无毒的
So essentially,
总之
the plant is detoxify its own habitat .
植物是在为自己的栖息地解毒
That’s cool.
那很酷
Now I know, this seems like it has nothing to do with color.
我知道这听上去好像和颜色无关
But stick with me here.
但请听我说下去
If the soil is neutral or basic,
如果土壤为中性或碱性
the aluminum binds to hydroxide ions,
铝就会与氢氧根离子结合
forming solid aluminum hydroxide.
形成固体氢氧化铝
Unlike aluminum citrate,
与柠檬酸铝不同
aluminum hydroxide cannot enter the plant’s roots.
氢氧化铝不能进入植物的根部
So, quick recap:
所以 快速回顾下:
Hydrangeas in acidic soil take up aluminum,
在酸性土壤中绣球花吸收铝
though they have to detoxify it.
尽管铝有毒 它们还得解毒
Hydrangeas in basic soil don’t have to deal with aluminum at all.
在碱性土壤中的绣球花根本不需要处理铝
Store that in your memory banks, it’s gonna be important in about 15 seconds.
把它记在你的脑海里 15秒后它就会变得很重要
But in the meantime,
但同时
let’s talk about why pink hydrangeas are pink in the first place.
我们先来谈谈为什么粉色绣球花是粉色的
This pink or red, if you like ,is actually a type of anthocyanin
这种粉色或者你觉得是红色 实际上是一种花青素
— a family of pigments found in tons of plants
——从葡萄到浆果再到茄子
from grapes to berries to eggplants.
大量植物中都存在这一类色素
This particular one is called delphinidin-o-glucoside.
这种特殊的叫做飞燕草素葡萄糖苷
In basic soil, where hydrangeas — remember — don’t take up aluminum,
还记得吗 在碱性土壤里绣球花不吸收铝
delphinidin-o-glucoside takes this form
飞燕草素葡萄糖苷是这种结构
Let’s call it red version.
我们称之为红色构型
It reflects red light,
它反射红光
which means to our eyes, it has a red color.
对我们的眼睛来说 它是红色的
But in acidic soil,
但在酸性土壤中
where aluminum citrate get taken up by the roots,
柠檬酸铝被根部吸收
red version binds to the aluminum ion,
红色构型会与铝离子结合
loses a few hydrogens and shifts a few double bonds,
失去一些氢并转移一些双键
and gets a new name…which we’ll call blue version.
并得到一个新名字……我们称之为蓝色构型
Those rearrangements mean it now reflects blue light instead of red…
这些重新排列意味着它现在反射的是蓝光而不是红光……
and voila, blue sepals.
瞧 蓝色的花萼片
Now that seems complicated,
这听上去很复杂
but… it’s actually even more complicated in real life.
但实际上在现实生活中更复杂
The blue you’re seeing is blue version,
你们看到的蓝色是蓝色构型
but it’s stabilized by a bunch of buddies called co-pigments.
但有一群叫共色素的化合物起到了稳定颜色的作用
While scientists aren’t sure exactly how they all interact,
虽然科学家还不确定它们是如何相互作用的
they do know that blue version is the main source of the color.
但是他们知道的是 蓝色主要来源于蓝色构型
So all this means that the color of hydrangea sepals depends on
所以这就意味着绣球花萼片的颜色取决于
how much aluminum the plant can take up through its roots.
植物的根能吸收多少铝
Sepals that contain less than 10 micrograms of aluminum per gram are red.
每克铝含量低于10微克的萼片呈红色
Over 40 micrograms per gram are blue,
每克超过40微克的呈蓝色
and in between gives you purple.
居中的呈紫色
The complex of aluminum with blue version is very stable.
铝与蓝色构型的复合物非常稳定
And it’s been speculated that complexing toxic aluminum in its sepals like this is
据推测 在花萼中 通过结合有毒的铝形成复合物
is the plant’s way of preventing damage to itself from free aluminum in the soil:
这是植物防止土壤中游离铝对自身造成损害的方法
first transporting it using citrate,
首先使用柠檬酸盐运输铝
and then using the pigments to safely tuck it away.
然后用色素安全地将其存储起来
Changing the soil pH in your garden can take about a year.
改变花园土壤的pH值需要约一年的时间
But some scientists who published their work in a 2011 paper in the journal Biometals
但一些科学家在2011年发表在《生物金属》杂志上的一篇论文中
found a way to speed up the color change by a lot.
发现了一种大大加速颜色变化的方法
They incubated cut hydrangeas in a solution of aluminum and buffered citric acid,
他们把切下来的绣球花放在铝和缓冲柠檬酸的溶液中培育
and they were able to turn red hydrangeas blue in just a couple of days.
在几天内就能把红色绣球花变成蓝色的
Now, when we read this paper, we thought,
当我们读这篇论文时 我们想
we have to do this on camera.
我们得在栏目中做这个实验
So we got in touch with the researchers
所以我们联系了研究人员
and tried to replicate their experiment and…
试图重复他们的实验……
We managed to get a tinge of blue around the edges
我们设法在我们的花完全死之前
before completely killing our flowers.
在萼片的边缘染上一点蓝色
Yeah these results are pretty underwhelming.
是的 这些结果相当令人失望
So like good scientists should,
所以就像优秀的科学家应该做的那样
we went back to the drawing board…
我们回到实验的开始……
and we’ll tell you all about that in part 2,
我们会在下个视频告诉你们发生了什么
come back in a couple weeks to see if we pull it off.
几周后再来看看我们是否成功了
Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
感谢CuriosityStream对PBS数字工作室的支持
CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service
CuriosityStream是一个订阅流媒体服务
that offers documentaries and non-fiction titles
提供各种电影制片人的纪录片和纪实类影片
from a variety of filmmakers, including CuriosityStream originals.
包括Curiositystream原创影片
For example, Curiosity Stream has the Destination series,
例如 Curiosity Stream有目的地系列
which explores what it would take for us to get to different planets in our solar system,
它探索我们需要什么条件才能到达太阳系的不同行星
and maybe even stay there.
甚至可能停留在那里
You can learn more at curiositystream.com slash reactions
你可以在curiositystream.com/reactions了解更多
and use the code reactions during the sign-up process.
注册时可使用代码reactions
If you want to see this experiment resolved,
如果你想看到这个实验的结果
and help us keep making videos like this,
并帮助我们继续制作这样的视频
and affording expensive flowers for cool experiments,
让我们买得起昂贵的花来做很酷的实验
hit that subscribe button and the bell
点击订阅按钮和铃铛按钮
to get notified when we post the exciting conclusion.
当我们发布激动人心的结论时 你就会得到通知
Until then, thank you for your watching!
在此之前 感谢您的观看!

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视频概述

本视频将为你解答绣球花的变色是否与土壤酸碱度有关,绣球花与土壤中的铝又有什么关系,绣球花到底为何能改变颜色等一系列问题!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmCxU8XY_pE

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