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2. 习惯是如何运作的?

How Do Habits REALLY Work? (THE TRUTH)

大家好 这里是“激励胶囊”
Hey, improvement pill here.
欢迎来到《自我驯服》的第二课
I want to welcome you to the second Lesson of the Tamed Course.
如果你没有看过第一节课
If you haven’t watched Lesson No.1,
我建议你现在暂停视频
I suggest that you pause this video right now,
点击下方说明中的链接
and click on the link in the description below.
这是因为 如果想明白课程的绝大部分内容
Because if you wanna get the most out of this course,
你就必须观看完这个课程中的所有视频
you gonna have to watch all of the videos.
今天这节课 我们将会讨论
In today’s lesson, we’re gonna talk about
习惯是如何运作的
how habits work
或者更确切地说
or more specifically,
习惯是如何形成体系的
how they’re structured.
请记住我们接下来几个月要进行的计划:
Because remember our strategy for the next couple of months,
我们会集中所有的精力 来培养出良好的新习惯
it’s to focus all of our energy on creating good, new habits.
我们为了能够达成目标
And in order for us to do so,
就必须弄明白习惯是如何运作的
we’re gonna have to understand how they work.
生理学家们确信 所有的习惯都是按照某种体系来运作的
Physiologists know that there’s a certain structure that all habits follow.
有代表性的模型 为数不少
There’s dozens of models out there representing this,
不过 为了本期视频的需要
but for the purposes of this video,
让我们所有人对某些东西理解起来更加容易
to make things easier for all of us to understand,
我将采用自己特别喜欢的模型:
I’m gonna use my favorite model –
“习惯回路模型”
the habit loop model,
查尔斯·都希格在《习惯的力量》中首次介绍了这个模型
which was introduced by Charles Duhigg in his book,’The Power Of Habit’,
“习惯回路模型”包括三个阶段:
the habit loop model contains three steps.
第一个阶段是“提示”
The first step is the cue.
“提示”的形式和类型有很多种
The cue can come in many shapes and forms
它可以是你生活环境中的某种事物
that can be something in your environment
比如物体 声音 气味
like an object, the sound or a smell,
它也可以是某个日子
it could also be a certain time of day,
某个地方 甚至是某种情绪
a location, or even an emotion.
不论是哪一种 都是为了达到同一个目的:
Whatever it is, the cue serves one purpose.
告诉你的大脑应该让习惯开始发生了
It tells your brain that it should start the habit.
这时候“习惯回路”第二阶段就会开始发挥作用
And that’s where the next step of the habit loop comes in.
“习惯回路”第二阶段被称为“惯性行为”
The second step of the habit loop is called the routine.
“惯性行为”就是习惯本身
The routine is the actual habit itself,
就是你所表现出来的行为
it’s the behavior that you perform.
你如果有吸烟的坏习惯
So, if you have a bad habit of smoking cigarettes,
就会有取烟 点烟 抽烟的行为
it’s the act of taking out your pack, lighting your cigarette and taking a pull,
其整个行为过程就是“惯性行为”
this entire process is the routine.
“习惯回路”最后的第三阶段 则是“奖励”
The third and final step of the habit loop is the reward.
“奖励”的形式和类型 多种多样
The reward can come in many shapes and forms,
并因人而异
and it varies from person to person.
它甚至可以由各种不同的事物组合而成的
It can even be a combination of different things.
以吸烟为例 其“奖励”
For our example of smoking cigarettes,it could be
可能是 在尼古丁作用下多巴胺含量的急剧上升
a quick spike in our dopamine levels,which nicotine provides,
可能是 工作间隙的休息
it could be a break from work,
甚至对于喜欢扎堆吸烟的人而言
or it could even be the good feeling that comes from socializing,
可能是来自社交的愉快感觉
for people that like to smoke in groups.
“习惯回路模型”被称为“回路”
The reason the habit loop is called the loop,
就是因为“奖励”
is because of the reward.
如果习惯的“奖励”足够令人满意
If the reward for the habit is satisfying enough,
你的大脑就会说:
your brain says,
这个习惯的“提示”出现的话
“okay, if this cue appears,
我们按照“惯性行为”来做
and we do this routine,
就会获得让人愉快的“奖励”
then we get a good reward.”
这样的信息会保留在大脑里 为下一次铺平道路
And it keeps this information, tug the way for next time.
下次这个“提示”出现
So the next time, the cue appears,
你的大脑就会说 哦 看吧
your brain says, “oh, look.
那个”提示”又出现了
It’s that cue again,
如果我们照着相同的“惯性行为”来做
if we do the same routine
就会和上次一样获得让人愉快的“奖励”
as last time, we’ll get a good reward. Just like last time, “
每次你都像上次一样获得了“奖励”
and each and every time you reach the reward,
这个特定“回路”就会变得越来越强大
this specific loop becomes stronger and stronger.
到了一定阶段后 你甚至不必再对行为进行思考
To the point, where you no longer even have to think about the action.
单纯就只是做
You just do it.
当你达到了这种阶段
When you reach this point,
甚至不必再对“惯性行为”进行思考的时候
when you no longer even have to think about doing the routine,
一个习惯就正式培养形成了
that’s when a habit is officially formed,
这就是“习惯回路”
and that’s the habit loop.
现在你大概正在琢磨
Now, you’re probably wondering,
“习惯回路”如此有用
well, this is good information in all,
但是 我究竟如何能利用“习惯回路” 来克服自己的恶习呢
but how exactly can I use this to overcome my own addiction.
“习惯回路”之所以重要
Well, this is important,
就是因为可以让你找出目前恶习中的”提示”
because it allows you to discover the cue, routine, reward
“惯性行为” “奖励”
of your current addiction.
弄清楚自己嗜好中的”提示”是很重要的
It’s important to find out the cues for your addiction,
这是因为”提示”似乎在生活中无时无刻都在出现
because these are the cues that seem to appear in your life all of the time,
你可以找到这些”提示”
you can take these cues
将其和正面的“惯性行为”联系起来
and attach them to more positive routines,
比如 锻炼或者冥想
like exercise or meditation.
我们如果能够训练大脑
And if we can train our brains
将这些”提示”与这些“惯性行为”联系起来
associate these cues with those routines,
就可以成功地改掉恶习 养成好习惯
we will have successfully replaced a bad habit with a good one.
在整个课程中 我们将深入了解此概念
We’ll dive deeper into this concept through out the course.
现在 关键是要弄明白自己恶习中的“奖励”是什么
Now, it’s important to become aware of what your rewards are.
因为你这样做
Because by doing so,
将会找到自己恶习背后的推动力
you’ll discover the driving force behind your addiction.
我们来看看 比如
Let’s see, for example,
你意识到看色情片习惯的“奖励”
you realize that the reward for your pornography habit
是为了帮助自己缓解压力
is that it helps you relieve stress.
也许是你的工作处于困难的时期
Maybe you have a tough day at work or
也许是你和喜欢的女生交往得很糟糕
maybe you had a bad interaction for girl you like.
我们有些人就会为了缓解这种压力 从而开始看色情片
Some of us turn to porn to relieve the sort of stress,
如果真是这样的情况
if that’s the case,
我们就应该设法对这个问题进行处理
then we need to address this problem.
你不可能让生活中的压力突然就消失掉
You’re not going to suddenly stop having stressed your life,
因此 我们就需要重新选择一个能够缓解压力的习惯
so we need to pick a habit that can relieve stress.
负重锻炼的习惯就是一个很好的选择
A good example of this is the habit of lifting heavy weights.
请记住习惯不可能真正被消除掉
Remember habits cannot truly be erased.
“提示”和“奖励”不可能真正改变
The cue and reward can’t really be changed,
不过 我们却能够让“惯性行为”发生变化
but we can alter the routine,
这就是整个课程背后的理念:替代而不是消除
and that’s the idea behind the scenes higher course, replace, not erase.
因此 我希望你现在拿出笔和纸
So what I want you to do right now is to grab a pen and paper
简要写出你自己恶习中的“习惯回路”
and start sketching out the habit loop for your own addiction.
“惯性行为”相当容易看懂
The routine is pretty obvious,
它就是不良习惯本身
it’s the bad habit itself.
不过 “提示”可能有些棘手
But the cue can be a little tricky,
“提示”在绝大数时候 都不是只有一种
most of the time, there is more than one cue.
促使我们上瘾的情况 各种各样 不尽相同
It’s a variety of different situations that prompts us to indulge in our addiction.
尽可能多地想一想 将这些情况写下来
So think of as many as possible and write them down.
比如 我在克服看色情片的习惯时
For example, here’s a list of the cues that I wrote,
列出了一张习惯的“提示”清单:
back in a day when I was in the process of overcoming my own pornography addiction.
当我喝醉了时
Uh, If I was drunk,
当我感觉受到了拒绝时
if I felt rejected,
当我睡前在床上玩手机或者电脑时
if I had my phone or laptop on my bed before going to sleep.
另外我们要弄清楚“奖励”又有哪些
Now, when it comes to identify the rewards,
“奖励”同样可能有些棘手
it can be a bit tricky as well.
对于一个人而言
For one,
每个成瘾的坏习惯都会让多巴胺的含量上升
every single bad habit that is addictive involves in increase in dopamine levels.
不过 我们必须探究得更深
But we have to dig deeper than that
找到我们渴求的最主要的“奖励”
and uncover the main rewards that we crave.
在《习惯的力量》中
In the book, ‘The Power Of Habit’,
查尔斯·都希格讨厌看到自己这样的坏习惯:
Charles Duhigg do hate look at that his bad habit
自己每一天都得吃曲奇饼干
of eating cookies every single day.
乍一看 你可能会认为
At first glance you might think,
这个习惯的“奖励”可能是 糖分带来的愉悦感
well, the reward is probably the sugar rush,
或者 对饥饿的满足感
or the satisfaction of hunger.
然而 都希格很快发现
But Duhigg soon discovered that
这个“奖励”其实是所社交带来的
it was actually the reward of socializing,
这是因为 他总是离开自己的办公桌
because he would get out from his desk,
步行去自助餐厅
walk to the cafeteria,
购买曲奇饼干并跟同事们聊天
buy the cookie and talk to his co-workers.
他能有这样的发现 是因为注意到
He discovered this by noticing that
仅仅吃曲奇饼干 是不足以让自己感到满足的
just eating the cookie wasn’t enough to keep him satisfied.
他总是想要得更多
He would always want more.
我们应该对自己嗜好从细节入手进行思考
We need to think about our own addiction with the attention to detail.
不良嗜好 比如看色情片 可能会让你获得认同感
A bad habit like pornography might ,provide you, offer sense of validation,
这是因为它导致大脑感觉
because to your brain,
有数以百计的女孩子都渴望着和你做爱
there’s hundreds of girls that want to sleep with you.
看色情片的“奖励”也可能是为了帮助你自己入睡
Another reward could be the fact that it helps you fall asleep.
还可能是为了缓解压力
It could also be something that relieves stress,
或者可能是为了让自己感觉有成就感
or maybe it could be something that makes you feel like you accomplish something,
“奖励”可能的情况很多
there’s many, many possibilities.
要弄清楚“奖励”是什么
And the only way to really determine
只有对自己的生活进行分析
what the rewards are is by analyzing your own life.
即便你没有手淫的冲动
If you’re someone who doesn’t feel the urges to masturbate,
与朋友很愉快地度过了一整天后
after spending the entire day, having a great time with your friends,
你看色情片习惯的“奖励”
then the reward for your addiction
就有可能是为了让自己的社交需要得到满足
might be that it satisfies your social needs.
即便你没有手淫的冲动
If you don’t feel the urges to masturbate,
你倍感压力地工作一天后要来个按摩
when you get a massage one day after feeling stressed at work.
你习惯看色情片的“奖励”
Your reward for your pornography addiction
就有可能是为了缓解压力
might be the fact that it relieves stress.
因此 你确实应该负责地对这部分仔细思考一下
So it’s really up to you to think about this part carefully
推测出自己嗜好的“奖励”究竟是什么
and hypothesize what the rewards are for your addiction.
你可能无法一次性将这张简图完成
Chances are you’re not going to finish this diagram in one sitting.
接下来一周左右的时间
You’re probably going to think some cues
你可能会对一些“提示”进行琢磨
and consider the realization about the rewards,
在“奖励”的认知方面进行思索
throughout the next week or so.
确保让这些内容都增添进简图里
So make sure you add those to your diagram,
这是因为 这张简图在整个课程中都极其重要
because it’s gonna play an extremely important role throughout this course.
我们下一节课要讨论 养成一个习惯需要多久的时间
In our next lesson, we’re gonna talk about how long it takes to form a habit.
坊间对这个问题存在着巨大的误解
There’s a huge misconception going around about this.
有些人说需要21天
Some people say it takes 21 days,
有些则说需要90天
some say it takes 90,
大多数情况下 他们完全错了
for the most part, they’re all wrong.
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with the help of patreons of this channel.
如果你发现了《自我驯服》的价值
If you’re someone who has found value in this course,
或者打算资助我继续制作这类免费的视频
or would like to help me continue to make this types of videos for free.
你可以在这里访问我的Patreon主页
Then you should visit my patreon page right here
或者点击下面的说明
or in the description below
了解成为众筹者的福利
to check out the purks of becoming a patreon.
此外请继续关注我们
And besides that, stay tuned.

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视频概述

习惯是如何运作的,是这个系列视频的总纲

听录译者

来吧!尉英俊

翻译译者

翻译爱好者山人乙

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b2njoDynrSY

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