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大气层的作用原理

How Do Greenhouse Gases Actually Work?

地球和月球与太阳的距离基本上相同
The earth and the moon are basically the same distance from the sun,
然而月球的均温是不宜居住的-18℃
Yet temperatures on the moon average an unlivable -18°C,
更致命的是 月球温度从晚上-170℃到正午100℃
And even deadlier they range from -170°C during lunar night to 100°C at lunar noon,
均远超于地球上的最高 最低温记录
regularly exceeding both the coldest and hottest temperatures ever recorded on Earth.
而且月球上的昼夜时长是地球的14倍
And while the days and nights on the moon are about 14 times longer than those on Earth,
地球相对快速自转其实不能在极端气温中保护我们
our planet’s relatively fast rotation isn’t what spares us from those loony temperatures.
保护我们的是大气层
What protects us is our atmosphere.
白天 它是保护罩
By day, it serves as a shield,
阻挡了太阳光中大部分有害高能的光线
blocking out the most harmfuland energetic of the sun’s rays
以及大约三分之一低强度的可见光
and about one-third of the less-intense visible light.
与此同时 它吸收红外辐射
At the same time, it traps the infrared radiation,
即太阳直射地球表面产生的热
aka heat, radiating out from Earth’s sun-warmed surface,
以免我们在晚上受冻
keeping us from freezing solid at night.
为了吸收所有的辐射
In order for our atmosphere to absorb any kind of radiation,
大气层需要有一些带电粒子
it needs to have some electrically charged particles
增加附近通过的电磁波
for passing electromagnetic waves to push around.
大气层主要由气体分子构成 不带电荷
And most of our atmosphere is made up of gas molecules that don’t have an electric charge.
它们都有数量平衡的正电荷和负电荷
They all have a balanced number of positive protons and negative electrons.
但是有一些带有更多的负电荷
But some hold most of their negatively-charged electrons closer to one side,
这导致了电荷运动不平衡
lending them a lopsidedness that can jiggle back
从而吸收传入红外线的能量
and forth to absorb the energy ofincoming infrared rays.
例如水 臭氧和一氧化二氮都是电不平衡
For example, water, ozone, and nitrous oxide are all electrically lopsided,
所以它们都吸收红外辐射
so they all absorb infrared radiation.
然后还有类似于二氧化碳和甲烷的气体
Then there are gases like carbon dioxide and methane.
理论上 分子看起来是不平衡的
On paper, neither molecule looks lopsided,
所以它们看起来并不能够吸收辐射热
so it doesn’t seem like they should be able to absorb any radiating heat.
但事实上 气体分子不是静止的
But in reality, gas molecules aren’t motionless.
它们每秒能互相撞击十亿次
They crash into each other billions of times per second,
从不同方向相互撞击
knocking each other in different directions,
而且也形成了不同的旋转和震动模式
and also into different modes of rotation and vibration.
而且这表明二氧化碳和甲烷
And it turns out that both carbon dioxide and methane
大部分时间都处在电不平衡的“震动”中
spend most of their time “shaking it” in electrically-lopsided ways,
这使它们能够吸收红外线 使地球隔热
allowing them to absorb infrared rays and help insulate the earth.
尽管许多不同种类的分子能吸收红外辐射
Even though many different kinds of molecules can absorb infrared radiation,
但大气层中的主体成分却不能
the vast majority of our atmosphere can’t,
因为主体由氮气和氧气构成
because it’s made of nitrogen and oxygen,
即使发生震动 它们也不会不平衡
which don’t get lopsided even when they are vibrating.
它们太稳定了
They’re too symmetric.
然而 这不平衡的1%是很好的红外吸收器
Nevertheless, the lopsided 1% are such good infrared absorbers
拦截约90%的地球反射的热量
that they manage to intercept about 90% of Earth’s outgoing heat.
被捕获的光线在大气层中被分解
Each captured ray gets pinged around the atmosphere,
而且大多光线至少会被反射到地球表面一次然后才会反射回太空
and most end up returning to the surface at least once before escaping to space.
我们不必体验月球晚间的严寒就能知道
We don’t need to visit the moon during frigid lunar night to know just how important the
光的反射对地球多么重要
game of radiation-pinball is for Earth –
我们最冷气候的冰川记录显示
Ice records from our own coldest climate show
大气层中二氧化碳细微 自然的变化
that small, natural variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide
导致气温相当剧烈地变动
produce relatively big changes in temperature.
它们同时也表明 相比于80多万年前
They also show that,compared to the last 800,000 years,
光的反射现在要复杂很多很多
the game today is much, much harder.
非常感谢Kurzgesagt团队做这个视频的动画
Thanks so much to the great team over at Kurzgesagt for doing the animations in this video,
与他们合作很有趣
It’s been a lot of fun working with them.
如果你喜欢看
And if you liked what you saw,
你可以去这里的链接或从视频描述中看他们的频道
you can go to the link here or in the video description to check out their channel,
他们涵盖了中子星 水力压裂 伊斯兰国家
where they cover everything from neutron stars to fracking to the Islamic State.
再次感谢Kurzgesagt
Thanks again, Kurzgesagt.
同时也感谢大家对我们Subbable.com的支持
And thanks as well to everyone who has supported us on Subbable.com,
现在已经与Patreon.com合并了
which has now merged with Patreon.com.
你们使MinuteEarth成为可能
You make MinuteEarth possible.

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视频概述

在大气层的作用下,地球上的温度适合生物生存

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sTvqIijqvTg

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