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行政命令是什么? – 译学馆
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行政命令是什么?

How do executive orders work? - Christina Greer

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“总统应注意让法律得到切实执行”——《美国宪法》
1863年1月1号
On January 1, 1863,
亚伯拉罕·林肯通过法律改变了超过三百万黑人奴隶的命运
Abraham Lincoln legally changed the status of over 3 million enslaved blacks
超过十个州的奴隶获得了自由
across ten states from slave to free.
他的《解放宣言》不是一则法律
His Emancipation Proclamation wasn’t a law,
或总统令
or a presidential decree.
而是一道行政命令
It was an executive order.
美国宪法的制定者使这项行政命令具有效力
The framers of the American Constitution made the power of executive order
能在行政部门中生效
available to the executive branch.
但是这个命令到底是什么?
But what exactly is this tool?
它如何生效?
How does it work?
它的权力范围是什么?
And what is the extent of its power?
行政命令不是法律
Well, an executive order isn’t a law,
但它具有法律效力
but it can carry the weight of one.
通过一项法律的过程很漫长
Passing laws involves a fairly lengthy process.
首先 一名国会议员以议案的形式
First, a member of Congress proposes a piece of legislation
提出一项法案
in the form of a bill.
经委员会修正后
After many committees and revisions,
若该项议案得到国会
if the bill is approved by a majority votes in Congress,
即众议院和参议院的多数同意
that is both the House and Senate,
这项议案便会提交给总统签字
the bill is then sent to the president for signature.
经总统签字后 议案便生效成为法律
If the president signs the bill, it then becomes a law.
此外 总统发布一项行政命令
An executive order, on the other hand,
可以说是他个人的事情
is something the president issues without consultation
无需国会的磋商或批准
or permission from Congress.
但执行行政命令同执法一样
They are, however, enforced like laws,
要遵循法庭制度 服从司法审核
and are subject to judicial review by the court system
以确保在宪法的限度之内
to make sure they’re within the limits of the Constitution.
也就是说 法庭有权使任何行政决定失效
That means the courts have the power to invalidate any executive decisions
尤其是那些总统过度行使权利颁布的命令
that they determine are an overreach of the president in trying to assert power.
一旦总统离职
And once the president leaves office,
若是他(她)的继任者想要终止该项行政命令
if his or her successor wants to eliminate the executive order,
他们可以这么做
they can do so.
那么 总统在何时发布行政命令呢?
So when does a president use an executive order?
有时 总统需要绕过国会行使权力
Sometimes a president feels the need to exert power without working with Congress,
在危机时期 快速做出决策是合情合理的
and in times of crisis, quick decisions can be justified.
但行政命令大多并不是针对紧急事件
But most executive orders are not responses to emergencies.
而是直接针对联邦政府的不同机构
They’re often directed towards agencies in the federal government
为的是扩大或是缩小他们的权力
in order to expand or contract their power.
其余的行政命令决定立法执行的程度
Others determine the extent to which legislation should be enforced.
有时 总统可能会动用一项行政命令
And sometimes, a president may use an executive order
来简述并推动某项政策的实施
to clarify and help implement a policy that needs to be easily defined.
一些非常有名的行政命令
Some of the most famous executive orders
改变了美国的历史进程
have changed the course of American history.
富兰克林曾发布一项行政命令 建立美国公共事业管理局
FDR issued an executive order to establish the Works Progress Administration,
在全国范围内 帮助建设了
which helped build thousands of roads, bridges, and parks
数千条公路 桥梁 公园
throughout the country.
公共事业管理局还聘用了数千名作家
The WPA also employed thousands of writers,
画家 雕刻家及艺术家
painters, sculptors, and artists
在公共区域创作艺术品
to create works of art in public spaces.
此外 哈里·杜鲁门动用一项行政命令
Additionally, Harry Truman used an executive order
在1948年废除武装力量
to desegregate the armed forces in 1948.
林登·约翰逊在1965年签署行政命令
And in 1965, Lyndon Johnson signed an executive order
完善雇佣关系中的
to establish requirements for nondiscriminatory practices
非歧视性准则的要求
in hiring and employment.
行政命令常以积极且包含的方式运用
Executive orders have often been used in positive and inclusive ways,
但也有专门且分散的方式
but they’ve also been used to exclude and divide.
富兰克林1942年颁布的行政命令是其中一个显著例子
One of the most notable examples being FDR’s 1942 executive order.
他给的军事权 主要针对日裔美国人
He gave the military authority to target predominantly Japanese-Americans,
以及城市某些地区的
as well as German-Americans and Italian-Americans,
德裔和意大利裔美国人
in certain regions across the country.
这项行政命令也将他们部分或全部人排除到军事区
This executive order also removed any or all of those people into military zones,
也就是人们熟知的集中营
most commonly known as internment camps.
20世纪60年代早期开始
Beginning in the early 1960s,
每位总统大致会宣布300条行政命令
each president has issued roughly 300 executive orders,
但富兰克林行使的超过3500条
but FDR issued over 3,500.
在此范围的另一端
At the other end of the spectrum,
威廉·亨利·哈里森从未动用过行政命令
William Henry Harrison never issued an executive order,
也许是因为他的总统任期只有31天
probably because his presidency only lasted 31 days.
美国宪法未明确规定总统的权力范围
The U.S. Constitution is somewhat ambiguous on the extent of the president’s power.
从而导致行政命令随时间流逝不断扩大
That’s resulted in executive orders expanding over time.
例如 从林登·约翰逊起
For instance, since Lyndon Johnson,
总统便开始发布命令 提出基于信仰的倡议
presidents have begun issuing orders to create faith-based initiatives,
建立联邦机构
establish federal agencies,
排除阻挡科学研究的障碍
and remove barriers for scientific research.
美国政治体系中制约与平衡并存
There are checks and balances in the U.S. political system.
国会能通过立法来抵消行政命令
Congress can pass laws to counteract executive orders,
法官可以视其违宪而阻止他们
and judges can halt them by deeming them unconstitutional.
但一定时期为了推动某些事情发展
But in the time it takes for those things to happen,
一个行政命令便会生效
an executive order can go into effect
且可能或好或坏地影响历史进程
and possibly change the course of history, for better or for worse.
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行政命令不是法律,但具有法律的权威性。总统的行政命令可绕过国会,但法院有权使其失效。这就体现美国宪法中的“制约与平衡”。

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