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药物是如何影响大脑的 – 译学馆
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药物是如何影响大脑的

How do drugs affect the brain? - Sara Garofalo

大多数人一生中都会吃药 打针
Most people will take a pill, receive an injection,
或者总会吃点什么药的
or otherwise take some kind ofmedicine during their lives,
但大部分人都不知道这些物质究竟如何起作用
but most of us don’t know anything about how these substances actually work.
这些不同的化合物是如何影响到
How can various compounds impact the way
我们机体的感觉 思考甚至行为的呢?
we physically feel, think, and even behave?
在大多数情况下
For the most part,
这要看药物如何改变大脑中细胞间的交流了
this depends on how a drug alters the communication between cells in the brain.
药物发挥作用的方式有很多
There are a number of different ways that can happen.
但在进入大脑之前
But before it gets into the brain,
任何药物都必须先进入血流
any drug must first reach the bloodstream
这个过程在全身各处都可以发生需要花费几秒钟到数小时来完成
on a journey that can take anywherefrom seconds to hours,
取决于摄取药物的方式等因素
depending on factors like how it’s administered.
最慢的方式要数口服药物了
The slowest method is to take a drug orally,
因为药物必须被消化系统吸收 才能发挥作用
because it must be absorbed by our digestive system before it takes effect.
吸入药物能使其更快进入血流
Inhaling a drug gets it into the bloodstream faster.
静脉注射药物起效也很快
And injecting a drug intravenously works quickly too,
因为静脉注射直接使化学药物进入血液
because it pumps the chemicals directly into the blood.
一旦进入血管 药物就能快速到达目的地-大脑
Once there, the drug quickly reaches the gates of its destination, the brain.
进入大脑的入口由血脑屏障守卫着
The entrance to this organ is guarded by the blood-brain barrier,
血脑屏障将血液和神经系统分隔开来
which separates blood from the nervous system
以免危险物质进入
to keep potentially dangerous substances out.
因此所有药物都必须有特殊的化学成分
So all drugs must have a specific chemical composition,
有了它 才有了打开屏障 安全通过的钥匙
which gives them the key to unlock this barrier and pass through.
一旦进入大脑 药物就以神经元突触网络为目标
Once inside, drugs start to interfere with the brain’s normal functioning
开始干扰大脑的正常功能
by targeting its web of neurons and synapses.
神经元是大脑中的神经细胞 有细胞核 树突和轴突
Neurons are brain cells that have a nucleus, dendrites, and an axon.
突触是在树突或者轴突周围的结构
Synapses are structures placed along the dendrites or the axon
突触能介导电化学信号在神经元间的传递
which allow the exchange of electrochemical signals between neurons.
这些信号以化学物质的形式存在 这种化学物质又叫神经递质
Those signals take the form of chemicals called neurotransmitters.
每种神经递质在调节行为 感情和认知方面扮演着不同角色
Each neurotransmitter plays different roles in regulating our behaviors, emotions, and cognition.
但他们只能通过两种方式中的一种来发挥作用
But they all work in one of two ways.
其一是抑制受体神经元 限制其活动
They can either inhibit the receiving neuron, limiting its activity,
其二是刺激受体神经元 产生一种新的电化学信号并继续在神经网络传递
or excite it, creating a new electrochemical signal that spreads throughout the network.
未起作用的神经递质通常会被降解掉
Any leftover neurotransmitter usually gets degraded
或是被重新被吸收进传输神经元中
or reabsorbed into the transmitting neuron.
药物的效用源于它们能够
A drug’s effectiveness stems from its ability
在此过程的不同阶段控制突触传导
to manipulate these synaptic transmissions at different phases of the process.
这使得释放的神经递质量
That results in an increase or a decrease
升高或者减少
in the amount of neurotransmitters being spread.
比如说通常用的抗抑郁药物SSRI
For instance, common antidepressants, like SSRIs,
能够阻止血清素的再吸收
stop the reabsorption of serotonin,
血清素是一种能够调控情绪的神经递质
a neurotransmitter that modulates our moods.
这就有效地将更多血清素推送到神经网络中
This effectively pushes more of it into the neural network.
同时像吗啡一类的止痛药
Meanwhile, painkillers, like morphine,
能够提高血清素和去甲肾上腺素的水平
raise levels of serotonin and noradrenaline,
它们能够调控能量代谢 唤醒水平 警觉能力 和愉悦感
which regulate energy, arousal, alertness, and pleasure.
这些神经递质同样能够影响内啡肽的受体
Those same neurotransmitters also affect endorphin receptors,
减少疼痛感
reducing pain perception.
镇定剂通过提高氨基丁酸的合成
And tranquilizers works by increasing the production of GABA
抑制神经活动来起作用
to inhibit neural activity
使人进入放松和安静的状态中
putting the person in a relaxed or sedated state.
那么违法的药物呢?
What about illegal or elicit drugs?
这些药物对大脑影响巨大而且我们也在尝试去了解
These have powerful impacts on the brain that we’re still trying to understand.
冰毒是一种苯丙胺
Crystal meth, an Amphetamine,
会促进多巴胺的长期释放
induces a long-lasting release of dopamine,
它是一种和奖励和愉悦感紧密相关的神经递质
a neurotransmitter linked with the perception of reward and pleasure.
它同时能激活去甲肾上腺素受体
It also activates noradrenaline receptors,
以提高心率 扩大瞳孔
which increases the heart rate, dilates pupils,
激发身体战斗或者是逃跑反应
and triggers the body’s fight or flight response.
可卡因阻止多巴胺和血清素的再吸收
Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine and serotonin,
将他们推送到神经网络中
pushing more into the network
在那他们就能让人打起精神
where they boost energy,
产生精神愉悦感
create feelings of euphoria,
还能抑制食欲
and suppress appetites.
致幻剂能产生让人迷惑的效果
And hallucinogenic drugs have some of the most puzzling effects.
像摇头丸 迷幻药 和二甲基色胺这类物质
Substances like LSD, mescaline, and DMT
都能够阻止血清素的释放
all block the release of serotonin,
它能够调控情绪和冲动
which regulates mood and impulsivity.
他们同样对神经回路有影响
They also have an impact on the neural circuits
包括认知学习和行为调控有关的神经回路
involved in perception, learning, and behavioral regulation,
这或许能够解释为什么这些药物影响巨大
which may explain why these drugs have such powerful impacts.
即使有些药物的效应听上去让人振奋
Even if some of these effects sound exciting,
但这些药物受到高度监管 通常被列为违禁药物是有原因的
there are reasons why some of these drugs are highly controlled and often illegal.
药物有改变大脑内的化学变化的能力
Drugs have the power to alter the brain’s chemistry,
重复不断地使用会永久的重塑神经网络
and repeated use can permanently rewire the neural networks
神经网络是让我们有思考能力 有决定能力 学习能力 和记忆能力的基础
that support our ability to think, make decisions, learn, and remember things.
关于药物及其药效我们不清楚的依然有很多
There’s a lot we still don’t know about drugs and their effects,
无论是好的一面还是坏的一面
both the good and the bad.
那些我们了解的药物都是已经研究比较透彻的
But those we do know about are the ones we’ve studied closely,
而且被制成了有效的药物
and turned into effective medicines.
随着我们对药物和大脑知识的不断积累
As our knowledge grows about drugs and the brain,
解决当下那些困扰研究者的许多医疗难题
the possibilities will also increase
的可能性也会提高
for treating the many medical problems that puzzle researchers today.

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视频概述

现在有很多精神类的药物对人体有很多显著的效果,那么它们到底是如何发挥作用的呢?

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