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恐龙化石的形成

How do dinosaur fossils form? | Natural History Museum

Millions of years ago,
数百万年以前
this dinosaur was going about his normal daily life.
这只恐龙正过着和往常一样的日常生活
But his day went from good to bad.
但它的生活却每况日下
Really bad,
过着真的很糟糕
After he died, other dinosaurs ate him.
它死后 其他恐龙来吃它的尸体
And the rest of his skin and muscles rotted away,
吃剩的皮和肉逐渐腐烂
leaving just his bones.
最后只留下一具白骨
These were quickly buried by mud.
骸骨很快被泥土掩埋
Over millions of years,
数百万年时间里
more layers landed on top
越来越多的土层覆盖在上面
mud, sand and even volcanic ash.
有泥土 沙砾甚至还有火山灰
This added up to a lot of weight on top of the skeleton.
这些土层重重压在骨架上方
Some parts got crushed.
部分残骸会被压碎
The layers of mud, sand and ash
泥土 沙砾和火山灰层
turned into hard sedimentary rocks.
会变成坚硬的沉积岩
While this was happening, water seeped into the bones.
一旦形成沉积岩 水分就会渗出骨头
It left behind minerals,
骨头内只剩下矿物质
turning the bones to stone and creating a fossil.
骨头就发生石化 然后形成化石
Earth changed a lot over millions of years.
数百万年时间里 地球沧海变桑田
Rocks that were once deep underground rose to the surface,
曾经被深埋在地下的岩石露出了地面
a process called uplift.
这一过程叫做隆起
Very slowly, wind, water and ice
风 水和冰非常缓慢地
wore away the rock.
侵蚀着岩石
Eventually,bits of the fossil skeleton were exposed
最终 骨骼化石碎片被裸露在地表
and became visible on the surface.
然后被人们发现
Fossils are constantly getting eroded out of rock.
化石不断地被腐蚀 裸露在岩石外面
Most are lost.
大多数都找不到了
But if we’re very lucky, someone will find one.
但如果够幸运 有人会找到完整的一个
Nearly all of the fossils we find
人们找到的化石里几乎
around 99 % are from marine animals,
约99%都是海洋动物
such as shellfish and sharks.
例如贝类和鲨鱼
This is because they lived in the sea,
这是因为它们生活在海洋
where sand or mud
它们死后
could bury their remains quickly after they died.
海里的沙子或泥土会迅速将其掩埋
But dinosaurs live on land,
但恐龙生活在陆地
so how do they get buried so quickly?
那它的尸体是怎么被快速掩埋的
Most dinosaur fossils we find belong to animals
人们发现的大多数恐龙化石
that were living near to a lake or a river.
都是那些生活在湖边或河边的恐龙的
They died and a short while later the area flooded,
它们死后不久这些地方便被淹没
covering their remains in mud and silt.
尸体就被埋到进了淤泥和泥浆里
Occasionally, something more dramatic happened.
偶尔还会上演戏剧性的一幕
In one example, two dinosaurs –
例如 两只恐龙
Protoceratops and Velociraptor –
原角龙和迅猛龙
were fighting in the desert.
在沙漠里打架
They were mid-battle
它们正打得激烈
when, suddenly, a sand dune collapsed on top of them.
突然头顶的一座沙丘塌了下来
Their fossils show them frozen in their fighting poses.
形成的化石就定格了它俩打架的姿势
In another tragic example,
另一个悲惨的例子是
the feathered dinosaur Citipati was sitting on its nest of eggs
长着羽毛的葬火龙正坐在它的巢穴上孵蛋
when a sandstorm blew in and covered it.
忽然 沙尘暴来袭并掩埋了它
Fossils like this
像这样
from animals that were alive when they were buried –
动物被活埋然后形成的化石
are really rare.
是极其罕见的
It’s not just bones that turn into fossils.
并不是只有骨骼才能形成化石
Dinosaurs can also leave behind footprints
恐龙留下的脚印
and impressions of skin and feathers.
皮毛的印记都可以形成化石
So next time you’re near some sandstone or mudstone,
下次 如果你在沙丘或土堆附近
think of what fossils could be hiding,
想想什么样的化石会藏在里面
just waiting to be discovered.
等着你去发现
It probably won’t be a dinosaur fossil,
有可能不是恐龙化石
as they’re so rare.
因为它们太罕见了
But it could be a prehistoric sea creature
但它可能是一种史前海洋生物
like an ammonite,
如鹦鹉螺
which went extinct at the same time as dinosaurs,
鹦鹉螺生活在数百万前
many millions of years ago.
和恐龙生活的年代相同

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视频概述

经过数百万年形成的化石大多是海洋生物化石,恐龙化石是非常罕见的!你知道怎么区分不同的恐龙化石吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Claudia

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87E8bQrX4Wg

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