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水晶是如何形成的?

How do crystals work? - Graham Baird

晶体就像精确运算的花一般在岩石中形成 — 安妮·迪拉德
Deep beneath the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone Caldera
在黄石火山的间歇泉和温泉深处
lies a magma chamber produced by a hot spot in the earth’s mantle.
有一个由地幔中的热点产生的岩浆房
As the magma moves towards the Earth’s surface,
随着岩浆移向地球表面
it crystallizes to form young, hot igneous rocks.
它会结晶形成炽热的初期火成岩
The heat from these rocks drives groundwater towards the surface.
这些岩石散发的热量将地下水推向地表
As the water cools, ions precipitate out as mineral crystals,
当水冷却时 离子经过沉淀析出矿物晶体
including quartz crystals from silicon and oxygen,
包括由氧和硅组成的石英晶体
feldspar from potassium, aluminum, silicon, and oxygen,
由钾 铝 硅和氧组成的拉长石晶体
galena from lead and sulfur.
由铅和硫组成的方铅晶体
Many of these crystals have signature shapes—
许多这些晶体都有标志性的形状
take this cascade of pointed quartz, or this pile of galena cubes.
如层叠的尖头石英或成堆的方铅立方体
But what causes them to grow into these shapes again and again?
是什么让它们一次次长成这些形状的呢?
Part of the answer lies in their atoms.
一部分是因为它们的原子
Every crystal’s atoms are arranged in a highly organized, repeating pattern.
每类晶体原子都以高度有序的模式重复排列
This pattern is the defining feature of a crystal,
这种模式决定了晶体的形状
and isn’t restricted to minerals—
且并不局限于矿物质中
sand, ice, sugar, chocolate, ceramics, metals, DNA,
沙 冰 糖 巧克力 陶瓷 金属 DNA
and even some liquids have crystalline structures.
甚至某些液体都有晶体结构
Each crystalline material’s atomic arrangement
每种晶体材料的原子排列方式
falls into one of six different families:
分属六个不同系列:
cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic,
立方晶 四方晶 正交晶
monoclinic, triclinic, and hexagonal.
单斜晶 三斜晶和六角晶
Given the appropriate conditions,
在适当的条件下
crystals will grow into geometric shapes
晶体将形成反映其原子
that reflect the arrangement of their atoms.
排列特点的几何形状
Take galena, which has a cubic structure composed of lead and sulfur atoms.
以铅硫原子组成的立方结构的方铅矿为例
The relatively large lead atoms
相对较大的铅原子
are arranged in a three-dimensional grid 90 degrees from one another,
在三维网格中彼此成90度排列
while the relatively small sulfur atoms fit neatly between them.
而相对较小的硫原子 刚好能镶嵌在中间
As the crystal grows, locations like these attract sulfur atoms,
随着晶体的生长 这些位置会吸引硫原子
while lead will tend to bond to these places.
铅则倾向于与这些位置发生键合
Eventually, they will complete the grid of bonded atoms.
最终形成键合原子网
This means the 90 degree grid pattern of galena’s crystalline structure
这意味着方铅矿90度网状晶体结构
is reflected in the visible shape of the crystal.
反映在可见的晶体形状中
Quartz, meanwhile, has a hexagonal crystalline structure.
而石英具有六方晶体结构
This means that on one plane its atoms are arranged in hexagons.
意味着它的原子在平面上排列成六边形
In three dimensions,
在三维空间中
these hexagons are composed of many interlocking pyramids
这些六边形由许多互相咬合的金字塔组成
made up of one silicon atom and four oxygen atoms.
每个金字塔又由1个硅原子和4个氧原子组成
So the signature shape of a quartz crystal
所以石英晶体的标志性形状
is a six-sided column with pointed tips.
是带有尖头的六面柱体
Depending on environmental conditions,
根据环境条件
most crystals have the potential to form multiple geometric shapes.
大部分晶体都有可能形成多种几何形状
For example, diamonds, which form deep in the Earth’s mantle,
比如说成形于地幔深处的钻石
have a cubic crystalline structure
具有立方晶体结构
and can grow into either cubes or octahedrons.
可以形成立方体或者八面体
Which shape a particular diamond grows into
特定钻石的形状
depends on the conditions where it grows,
取决于其形成条件
including pressure, temperature, and chemical environment.
包括压力 温度和化学环境
While we can’t directly observe growth conditions in the mantle,
虽然我们无法直接观察地幔中的生长条件
laboratory experiments have shown some evidence
但实验室一些实验证明了
that diamonds tend to grow into cubes at lower temperatures
钻石在较低温度下往往会形成立方体
and octahedrons at higher temperatures.
较高温度下则会形成八面体
Trace amounts of water, silicon, germanium, or magnesium
微量的水 硅 锗 或镁
might also influence a diamond’s shape.
也可能会影响钻石的形状
And diamonds never naturally grow into the shapes found in jewelry—
钻石绝不会自然地形成珠宝中的形状
those diamonds have been cut to showcase sparkle and clarity.
都是切割的 以便展示出光彩和净度
Environmental conditions can also influence whether crystals form at all.
环境也会影响晶体形成与否
Glass is made of melted quartz sand,
玻璃是由石英砂熔化而制成
but it isn’t crystalline.
但它不是晶体
That’s because glass cools relatively quickly,
因为玻璃冷却得相对较快
and the atoms do not have time to arrange themselves
原子来不及将自己排列成
into the ordered structure of a quartz crystal.
石英晶体的有序结构
Instead, the random arrangement of the atoms in the melted glass
相反 熔化玻璃中随机排列的原子
is locked in upon cooling.
刚冷却就被冻结了
Many crystals don’t form geometric shapes
许多晶体之所以不会形成几何形状
because they grow in extremely close quarters with other crystals.
是因为它们和其他晶体距离太近
Rocks like granite are full of crystals,
像花岗岩这样的岩石充满了晶体
but none have recognizable shapes.
但形状没什么辨识度
As magma cools and solidifies,
当岩浆冷却凝固后
many minerals within it crystallize at the same time
内部许多矿物质同时结晶
and quickly run out of space.
并迅速塞满空间
And certain crystals, like turquoise,
而某些晶体 像绿松石
don’t grow into any discernible geometric shape in most environmental conditions,
即使空间充足 在大部分环境下
even given adequate space.
也不会形成有辨识度的形状
Every crystal’s atomic structure has unique properties,
每一个晶体的原子结构都有独特属性
and while these properties may not have any bearing on human emotional needs,
这些特性可能对人类情感需求没什么影响
they do have powerful applications in materials science and medicine.
但在材料科学和医学方面却有强大的应用
Have you ever wondered why you can see through glass?
你是否好奇过为什么玻璃是透明的?
Or what fire is made of?
火是由什么组成的?
Did you know Gold doesn’t originally come from our planet?
你是否知道黄金并不是地球本身的产物?
Find out more about the fascinating
想要发现更多地球的奇妙产物
make up of our environment with this playlist.
请持续关注我们的播放列表
(Music)
(背景音乐)

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视频概述

是什么决定了晶体的特殊形状?带你深入研究晶体的原子结构及其独特性质。

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