ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

香烟是如何影响我们的身体的? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

香烟是如何影响我们的身体的?

How do cigarettes affect the body? - Krishna Sudhir

香烟对人体有害
Cigarettes aren’t good for us.
几十年来 我们已经了解吸烟的危害——这不是啥新鲜事
That’s hardly news–we’ve knownabout the dangers of smoking for decades.
但是香烟到底是怎样伤害人体呢?
But how exactly do cigarettes harm us?
我们来看一下 当香烟的成分
Let’s look at what happensas their ingredients
进入人体时会发生什么
make their way through our bodies,
以及最终戒烟时 我们的身体会获得怎样的益处
and how we benefit physically when we finally give up smoking.
随着每一次吸入 吸烟带来超过5000种化学物质
With each inhalation, smoke brings its more than 5,000chemical substances
与身体组织相接触
into contact with the body’s tissues.
从一开始 一种黑色树脂物质 焦油
From the start, tar,a black, resinous material,
开始覆盖牙齿和牙龈的表面
begins to coat the teeth and gums,
破坏牙釉质 最终 腐蚀牙齿
damaging tooth enamel,and eventually causing decay.
过段时间 吸烟也会破坏鼻子里的神经末梢
Over time, smoke also damagesnerve-endings in the nose,
从而 导致嗅觉消失
causing loss of smell.
在呼吸道和肺里 吸烟增加传染病
Inside the airways and lungs, smoke increasesthe likelihood of infections,
以及 慢性病 支气管炎 肺气肿的可能性
as well as chronic diseaseslike\u00a0bronchitis and\u00a0emphysema.
吸烟会破坏纤毛
It does this by damaging the\u00a0cilia,
这是一种极小毛发似的用来打扫呼吸道的组织
tiny hairlike structures whose job it is to keep the airways clean.
然后吸入的烟气会填充肺泡
It then fills the alveoli,
即一种能使肺和血液里的 氧气和二氧化碳进行交换的
tiny air sacs that enable the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
极小气囊
between the lungs and blood.
一种叫做一氧化碳的有毒气体经过
A toxic gas called carbon monoxide crosses
薄膜进入血液
that membrane into the blood,
与血红蛋白相结合 并置换氧气
binding to hemoglobin and displacing the oxygen it
一氧化碳通常会在身体里流动
would usually have transported around the body.
这是吸烟会导致氧气缺失以及
That’s one of the reasons smokingcan lead to oxygen deprivation
气短的原因之一
and shortness of breath.
10秒钟之内
Within about 10 seconds,
血流把一种叫做尼古丁的兴奋剂携带至大脑
the bloodstream carries a stimulantcalled nicotine to the brain,
刺激多巴胺以及其他神经传导物质的释放
triggering the release of dopamineand other neurotransmitters
包括内啡肽 它产生令人愉悦的感觉 进而使吸烟变得极其上瘾
including endorphins that create the pleasurable sensations which make smoking highly addictive.
来自香烟的尼古丁和其他化学物质
Nicotine and other chemicalsfrom the cigarette
同时造成血管的收缩
simultaneously cause constrictionof blood vessels
破坏它们脆弱的内皮衬里
and damage their delicateendothelial lining,
进而限制血流量
restricting blood flow.
这些血管影响导致血管壁的增厚
These vascular effects leadto thickening of blood vessel walls
加重血小板粘性
and enhance blood platelet stickiness,
增加血块生成
increasing the likelihoodthat clots will form
并刺激心脏病发作的可能性
and trigger heart attacks and strokes.
香烟里的很多化学物质能刺激
Many of the chemicals inside cigarettescan trigger dangerous mutations
身体里生成癌细胞的DNA突变
in the body’s DNA that make cancers form. Additionally,
此外 类似砷和镍的成分
ingredients like arsenicand nickel
可能会破坏DNA修复的过程
may disrupt the process of DNA repair,
从而减弱身体抵抗多种癌症的能力
thus compromising the body’s abilityto fight many cancers.
事实上
In fact,
在美国 每三例癌症死亡病例中的一个
about one of every three cancer deaths in the United States
就是吸烟造成的
is caused by smoking.
不仅仅是肺癌
And it’s not just lung cancer.
吸烟能造成成倍的组织和器官的癌化
Smoking can cause cancerin multiple tissues and organs,
以及视力严重损伤 和骨头的弱化
as well as damaged eyesight and weakened bones.
吸烟会使女性更难怀孕
It makes it harderfor women to get pregnant.
吸烟会造成男性勃起功能障碍
And in men,it can cause erectile dysfunction.
但是对于那些戒烟的人来说
But for those who quit smoking,
他们会有直接长久的使身体受益的巨大优势
there’s a huge positive upside with almost immediate and long-lasting physical benefits.
在吸烟者吸完最后一根烟后的20分钟
Just 20 minutes aftera smoker’s final cigarette,
他们的心率 和 血压开始 恢复正常
their heart rate and blood pressurebegin to return to normal.
之后的12小时 一氧化碳水平会稳定
After 12 hours,carbon monoxide levels stabilize,
从而 增加了血液携带氧气的能力
increasing the blood’soxygen-carrying capacity.
戒烟的第一天之后
A day after ceasing,
随着血压和心率恢复正常 心脏病发作风险开始下降
heart attack risk begins to decrease as blood pressure and heart rates normalize.
两天后 负责嗅觉和味觉的神经末梢
After two days, the nerve endings responsible
开始恢复正常
for smell and taste start to recover.
大约一个月以后 肺变得更加健康
Lungs become healthierafter about one month,
会更少咳嗽和气短
with less coughingand shortness of breath.
在呼吸道和肺里的脆弱的毛发似的纤毛
The delicate hair-like ciliain the airways and lungs
开始在数周内恢复正常
start recovering within weeks,
9个月之后恢复健康 从而 提升了抵抗感染的能力
and are restored after 9 months,improving resistance to infection.
在戒烟的一周年
By the one-year anniversary of quitting,
随着血管功能的提高 心脏病发作风险大幅下降至一半
heart disease risk plummets to halfas blood vessel function improves.
5年内 血块生成的可能性大幅下降
Five years in, the chance of a clot formingdramatically declines,
中风的风险继续下降
and the risk of strokecontinues to reduce.
十年后 得致命肺癌的可能性
After ten years, the chancesof developing fatal lung cancer
下降50%
go down by 50%,
可能是由于身体修复DNA的能力又一次恢复正常
probably because the body’s ability to repair DNA is once again restored.
十五年之内 得冠心病的可能性
Fifteen years in, the likelihoodof developing coronary heart disease
本质上与不吸烟者得冠心病的可能性没有区别
is essentially the sameas that of a non-smoker.
假装实现这些很容易是毫无意义的
There’s no point pretendingthis is all easy to achieve.
由于尼古丁摄入中断
Quitting can lead to anxietyand depression,
戒烟能导致焦虑和抑郁
resulting from nicotine withdrawal.
但是幸运的是 这些影响通常都是暂时的
But fortunately,such effects are usually temporary.
多亏了日益增加的戒烟手段 戒烟变得越来越容易
And quitting is getting easier, thanks to a growing arsenal of tools.
用口香糖 皮肤膏贴 锭剂 喷雾
Nicotine replacement therapy through gum,
来代替尼古丁的疗法可能有助于吸烟者戒烟
skin patches, lozenges, and sprays may help wean smokers off cigarettes.
它们通过刺激大脑里的尼古丁受体起作用
They work by stimulatingnicotine receptors in the brain
从而 阻止 断瘾症状
and thus preventing withdrawal symptoms,
没有其他有害化学物质的添加
without the additionof other harmful chemicals.
辅助和支持群体 认知行为疗法 以及 中等强度锻炼
Counselling and support groups, cognitive behavioral therapy, and moderate intensity exercise
也有助于吸烟者远离香烟
also help smokers stay cigarette-free.
那是好消息
That’s good news,
因为戒烟会使你的身心重新回到健康之路
since quitting puts you and your body on the path back to health.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

吸烟是怎样损坏身体健康 以及 戒烟对身体的好处

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

呵呵呵呵

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y18Vz51Nkos

相关推荐