ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

牙箍是如何工作的? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

牙箍是如何工作的?

How Do Braces Work?

畅聊科学
Science Out Loud.
每天 我们依赖一种
Every day, we rely on asubstance
比钢铁更坚硬的物质 牙齿
that’s harder than iron or steel, our teeth.
如果牙齿比钢铁还硬
So if teeth areharder than steel,
它们也一定比骨头还硬
they must also beharder than bone.
既然它们比骨头更硬
And if they’re harder than bone,
那为什么骨质的下巴
then why does your jaw, which is made of bone,
在那么大的压力下没有崩碎
not crumble underall that pressure?
一种叫牙周韧带的组织
There’s a bit of tissue calledthe periodontal ligament,
又叫PDL 在你牙齿周围的牙龈下
or PDL, around yourteeth under your gums.
牙周韧带是一个减震器
The PDL is a shock absorber,
用来缓冲咀嚼对下颌骨的压力
cushioning your jawbone from all the chewing forces.
好吧 到目前为止还好
OK, so far, so good.
但如果你的牙齿长的很奇怪呢?
But what if your teethcome in all funky?
是的 这看起来有点傻
Sure, it looks kind of goofy.
但这不是某些人想矫正它的唯一原因
But that’s not the only reason that somebody might want to fix it.
畸形的牙齿会影响你说话
Funky teeth can interferewith the way you talk
和吃饭的方式
and the way you eat.
那该如何矫正呢?
So how do we fix this?
我们主要用牙箍来塑造牙齿
Well, we basically breakour mouths with braces,
但实际上是我们的身体在主动发生改变
except it’s actually ourbodies that do the breaking.
PDL有能够感受机械压力的细胞
The PDL has these cellscalled mechanoreceptors.
当这些细胞感受到牙齿上的压力过大时
And when these cells detecta force on your teeth that’s too big
比如你不小心咬到叉子
like if you accidentally bite into your fork,
它们在你咬伤自己之前通知大脑停下来
they signal the brain to stop biting downbefore you hurt yourself.
牙箍可以拴住你的牙齿
Braces tether your teeth,
使牙齿距离更近或者把它们分开
pulling them together or pushing them apart.
无论怎样 它们给牙齿施加了一种稳定的力量
Either way, they’re applyinga steady force to your teeth.
当PDL中的机械性感受器
And when mechanoreceptorsin the PDL
察觉到这种很小的但是持久的力量
sense this kind of smallerbut sustained force,
它们通知破骨细胞
they signal cellscalled osteoclasts to the area,
去这个地方分泌酸和蛋白质
which spew outacid and proteins
来溶解你的部分下颌骨
to dissolve parts of your jawbone.
然后机械性感受器也通知成骨细胞前来
Then the mechanoreceptorssignal osteoblasts to come.
这些细胞收集生成骨头的矿物质
And those cells depositminerals that make bone.
成骨细胞重造下颚骨的形状
Osteoblasts rebuild thejawbone in a new shape
让PDL将牙齿固定在一个新的地方
that lets the PDL holdteeth in the new position.
所以牙箍通过让你的身体
So braces basicallyforce your body
溶解自己后重新修复自己
to dissolve itself andthen rebuild itself
根据它们一时的“邪恶”念头
according to their evil whims.
听起来很野蛮 对吧?
Sounds barbaric, right?
但是你的身体的确是一直在通过
But your body is actuallybreaking down and rebuilding
破骨细胞和成骨细胞重建骨骼
bone using osteoclasts andosteoblasts all the time,
不仅仅在有牙箍时
not just if you have braces.
骨头重塑就是我们身体成长的方式
Bone remodeling is justthe way our body grows.
在婴儿一岁前
The infant body replaces almostall of its original skeleton
他几乎替换了所有原始骨架
by the time it’s a year old.
并且这贯穿我们整个生命历程
And it happens throughoutour entire life.
从去年到现在我更换了10%的骨头
10% of my bonematerial is technically new since last year.
我们可以控制骨头重塑的过程
We can manipulate thebone remodeling process
不仅为了整齐的牙齿
to not only get straighter teeth,
而且可以治疗疾病 像骨质疏松症
but also to treat diseases, like osteoporosis,
它让你的骨骼非常易碎
which make your bones very brittle.
通过抑制过于活跃的破骨细胞溶解骨骼
By keeping overactive osteoclasts from dissolving the bone so much,
或者促进成骨细胞去制造更多的骨头
or by boosting osteoblasts to produce more bone,
药物可以防止病人们轻易地骨折
drugs can preventbones in those patients from breaking so easily.
严重骨头损伤的病人不得不依靠骨头移植
People with severe bone injury have to rely on bone transplants,
他们从身体其他部位取得骨头
where they take bone from other parts of their body
并且移植到骨骼破损处
and move it to the damaged area,
这有时候甚至是不可行的
which is sometimesnot even possible
也总是很痛苦
and is always painful.
因此 MIT哈蒙德的团队
So instead, Paula Hammond’s group at MIT
研究出新的材料
has created a new material
它非常缓慢地释放一种蛋白质
-that very slowly releases proteins.
这种蛋白质可以使成骨细胞
And these proteins cause osteoblaststo go right to the site
到受伤的地方聚集 形成新的骨头
where the injury happened and generate new bone.
现在 这对我们意义非凡
Now,this was a really big deal for us,
因为很难创造一种
because it’s really hard to generate something
能够缓慢释放蛋白质的物质
that very slowly releases the protein.
大多时候 蛋白质会迅速释放
Most of the time, the proteincomes out very rapidly
然后被人体迅速清除
and gets swept away in the body,
以至于它不对身体有任何作用
so that it no longer has any affect
牙箍容易被撰写为中世纪刑法的一种形式
It’s easy to write braces off as a form of medieval torture.
但惊讶的是牙齿上的刑具实际上有益处
But it’s kind of amazing thatthis mouth torture actually works
而且科技让它变得
And the technology that makes it possible is not just
既可以用于牙箍 也可以用在骨头上
in your braces, it’s in your bones.
嗨 我是Andrea
Hi my name is Andrea, and thank you for
感谢观看本集《畅聊科学》
watching the episode of Science Out Loud
如果你喜欢这个视频
If you liked this episode,
欢迎观看我们的其他视频
why don’t you check out some of these other videos.
和浏览我们的网站[笑声]
And visit ourwebsite. [LAUGHING]
为什么我不连在一起说
They’re separate things?

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频详细介绍了我们日常生活中牙箍的作用以及工作方法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ID892953

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zzA4BU2e58

相关推荐