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输血是如何起作用的? – 译学馆
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输血是如何起作用的?

How do blood transfusions work? - Bill Schutt

没人会因为布施而变得贫穷——Anne Frank
In 1881, doctor William Halsted rushed to help his sister Minnie,
1881年 William Halsted医生急匆匆地赶去救
who was hemorrhaging after childbirth.
他产后大出血的姐姐Minnie
He quickly inserted a needle into his arm,
他迅速将针头插入手臂
withdrew his own blood, and transferred it to her.
抽自己的血输给姐姐
After a few uncertain minutes, she began to recover.
几分钟后 姐姐开始恢复
Halsted didn’t know how lucky they’d gotten.
Halsted并不知道他们有多幸运
His transfusion only worked because he and his sister
输血能成功的前提是
happened to have the same blood type—
他和姐姐的血型相同
something that isn’t guaranteed, even among close relatives.
而这即便是近亲也无法保证
Blood types hadn’t been discovered by Halsted’s time,
虽然在Halsted所处的年代 血型还未被发现
though people had been experimenting with transfusions for centuries—
但人类的输血试验已长达几个世纪
mostly unsuccessfully.
绝大多数都以失败告终
In 1667, a French physician named Jean-Baptiste Denis
1667年 法国医生Jean-Baptiste Denis
became the first to try the technique on a human.
首次尝试给人输血
Denis transfused sheep’s blood into Antoine Mauroy,
Denis将羊血输给Antoine Mauroy
a man likely suffering from psychosis,
一个可能患有精神病的人
in the hopes that it would reduce his symptoms.
希望能借此减轻他的症状
Afterward, Mauroy was in good spirits.
第一次输血后 Mauroy精神很好
But after a second transfusion, he developed a fever,
但第二次输血后 Mauroy出现发烧
severe pain in his lower back, intense burning in his arm,
下背部剧痛 手臂剧烈灼烧感
and he urinated a thick, black liquid.
且小便排出的是粘稠的黑色液体
Though nobody knew it at the time,
但当时没人知道
these were the signs of a dangerous immune response unfolding inside his body.
这是他体内出现的免疫反应危险信号
This immune response starts with the production of proteins, called antibodies,
免疫反应刚开始时会产生一种蛋白质 叫做抗体
which distinguish the body’s own cells from intruders.
它能将机体自身的细胞与入侵者的区分开来
They do so by recognizing the foreign proteins, or antigens
它们是通过识别镶嵌在入侵者细胞膜上的
embedded in an intruder’s cell membrane.
蛋白或抗原来进行区分
Antibodies latch onto the antigens,
抗体与抗原结合
signaling other immune cells to attack and destroy the foreign cells.
并向其他的免疫细胞发出攻击和破坏外来细胞的信号
The destroyed cells are flushed from the body in urine.
被杀死的细胞通过尿液被排出体外
In extreme cases, the massive break down of cells
在极端情况下 大量细胞的分解
causes clots in the bloodstream that disrupt the flow of blood to vital organs,
导致血流中形成血凝块 中断对重要器官的供血
overload the kidneys, and cause organ failure.
使肾脏过载 并导致器官衰竭
Fortunately, Denis’s patient survived the transfusion.
辛运的是 Denis的病人输血后活了下来
But, after other cross-species transfusions proved fatal,
但在其他跨物种输血被证明是致命的之后
the procedure was outlawed across Europe,
整个欧洲都宣布这项手术是非法的
falling out of favor for several centuries.
且几个世纪以来一直不受欢迎
It wasn’t until 1901 that Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner
直到1901年 一位澳大利亚医生Karl Landsteiner
discovered blood types,
发现了血型
the crucial step in the success of human to human blood transfusions.
这是人与人之间输血成功的关键一步
He noticed that when different types were mixed together, they formed clots.
他注意到 不同的血型混合后会形成血块
This happens when antibodies latch on to cells with foreign antigens,
这是因为抗体与外来的抗原结合
causing blood cells to clump together.
导致血细胞聚集在一起
But if the donor cells are the same blood type as the recipient’s cells,
但如果供体细胞和受体细胞是同一血型
the donor cells won’t be flagged for destruction, and won’t form clumps.
供体细胞就不会被标记为需要破坏的细胞,也就不会造成细胞的聚集
By 1907,
直到1907年
doctors were mixing together small amounts of blood before transfusing it.
输血前 医生会将一小部分血液进行混合
If there were no clumps, the types were a match.
如果没有血细胞的聚集 血型就是匹配的
This enabled them to save thousands of lives,
通过这种方式 医生拯救了成千上万的生命
laying the foundation for modern transfusions.
也奠定了现代输血的基础
Up to this point, all transfusions had occurred in real time,
到目前为止 输血都必须是实时的
directly between two individuals.
需要直接在两个人当中进行
That’s because blood begins to clot almost immediately
这是因为血液一旦和空气接触
after coming into contact with air—
就开始凝固
a defense mechanism to prevent excessive blood loss after injury.
这是人体防止受伤后失血过多的防御机制
In 1914, researchers discovered that the chemical sodium citrate
1914年 研究人员发现化学物质柠檬酸钠
stopped blood coagulating by removing the calcium necessary for clot formation.
可以通过去除血块形成所必需的钙 阻止血液的凝固
Citrated blood could be stored for later use—
加入了柠檬酸钠的血可以储存供以后使用
the first step in making large scale blood transfusions possible.
这是让大规模输血成为可能的第一步
In 1916, a pair of American scientists found an even more effective anticoagulant
1916年 一对美国科学家发现了一种更有效的抗凝剂
called heparin, which works by deactivating enzymes that enable clotting.
肝素 其作用机制是使凝血酶失活
We still use heparin today.
现在 我们仍在使用肝素
At the same time,
与此同时
American and British researchers developed portable machines
美国和英国的研究人员研发出便携式机器
that could transport donor blood onto the battlefields of World War I.
可将捐献者的血液运送到一战的战场上
Combined with the newly-discovered heparin,
再加上新发现的肝素
medics safely stored and preserved liters of blood,
医护人员得以安全地储存了几升血液
wheeling it directly onto the battlefield to transfuse wounded soldiers.
并直接运到战场上为受伤的士兵输血
After the war, this crude portable box would become the inspiration for the modern-day blood bank,
战后 这种简陋的便携式盒子成为了现代血库的灵感来源
a fixture of hospitals around the world.
这是现在世界各地的医院都有的设备
Did you know that horse, sheep,crab blood plays an essential role in the medical industry?
你知道马血 羊血 螃蟹血在医疗行业中扮演了重要角色吗?
Find out why we are so dependent on these ancient creature with this video
点击这个视频 了解为什么我们如此依赖这些古老的生物
or continue understanding your circulatory system by learning more about blood types.
或者通过学习更多关于血型的知识来继续了解你的循环系统

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人类输血的历史是怎样的?是什么使大规模输血成为可能?本期视频给你答案。

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