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堕胎药如何起作用?

How Do Abortion Pills Work?

Around the world, people are more and more often choosing medication,
世界上越来越多的人都会选择药物
rather than a clinical procedure, to end unwanted pregnancies.
而非做手术来终止意外怀孕
Pill-based abortions now account for more than half of all abortions in the US,
如今美国所有堕胎人群中 超一半的人选择药物堕胎
and that figure is even higher in other countries.
而其他国家的比例更高
So what are these medications, and how do they work?
那么 这些药物是什么 它们是如何发挥药效的?
Globally, the most common medication used to end pregnancies is called misoprostol.
世界上常用的堕胎药物是米索前列醇
Misoprostol was originally developed to treat ulcers,
米索前列醇原本是用来治疗消化性溃疡的
since it interacts with the muscular lining of the stomach
因为它可以作用于胃粘膜
and affects the secretion of important stomach fluids.
并且影响重要的胃液分泌物
But misoprostol also interacts with the muscular lining of the uterus
但是米索前列醇还可以作用于子宫内膜
and there, it causes contractions, which can push out everything inside.
它会让子宫收缩 从而把血排出子宫
When taken during the first ten weeks,
服用的前十周内
misoprostol alone will end a pregnancy about 90% of the time.
米索前列醇的堕胎有效性达到90%
Misoprostol can also be used in combination
米索前列醇还可以和
with another medication called mifepristone,
另一种叫米非司酮的药物共同服用
which was originally called “RU-486.”
该药原名为“RU-486”
Mifepristone works by interfering with the pregnancy hormone
米非司酮通过拮抗孕激素发挥作用
that normally keeps the lining of the uterus thick enough
通常孕激素可以保持子宫内膜的厚度
to support a growing embryo and keeps the cervix–the opening to the uterus, closed off.
从而孕育胚胎并让宫颈闭合——因为宫颈是子宫的通道
By binding to the hormone’s receptors,
通过与激素受体结合
mifepristone blocks the hormone from doing those jobs.
米非司酮不让激素发挥作用
As a result, the uterine lining starts breaking down,
结果就是 子宫内膜开始脱落
causing the embryo to detach, and opening to the uterus starts softening,
致使堕胎并且宫颈变得柔软
making it easier for contractions to push out everything inside.
可以让宫缩轻易地把所有东西排出体外
Mifepristone, the hormone-blocker,
米非司酮带有激素抑制性
isn’t all that effective at ending pregnancies on its own.
但并不能完全靠它来堕胎
But because it has such a different mechanism from misoprostol,
不过正是因为米非司酮有独特的作用
the contraction-causer,
即产生宫缩
the two medications are really effective together.
所以这两种药一起服用药效极佳
If taken during the first ten weeks,
若前十周服用的话
these two types of pills in combination will end a pregnancy more than 95% of the time.
两种药效结合的堕胎率高达95%
Pill-based abortions can be pretty painful and cause a lot of bleeding.
药物堕胎会非常疼痛 会流很多血
After all, what these medications are doing is causing a miscarriage.
毕竟这些药的作用就是让人流产
Medical professionals can’t actually tell from symptoms alone
实际上 医疗专业人士不能单纯从症状上判断
whether someone is having a natural miscarriage or a pill-based abortion,
这个人是自然流产还是药物流产
since the physiological process is exactly the same.
因为准确来说 二者的生理过程一样
In fact, doctors routinely prescribe mifepristone and misoprostol
其实 医生通常会把米非司酮和米索前列醇
to people in the midst of miscarriages,
开给正处于流产中的人
since they can help the tissue detach
因为两者有助于组织脱落
and pass out of the body more quickly and safely.
且更快更安全地排出体外
When taken according to instructions,
遵医嘱服用药物时
these medications are a remarkably safe way to end a pregnancy.
用这些药物堕胎是一种非常安全的方式
Most of the bleeding and discomfort resolve on their own within a day or two.
出血和不适感的消退多集中于一到两天
A very small percentage of people do experience complications,
少部分人会产生复杂的症状
like they lose too much blood, or their body doesn’t pass all the pregnancy tissue.
比如大出血或者她们体内的妊娠组织没有排尽
And in these rare cases, emergency medical care is a must.
在这些罕见的情况下 必须进行紧急医疗护理
But most pill-based abortions can, in principle, take place at home
但大体上 多数药物堕胎能在家完成
without on-site medical supervision.
不需要进行现场医疗监控
Right now, whether or not
现在 不论人们
a person can legally use these medications to end a pregnancy
是否能合法使用这些药物来终止妊娠
depends on how long they’ve been pregnant and where they live.
取决于怀孕时长以及居住地
For more information, check out the resources in the description.
请查看说明中的资源以获取更多信息

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视频概述

本视频主要介绍了两种堕胎药的用途,一种是米索前列醇,另一种是米非司酮。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Weinia

审核员

审核员OYN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZfPSKEEOwuI

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