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动物眼里的世界是怎样的? – 译学馆
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动物眼里的世界是怎样的?

How Different Animals See The World

Humans have a lot of advantages over animals.
相比动物而言 人类有很多优越性
We have languages, opposable thumbs,
我们有语言 有对生拇指
and most of us are a lot smarter than animals.
大多数人类都比动物聪明的多
Our eyeballs, as it turns out, are pretty boring.
但人类的眼球可没有动物的那么先进
Many animals have eyes that let them see the world
动物眼中的世界
much differently than we do,
与我们看到的世界大不相同
so let’s find out exactly how the animals of earth view the world!
咱们就去看看动物眼中是怎样的世界吧
《大开眼界》
Number 20, dogs.
第20名 狗
We humans have three different kinds of color detecting
人类的眼睛里有三种不同的色彩检测细胞
cells in our eyes, they’re known as cones,
通常被称为视锥细胞
whereas dogs only have two.
狗只有两个视锥细胞
The cone cells that dogs have are only capable
所以狗的眼睛只能看到
of detecting yellow and blue-to-ultraviolet light.
黄色 以及蓝色到紫外光线之间的光
Each type of cone contains a pigment that
每一种视锥细胞里的色素
is sensitive to a different wavelength of light,
能感应到的光波长度不一样
so the range of color that an animal can see
所以动物能看到的色彩范围
depends on what combination of pigments they have.
是由其眼内的色素组合决定的
Since dogs have fewer cone types,
因为狗眼的视锥细胞种类很少
they are not able to see as many colors as we can.
所以狗能看到的色彩比我们少很多
Many people believe that dogs see in black and white,
有人认为狗的世界是黑白色的
but that isn’t true.
这并不准确
A dog would see a rainbow as light blue, dark yellow,
彩虹在狗的眼中是浅蓝色 暗黄色
light yellow, white, and very dark blue.
浅黄色 白色和深蓝色的组合
Pretty drab.
彩虹对狗来说没那么美
Number 19, geckos.
第19名 壁虎
Human cone cells need pretty bright light
人类的视锥细胞在强光下
in order to function well,
才能更好的工作
which is why we can not see colors that well when it’s dark.
所以天黑时很难辨清颜色
Luckily we also have rod cells which help us see in low light,
还好我们有对暗光敏感的视杆细胞
which has a single light sensitive pigment.
弥补了弱光视物的功能
Unlike humans, geckos have great color vision
与人类不同 壁虎在很暗的地方
even in the dark.
也能看到缤纷的色彩
Dark doesn’t even look that dark to them,
黑夜在壁虎眼中丝毫不黑
since their eyes are 350 times more sensitive to color
因为壁虎在弱光下对色彩的感知能力
in low light than ours.
是人类的350倍
Geckos evolved to have these eyes because they hunt at night.
这是壁虎常年夜间觅食的进化结果
Number 18, giant clams.
第18名 巨蛤
As it turns out, giant clams not only have eyes,
事实上 巨蛤不单单是有眼睛
but have a few hundred eyes about the size of pinholes
在它们躯体的边缘
all along the edge of their bodies.
分布着几百个针孔大小的眼睛
Their eyes are shaped like a cup and have very narrow openings,
巨蛤的眼睛长得像窄口杯子
and unlike our eyes,
跟人类的眼睛不一样的是
they do not have a lens.
它们没有晶状体
Giant Clams are sensitive to three different colors of light,
巨蛤能感受到三种不同色彩的光
but they can not combine that information.
但无法对这些信息进行组合
This means that they see colorful, but undefined images.
所以它们只能看到颜色却看不到具体图像
They can detect movement, however,
不过它们能感受到物体运动
which is all they really need to get by.
对它们来说足够用了
If they see a nearby predator,
如果发现附近有天敌
they can squirt a jet of water at them
它们能向天敌喷水攻击
or close their shell in self defense.
或关上贝壳自保
Number 17, jumping spiders.
第17名 跳蛛
Jumping Spiders are like regular spiders except worse
跳蛛跟普通蜘蛛差不多 只是更难对付
because they can quickly jump away from the newspaper
你别想用报纸轻易消灭它
you’re trying to smash it with and they have great vision.
它们的视野很大 能轻松避开袭击
Like most spiders, they have eight eyes
和大多数蜘蛛一样 跳蛛有八只眼睛
with which to detect potential prey.
在觅食时能派上大用场
Their biggest pair of eyes faces forward
其中最大的一双眼睛长在前方
and gives them high resolution vision for seeing detail,
提供观察细节的高清视野
and their other smaller eyes toward the back of their head
小一些的眼睛长在头的后面
to give them peripheral vision and motion detection.
提供外围视野和动态侦测
Jumping Spiders can also see more colors than we can
跳蛛有对紫外光敏感的特殊色素
due to their special pigments which are sensitive to ultraviolet light.
所以它们看到的颜色比人类更鲜艳
Number 16, Mantis Shrimp.
第16名 虾蛄
You’ve probably heard of the Mantis shrimp
你对虾蛄也许早有耳闻
because of their famous aquarium glass shattering
毕竟能把鱼缸玻璃敲碎的能力
punching capability.
不是谁都有的
Well, as if they even needed other superhero-esque abilities,
可天生神力还不能满足它们似的
it turns out they also have freakishly good eyesight.
它们的视力居然也好的变态
In fact, they have one of the most elaborate eyes
地球动物家族里没有谁的眼睛
of any animal on earth.
能比虾蛄的更缜密复杂
As mentioned before, humans have three types of cones in their eyes.
之前提到 人眼里有三种视锥细胞
Mantis shrimp have 16.
虾蛄有16种
Mantis shrimp can also tune the sensitivity level
虾蛄还能根据不同的环境
of their vision at will to adapt to different environments.
随意调整视力的灵敏度级别
Scientists have yet to discover another animal that can do that.
这个能力在动物界独一无二
Who would have thought that the most intricate visual system
谁能想到地球上最错综复杂的视觉系统
on earth would be attached to this weird shrimp?
居然长在这怪虾身上?
Number 15, bees.
第15名 蜜蜂
If you’ve seen the Bee Movie, you already know that bees are important.
如果你看过电影《蜜蜂总动员》一定知道蜜蜂很重要
But what you may not know is
但你知道吗
that bees have 1,000 eyes as opposed to two.
蜜蜂有1000只眼睛而不是2只
Bees, like many other insects, have compound eyes
蜜蜂和其他昆虫一样 有复眼
that are made of many ommatidia, meaning each act like an individual eye.
复眼由许多小眼组成 每一只小眼都能独立工作
They all point in slightly different directions,
所有的小眼都朝向不同的方向
which gives bees a wider angle of sight than humans.
所以蜜蜂的视野范围比人类大的多
The image that bees see is not as sharp as ours,
蜜蜂看见的影像不如我们看到的清晰
but it does let them see up to 300 pictures per second,
但它们每秒钟最多能看到300张图像
versus humans, who can only see 65.
人类每秒只能看65张
Number 14, cats.
第14名 猫
If you’ve ever wondered why sometimes cats’ eyes
你有没有想过 为什么从照片里看到的猫眼
will be a different color in a photo
与直接看到的猫眼颜色
than they are when you look at’em,
是不一样的
this is due to the tapetum lucidum,
这是因为猫眼视网膜的后面
a reflective layer behind the retina
有一层反光膜
that redirects light back through the eye.
能把光线反射回眼睛
This works in the same way
就好比用光对着镜子照射
that shining a light at a mirror
相比对着墙照
creates more light than shining one against a wall.
镜子会反射出更多的光线
The tapetum lucidum means
反光膜让猫咪们
that not only do cats see better in the dark,
不仅能在暗处视物
but they actually see better in the dark than they do in the light.
而且在黑暗中比白天看的更清楚
Number 13, flies.
第13名 苍蝇
Flies can see limited colors,
苍蝇能看到的颜色很少
but they have a very broad field of vision,
但是它们的视野很广
and see in a sort of mosaic effect.
看到的图像类似马赛克的效果
The reason flies can seemingly almost always escape from
无论你用什么工具去消灭苍蝇
whatever you’re trying to kill them with,
它们似乎总能逃过一劫
isn’t because they’re psychic,
不是因为它们有特异功能
but because they literally see the world in slow motion.
是因为它们眼里的世界是慢动作的
They’re like Keanu Reeves in The Matrix,
就像《黑客帝国》的基努里维斯
except all the time.
时间他们身上失去了作用
This was discovered in a study that tested
苍蝇的这项能力是在一个
different animals ability to detect separate flashes of fast-flickering light.
动物感知闪光能力的研究中被发现的
Scientists found that time perception
科学家发现时间感知能力
is directly related to size and how fast an animal’s metabolic rate is.
与动物的体型和代谢速度息息相关
So the tiny fly, with it’s extremely fast metabolic rate,
苍蝇体型微小 代谢速度极快
can easily react to and escape your fly swatting attempts.
所以能够轻易的逃出生天
Number 12, snakes.
第12名 蛇
Some animals, like snakes, don’t see color at all.
有些动物是一点颜色都看不到的 比如蛇
Snakes that spend most of their time underground
大多时间栖息在地表以下的蛇
have small, simple eyes that only differentiate
它们的小眼睛功能简单
between light and dark.
只能区分白天与黑夜
Snakes that live above ground and need their vision for hunting prey
而栖息在地表靠视觉去捕食的蛇
have very clear vision as well as good depth perception.
视觉清晰度和深度感知能力都很好
Certain species of snakes, such as boas and pythons,
诸如王蛇和蟒蛇这类蛇
also have what are called’pit organs’ on their heads
它们头上有热敏器官
which can see heat sources.
能够精准侦测热源
So, they essentially have their own pair
就好比这类蛇都装备了
of built in infrared goggles.
内置红外线夜视镜
Number 11, cows.
第11名 牛
Cows seem like pretty boring animals,
牛看上去似乎平淡无奇
so you’d expect them to pretty much see the way that we do.
但你要是以为它们的眼睛和我们一样
You would be wrong.
那你就错了
This is what cows have tricked you into thinking.
牛的憨厚老实蒙蔽了你
Most cows do see limited colors, since they’re red-green color blind.
大多数牛都是红绿色盲 所以只能看到很少的颜色
They see mostly gray and black, but also versions of yellow and blue,
它们能看到黑色 灰色 还有黄色系和蓝色系
since unlike humans, they only have two color receptions.
因为不同于人类 它们只有两种颜色接收器
Cows also have what is known as’panoramic vision,’
牛也有“全景视觉”
meaning that they can see in all directions
不用移动头的方向
without having to move their heads.
也能全方位视物
Cows can see 300 degrees just by moving their eyeballs,
牛只需要转动眼球就可以看到300度的范围
which only leaves a small blind spot on the back of their heads.
只在头后方有一个小盲区
Good luck trying to sneak up on one of these guys.
想从牛背后偷袭?祝你好运吧
Number 10, birds.
第10名 鸟
Vision is particularly important for birds,
对鸟而言 视觉特别重要
since you don’t want to hit something while you’re 50 feet in the air.
在15米高空撞到任何东西可不是闹着玩的
They have the largest eyes relative to their size
在整个动物界 从体型比例来说
in the whole animal kingdom.
鸟的眼睛是最大的
Unlike humans, who have three color receptor cones,
人类有三个色彩接收器视锥细胞
allowing us to see red, blue and green, birds have four cones,
能看见红 蓝和绿 而鸟有四个视锥细胞
so they can also see in the ultraviolet spectrum.
除此之外 还能看到紫外光谱
That’s pretty handy
这个功能非常实用
because the high phosphorous content in urine glows brightly,
因为尿中含有大量磷 能发出很亮的光
allowing birds like kestrels
像红隼之类的鸟
to track prey like voles by their urine trails.
能追踪田鼠等猎物的尿液痕迹来狩猎
Impressively, birds can also rapidly change
令人惊讶的是 鸟能快速地改变
the shape of their eye lens,
眼睛晶状体的形状
similar to how a camera functions,
和照相机的工作原理类似
and they have a third, transparent eyelid.
鸟还有额外的一层透明眼睑
So, some birds of prey can basically see much like a camera
一些猛禽的眼睛就像照相机一样
with both a macro lens and a zoom lens,
有微距镜头和变焦镜头
to focus on multiple things at once.
能同时关注好几样事情
Particular kind of birds even have their own special eye abilities.
个别品种的鸟眼睛还有专属的特殊功能
For instance, nocturnal birds such as owls
例如 夜行鸟 比如猫头鹰
actually have tubular eyes rather than spherical ones,
它们的眼睛不是圆的而是管状的
allowing more light to enter the eye for a brighter more crisp image.
能让更多的光进入眼睛 看到清晰明亮的图像
This makes it especially handy for night time hunting.
这个功能在晚上狩猎时尤其好使
Some sea going birds even have red or yellow oil droplets inside their eyes,
一些海鸟的眼睛里有红色或黄色的油滴
which allows them to see in hazy conditions.
能在朦胧模糊的情况下也看的清
Number nine, horses.
第9名 马
Horses have some of the largest eyes of any land mammal.
陆地哺乳动物中 马的眼睛是最大的
Because their eyes are on the sides of their heads,
因为马的眼睛在头的两边
they have an even greater field of vision than cows,
它们视野甚至比牛的更大
capable of seeing 350 degrees without moving their head.
不用移动头部就能看到350度内的东西
Horses see the world in only two colors: blue and green.
马眼中的世界只有两种颜色 蓝色和绿色
This is why in show jumping, where people train horses to jump over obstacles,
所以在训练马跳跃障碍的马术比赛中
the obstacles are always brightly colored,
障碍通常涂上明亮的颜色
contrasting heavily with the ground.
以明显区别地面
A horse would have a hard time distinguishing an obstacle
如果障碍物和地面颜色相近
that was only a few shades different from the ground.
马将很难将其区分开来
Number eight, frogs.
第8名 青蛙
Frogs are near-sighted, therefore they can’t see at distances that well.
青蛙是近视眼 远处的东西看不清
Their eyes are extremely sensitive to movement,
它们的眼睛对于运动目标极其敏感
so if a frog’s prey does not move, they will not detect it.
只要猎物不移动 青蛙就发现不了
They also have excellent night vision
它们的夜视能力也非常优秀
due to a mirror like layer in the back of their eye called tapetum.
因为在青蛙眼睛后面有一层像镜子一样的照膜
While the extent to which frogs can see colors
虽然青蛙能看到的色彩范围
has not been determined,
尚未明确
they do have some ability to detect different hues
它们确实有能力看到周边环境中
in the environment around them.
不同的色调
In fact, frogs may even be able to detect color
事实上 在光线非常暗淡的情况下
in extremely low light situations
其他动物只能看见灰影
where other animals only see shades of gray.
青蛙却能看到颜色
Frog eyes are especially interesting to humans,
人类对青蛙的眼睛极有兴趣
since they can actually regenerate certain structures
因为它们的某些眼部结构
if they’ve been damaged.
具有自愈能力
Scientists believe that by studying frog’s eyes,
科学家们相信 通过对青蛙眼睛的研究
they could discover a cure for certain vision problems in humans.
能够发现治疗某些人类眼疾的办法
Frogs also use their eyes to help them swallow food.
青蛙还用眼睛帮助吞咽食物
After a frog has its prey in its mouth,
在把食物吞进嘴里后
you will then see it retract its eyeballs into its head,
它的眼球会缩回脑袋里
actually pushing the food down and lettin’ the frog swallow.
把食物往下推 然后吞咽下去
Hopefully, scientists do not research this aspect of frog vision any further,
希望科学家们放弃这个领域的研究
because that’s really gross.
实在太恶心了
Number seven, chameleons.
第七名 变色龙
Like birds, chameleons can see all the colors we do,
和鸟类一样 变色龙能看到人类看到的颜色
plus ultraviolet light, which we cannot see.
还有人类看不到的紫外光谱
The most interesting thing about their sight though,
最有意思的是
is that a chameleon’s eyes move totally independently from one another.
变色龙的两只眼睛可以完全独立运动
This means that a chameleon can keep an eye on two things at once,
所以变色龙可以同时观察两样东西
even if those things are in opposite directions.
即使是完全两个不同方向的物体
Not only can they look in different directions at the same time,
它们不仅能同时看向不同方向
but they can focus their eyes at different levels at the same time,
还能同时用不同焦距视物
enabling them to view nearby objects and distant ones
所以在看远近不同的地方时
at the same level of focus simultaneously.
它们看的一样清楚
Number six, starfish.
第6名 海星
For a long time, scientists wondered if starfish could even see at all.
很久以来 科学家疑惑海星究竟有没有视力
It was known that they have one eye on the end of each arm,
虽然我们知道 在海星的每一根触角上都有一个眼睛
but it wasn’t clear if they could actually see images out of them or not.
但是并不清楚这些眼睛 是否具有视力
Recently, however, scientists have discovered
不过 科学家近期发现
that starfish can indeed see very basic images-about 200 pixels.
海星能看到200像素左右的简单图像
I guess some vision is better than no vision.
聊胜于无吧
What would a starfish need super jacked up eyes for anyway?
毕竟超强视力对海星也没啥用处
Number five, cuttlefish.
第7名 乌贼
The adorably named cuttlefish
乌贼名字虽萌 眼睛却不太好
has blurrier vision than we do,
不但比人类的视力更加模糊
and are completely colorblind.
而且完全是色盲
Cuttlefish have one photoreceptor that shows them shades of gray,
乌贼有一个感光器可以看到灰影
and another that detects polarization.
另一个感光器能探测偏振
The only time a human will experience polarized light
人类只有在戴上偏光墨镜时
is when they wear sunglasses
才能看到偏振光
that reduce glare by filtering out an orientation of light waves.
偏光墨镜只让平行的光透过镜片从而防止眩光
With the help of modified LCD computer monitors,
在改良的电脑液晶屏的上
researchers were able to give us an impression of the changes in polarization
研究人员可以通过改变显示器颜色
that cuttlefish can see by changing the colors on screen,
来模拟出乌贼眼中偏振光变化的效果
like in this image.
如图所示
Of course this is just a representation for us to understand
当然 这种模拟只是让我们体会一下
just how sensitive cuttlefish eyesight is,
乌贼的视力有多敏感
since cuttlefish are actually colorblind.
毕竟它们是色盲 看不到这么多颜色
So, what’s the point of cuttlefish being able to see this?
那么乌贼对偏振光的敏感有什么意义呢?
Well, cuttlefish can also produce polarization patterns on their skin,
乌贼能让皮肤表面产生偏振光图案变化
which scientists think they may use to communicate,
科学家们认为 这是乌贼间交流的方式
kind of like signal flags.
就像信号旗的功能
Number four, butterflies.
第4名 蝴蝶
Butterflies see with red, green, blue, UV,
蝴蝶可以看见红光 绿光 蓝光 紫外线
and the wideband light from red to purple.
以及红光到紫光之间的宽频光
This really isn’t much, but, like bees,
这功能没什么特殊的 但和蜜蜂一样
it does enable them to detect pollen,
蝴蝶可以凭此检测到花粉
and at the end of the day that’s really all they need.
这对蝴蝶来说就足够了
Though they have only 0.04 the visual acuity that we do,
蝴蝶的视力仅相当于人类的0.04
meaning that they can barely see something that’s 50 centimeters away from them,
只能勉强看到50厘米之内的东西
they can still track down pollen on flowers.
但花粉在它们面前无处遁形
Number three, garden snails.
第三名 花园蜗牛
A snail’s eyes are located at the the tip of their two smallest tentacles.
蜗牛的眼睛位于两只触角的顶端
Because snails can move these tentacles around as they please,
蜗牛可以随心所欲的移动这些触角
snails have a very wide frame of vision.
所以它们的视野是超大广角的
If only our eyes were not stuck in our lame skulls,
如果人类的眼睛不是在头骨里卡着的
we could do the same thing.
我们也能做到
Garden snails cannot focus or see color,
花园蜗牛的眼睛不能聚焦 也看不见颜色
but they can detect movement and differentiate between different intensities of light.
但能检测到移动和不同强度的光
This allows snails to move towards the sorts of dark places that they like.
蜗牛借此可以向它们喜欢的阴暗角落转移
Number two, rabbits.
第2名 兔子
If you’ve ever set a treat down right in front of a rabbit,
如果你将食物摆在兔子眼前
only to have it seemingly ignore it, don’t worry,
而它却无视食物 不要多心
it’s not trying to tell you that your offering is unwanted,
这不是它讨厌你给的食物
it probably just can’t see it.
而是它看不见
A rabbit’s eyes are so far down its head
兔子的眼睛长在脑袋很靠后的地方
that it actually has a blind spot right in front of its nose.
导致它鼻子正前方有个盲区
Try moving your treat slightly to the right or the left.
把食物轻轻左右移动
This unique eye positioning also means
兔子眼睛的位置也导致了
that rabbits have very poor depth perception,
它们看到的东西几乎没有重叠
since their eyes have little overlap.
所以兔子的深度感知能力也非常差
Rabbits see objects on their right with their right eye,
兔子用右眼看右边的东西
and vice versa.
反之亦然
Number one, turtles.
第1名 海龟
While it is commonly believed that turtles are colorblind,
人们普遍认为海龟是色盲
in reality, they are better at seeing color than we are.
实际上它们的辨色能力比人类强
In fact, compared to turtles, we’re the colorblind ones.
相比海龟 人类才是色盲
Turtles can see one extra color which humans cannot.
有一种颜色人看不见 但是海龟可以看见
The color is referred to as ‘red‘,
这种颜色被称作’红色’
though it is ultimately impossible to a human
实际上 人类基本上完全无法
to picture just what exactly this bonus color is.
想象这种特别的颜色到底是什么样的
Now that you know all these secrets of the animal kingdom,
了解了这么多动物王国的秘密之后
are you still content with your human eyes?
你对自己的眼睛还满意吗?
Do you feel slightly visually inferior like I do?
有没有跟我一样 觉得人类视力低“物”一等?
And, which animal’s vision would you most like to see the world through?
你最想用哪种动物的眼睛来看世界呢?
Let me know what you think in the comments section down below.
请在下面的评论区告诉我你的想法
Thanks for watching!
谢谢观看

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译制信息
视频概述

动物眼中的世界是怎样的呢?与人类眼中的世界又有什么不同呢?本文通过介绍20种不同动物的眼睛,让你发现不同眼睛中,不一样的世界!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

綝飛

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAC1t2nGkfg

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