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在美国是怎样由火车将时间给标准化了的 – 译学馆
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在美国是怎样由火车将时间给标准化了的

How did trains standardize time in the United States? - William Heuisler

铁路的发展和传播
The development and spread of railroads
遍及美国
across the United States
改变了美国人的生活
brought a wave of changes to American life.
在铁路繁荣期间
During the railroad boom,
产生了成千上万份工作
thousands of jobs were created,
出现了新的城镇
new towns were born,
贸易增加
trade increased,
交通更加便捷
transportation was faster,
和国家的整体面貌也发生了改变
and the overall landscape of the nation transformed.
但是,可能最有趣的改变
But, perhaps the most interesting change of all
在我们所了解当中的
is the least known:
就是标准时间的建立
the establishment of standard time.
现在 我们知道如果在洛杉矶是早上6:28
Today, we know if it is 6:28 a.m. in Los Angeles,
那么在纽约就是早上9:28
it is 9:28 a.m. in New York,
伦敦是下午2:28
2:28 p.m. in London,
俄罗斯是下午5:28
5:28 p.m. in Moscow,
东京是下午10:28
and 10:28 p.m in Tokyo.
不管你在哪里
No matter where you are,
分和秒都是一样的
the minute and second are the exact same.
但是 在有铁路之前
But, before the railroads,
并不需要国际或者全球的时间
there was no need for a national or global clock,
而每个城镇都有各自的当地时间
and each town kept its own local time.
因此 当芝加哥是中午12:00时
So when it was 12 noon in Chicago,
印第安纳波利斯是下午的12:07
it was 12:07 p.m. in Indianapolis,
圣路易斯是上午11:50
11:50 a.m. in St. Louis,
奥马哈市是上午11:27
and 11:27 a.m. in Omaha.
这一切都运行得很好当只有一种旅行的模式
This worked just fine when the only modes of travel
就是马或者蒸汽轮船
were horses or steamboats,
但这变成了一个难以置信的问题
but it became incredibly problematic
当铁路到来的时候
when railroads came along.
怎样才能统一铁路的时刻表
How can you keep a train schedule
当每个城镇都有自己的时间时
when each town has its own time?
又如何防止碰撞和轨道上的事故
And how do you prevent collisions or accidents on the tracks
如果火车指挥员使用不同的时间
if train conductors are using different clocks?
这根本说不通对于下午12:14离站
It doesn’t really make sense to leave a station at 12:14 p.m.,
经过22分钟
travel for 22 minutes,
下午12:31到达
and arrive at 12:31 p.m.
为了消除这种混乱
In order to eliminate that confusion,
美国和加拿大的铁路
the railroads of the United States and Canada
制定标准时区
instituted standard time zones
在1883年11月18日中午
on November 18, 1883 at noon.
它使得铁路公司
It allowed the railroad companies
提高运行效率
to operate more effectively
减少重大事故
and reduce deadly accidents.
然而 美国大众
The American public, however,
并没有那么快接受这个新变化
was not so quick to embrace this new change,
许多城市仍然使用他们当地的时间
as many cities continued to use their own local time.
抗力如此强烈 所以在一些城镇
Resistance was so strong that, in some towns,
同时会显示当地时间和铁路时间
clocks would show both the local time and the railway time.
想象这样一个对话
Imagine this conversation:
对不起 sir 请问你知道时间吗
“Pardon me, sir. Do you have the time?”
当然知道 你需要哪个
“Why yes, which do you need?
当地时间是12:13和铁路时间是12:16
It’s 12:13 local time and 12:16 railway time.”
最终,保持一个标准时间势在必行
Ultimately, the logic of keeping a standard time prevailed,
美国政府制定时区的相关法律
and the United States government made time zones a matter of law
和标准时1918年3月19日一致
with the Standard Time Act of March 19, 1918.
从那时起,发生了很大的变化
Since then, there have been numerous changes
对于时区来说
to the time zones,
但是 标准时的概念保留了下来
but the concept of standard time has remained.
然而 美国确实不是第一个
But, the United States was actually not the first
开发标准时的
to develop standard time.
第一家实现标准时的使用的是
The first company to implement the use of standard time
1840年英国的 Great Western 铁路
was the Great Western Railway in 1840 in Britain,
到1847年 大部分英国铁路使用
and by 1847, most British railways were using
格林威治标准时或者G.M.T
Greenwich Mean Time, or G.M.T.
英国政府使其成为官方化
The British government made it official
律例在1880年8月2日 或者定义为 Time, Act
on August 2, 1880 with the Statutes, or Definition of Time, Act.
但是 英国或许是第一个
But, while Britain may have been the first
建立标准时
to establish standard time,
它是亚洲和南太平洋的岛屿
it is Asia and the islands of the South Pacific
享有每天的第一个小时
that enjoyed the first hour of each new day.
国际日期变更线
The International Date Line
穿过太平洋
passes through the Pacific Ocean
在地球的对面
on the opposite side of the Earth
从格林威治的本初子午线
from the Prime Meridian in Greenwich where,
由于火车
thanks to trains,
标准时也就第一次使用了
standard time was first used.
火车经过多年的发展
Trains have evolved over the years
保持着一个显著的形式
and remain a prominent form
就是运输和贸易遍及世界
of transportation and trade throughout the world.
从纽约的地铁
And, from the New York City subways
到货运列车穿过大平原
to the freight trains traveling across the Great Plains,
手推车在旧金山
to the trolleys in San Francisco,
他们都有确切的时间
they all know exactly what time it is.
由于铁路的发展,我们也知道(确切的时间)
And, thanks to them, we do too!

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