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波利尼西亚的探险者如何驾驭太平洋? – Alan Tamayose和Shantell De Silva – 译学馆
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波利尼西亚的探险者如何驾驭太平洋? - Alan Tamayose和Shantell De Silva

How did Polynesian wayfinders navigate the Pacific Ocean? - Alan Tamayose and Shantell De Silva

本视频作者从一个小岛开始伟大航行
The author of this lesson started a big movement on a small island.
在视频末点击了解更多
Stick around after this episode to learn more.
想象一下坐着独木舟从夏威夷出发
Imagine setting sail from Hawaii in a canoe.
而你的目标是一座位于太平洋中间
Your target is a small island thousands of kilometers away
几千公里以外的小岛
in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
这是一片覆盖了超过1.6亿平方公里
That’s a body of water that covers more than 160 million square kilometers,
比所有陆地加起来还要大的水域
greater than all the landmasses on Earth combined.
几千年来
For thousands of years,
波利尼西亚的航海家们进行着这样的航行
Polynesian navigators managed voyages like this
没有现代航行设备的帮助
without the help of modern navigational aids.
古时的波利尼西亚人用太阳
Ancient Polynesians used the Sun,
月亮
Moon,
星星
stars,
行星
planets,
洋流
ocean currents,
还有云作为向导
and clouds as guides that
使得他们在大海中躲避障碍物
allowes them to see the ocean as a series of pathways
找到一条条路线
rather than an obstacle.
他们的航行始于大约公元前1500年
Their voyages began around 1500 B.C.
当定居波利尼西亚的人们首先从南洋启航的时候
when the people who would settle Polynesia first set sail from Southeast Asia.
早期的波利尼西亚人最终定居在一座太平洋上
Early Polynesians eventually settled a vast area of islands
面积超过4千万平方公里广阔的岛上
spread over 40 million square kilometers of the Pacific Ocean.
一些历史学家认为这些航海家从一个地方搬到另一个地方
Some historians believe the voyagers moved from place to place
是为了避免人口过剩
to avoid overpopulation.
另外一些认为他们是被战争所迫
Others, that they were driven by war.
大约公元1300年开始 航行活动变少
Voyages became less frequent by around 1300 A.D.
因为波利尼西亚的社会开始在某个地方逐渐扎根
as Polynesian societies became more rooted in specific locations.
在航海期间
During the voyaging period,
成功的旅行取决于几点因素
successful journeys depended on a number of factors:
坚固的独木舟
well-built canoes,
航海家的技术
the skill of navigators,
还有最重要的天气
and weather being some of the biggest.
航行倚赖坚固的双独木舟
Voyages relied on sturdy wa’a kaulua, or double-hulled canoes,
它由帆提供动力 并有一个大独桨控制方向
which were powered by sails and steered with a single large oar.
独木舟的建造需要整个社群的参与
Canoe building involved the whole community,
把航海家
bringing together the navigators,
独木舟建造者
canoe builders,
牧师
priests,
吟唱者
chanters,
和呼啦舞舞者聚集到一起
and hula dancers.
航海家热衷于观察自然世界
Navigators were keen observers of the natural world.
对季风产生的海洋涌浪十分熟悉
They were abundantly familiar with trade wind-generated ocean swells,
即典型的东北或东南流向
which typically flow northeast or southeast.
白天 航海家可以通过由这些涌浪
By day, navigators could identify direction
作用独木舟产生的振荡确定方向
by the rocking motion of their canoes caused by these swells.
但日出和日落的作用更大
But sunrise and sunset were even more useful.
因为这时候太阳的位置指明了东西
The Sun’s position indicated east and west
并在海面形成一种贴近水面的阳光
and created low light on the ocean
使得直接看到涌浪变为可能
that made it possible to see swells directly.
在夜晚 航海家会用一种“星星罗盘”
At night, navigators used something called a star compass,
其实不是真实的罗盘 而是一种脑海中的地图
which wasn’t a physical object, but rather a sort of mental map.
航海家们记下一年内不同时期
They memorized the rising and setting points of stars and constellations
星宿的上升和降落点
at different times of the year.
并由此将天空分为四个象限
They used those to divide the sky into four quadrants,
再细分为32个区
subdivided into 32 houses,
独木舟在最中间
with the canoe in the middle.
因此 例如当看到启明星从海面升起时
So, for example, when they saw the star Pira‘atea rising from the ocean,
他们就知道那边是东北方向
they knew that to be northeast.
他们还有一些其他小技巧
They had some other tricks, too.
地球的轴是指向北极星的
The Earth’s axis points towards Hokupa’a, or the North Star,
之所以叫北极星是因为随着地球自转 其方向固定
so called because it’s the one fixed point in the sky as the Earth rotates
总是指北
and always indicates north.
然而 在南半球就看不到北极星了
However, it’s not visible south of the Equator,
因而南半球的航海家们会用一个叫奈维的星座
so navigators there could use a constellation called Newe,
又叫南十字星座
or the Southern Cross,
和一些智力方法来定位南方
and some mental tricks to estimate where south is.
比如 在两个星星之间画一条线
For instance, draw a line through these two stars,
再扩大到原来的4.5倍
extend it 4.5 times,
再从4.5倍处画一条垂直地平线的线
and draw another line from there to the horizon.
那就是南方了
That’s south.
但是天空中还有其他的导航助手 离地面更近
But the sky also contains navigational aids much closer to Earth,
那就是云朵
the clouds.
除了是有用的天气预报
Besides being useful weather cues,
在特定情况下 它们还可以预测陆地方位
under the right conditions, they can indicate landmasses.
比如 云层底部真的有
For instance, the lagoons of Pacific atolls
太平洋环礁形成的礁湖的倒影
can actually be seen reflected on the underside of clouds,
如果你知道要找的是什么
if you know what to look for.
云朵多层说明下面的岛屿多山
And high masses of clouds can indicate mountainous islands.
只要航海家离这些岛屿比较近
Once navigators neared their destination, other clues,
其他线索例如鸟儿的飞行方式
such as the flight patterns of birds,
漂浮的碎片或植物
floating debris or vegetation,
以及该水域的鱼类都有助于决定陆地还有多远
and types of fish in the area helped determine the proximity of land.
比如 白燕鸥的飞行里程可达190公里 它也因此闻名
For example, the Manu-O-Ku had a known flight range of 190 kilometers,
跟着它 就能抵达岸边
and could be followed back to shore.
我们是如何得知这些的呢?
So how do we know all of this?
一部分证据来自岩画
Partially through evidence in petroglyphs,
用文字记载的欧洲探险家们的观察结果
written observations of European explorers,
以及波利尼西亚口头文化
and Polynesian oral traditions.
同时我们现在也在使用着这些原理
But also by trying them out for ourselves.
2017年 一艘名为“欢乐之星”的远航独木舟
In 2017, a voyaging canoe called Hokulea
只用了这些技巧就完成了一次环球旅行
completed a worldwide voyage using only these techniques.
如果这样算得上了不起 请别忘了古老的波利尼西亚人民
If that seems remarkable, remember the ancient Polynesians,
通过仔细观察自然 以及与自然的血缘关系
who through close study and kinship with nature,
就能够找到这些神奇的路径 以穿越深不可测
were able to forge these paths across
暗流涌动的海水
an unfathomably vast, vibrant living ocean.
本次视频背后的教育者帮助了“TED教育-学生之声项目”
The educator behind this lesson helps TEDEds Student Voice Program
找到了去夏威夷的路
find its way to Hawaii
自那之后 超过30个TED教育俱乐部在夏威夷群岛成立
Over 30 TEDEds Clubs have since formed in the Hawaii Islands,
全球范围内成立数量更是超数千个
and thousands more across the globe.
如果每个教育者和学生都订阅了TED教育频道
What if every educator and student subscribes to TEDEd,
跟随亚兰老师的指引 那会发生什么呢
follows Alan’s lead.
找到并登录ED.TED.COM/CLUBS网站
Navigate to ED.TED.COM/CLUBS
成为你学校第一个TED教育俱乐部的创始人吧!
to be the founder of the first TEDEd Club at your school.

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视频概述

波利尼西亚人民如何在太平洋上找到方向?找到陆地?他们有什么神奇的方法吗?

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翻译译者

海参崴

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8bDCaPhOek

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