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在闹钟发明之前,人们是怎么做到准时起床的? – 译学馆
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在闹钟发明之前,人们是怎么做到准时起床的?

How Did People Know When To Get Up in the Morning Before Alarm Clocks?

《今日发现》
Today I Found Out
大脑补剂
Feed your brain
今天的视频里 我们会解答一位观众的问题
the video today we are answering a viewer qestion
有人问
Someone ask us
在人类历史的大部分时间
Through most of history
几乎没有计时仪器 闹钟也是最近才出现
There were few clocks and only recently alarm clocks
那么人们是怎么做到准时起床
So how did people know when to get up precisely
安排诸多会议
Or how did they schedule meetings or
以及制订营业和打烊时间的呢?
When to open up or close shop, etc..?
说白了 我只是好奇 人们是怎样
Basically, I guess I’m just wondering how people kept track of time
记录时间以安排日常生活的
In order to go about managing daily life
好了 我们开始了解吧
All right, let’s get into it.
虽然我们很讨厌早上的闹钟
As much as we might hate that alarm that
它们将你从美梦中吵醒 让你面对现实
drags us from the wonderful slumber of sleep to face the day,
但是很难想象
it is hard to imagine
在机械 数字钟表发明及广泛使用前
how people organized themselves and their collective activities before the invention
人们是如何规划个人生活 参加集体活动的
and widespread use of mechanical or digital clocks.
聪明又适应力强的人类
Clever and adaptable,
通过一些简单的方法轻松地解决了这些问题
we humans actually seem to have managed rather easily by relying on
其中有些方法至今仍被用来计时
simple methods, some of which we still see in our timekeeping today.
人们普遍根据太阳及其空中的运动轨迹来记录时间
Universally, human timekeeping has always been related to the Sun and its movement across the sky.
像古巴比伦 中国 埃及 印度这些文明古国
Ancient cultures, like the Babylonians, Chinese,
从早期文明时代就依据太阳视运动轨迹
Egyptians and Hindus, even from the earliest days of civilization
把一天划分为多个时段
were dividing the Sun’s cycle into periods.
当然 这种早期的记录时间的方法
Of course, one of the drawbacks to this early way
其中一个缺点就是
of keeping time was that depending on the season,
季节变化会导致各时段长短出现很大差异
the length of each period could vary quite a lot.
另外一个缺点是 在晚上
Another drawback was that at night
太阳消失于空中 已经完全不起作用了
the Sun was most unhelpfully missing from the sky,
但是埃及人 像我们一样 仍需要度量时间
but Egyptians, like us, still needed to measure time.
不然他们怎么知道酒馆该何时关门呢?
After all, how else would they know when the bars closed?
为了解决这个问题
To get around this problem,
天文学家们发现了36个星座
their astronomers observed a set of 36 stars,
其中18个用于记录太阳落山后的那段时间
18 of which they used to mark the passage of time after the Sun was down.
六个用来记录
Six of them would be used to mark the 3 hours
黄昏与黎明时段的各三小时
of Twilight on either side of the night,
其他十二个将夜晚等分为十二个时段
and twelve then be used to divide up the darkness into 12 equal parts.
后来 在公元前1550~1070年间
Later on, somewhere between 1550 and 1070 BC,
这个体系被简化为二十四个星座
this system was simplified to just use a set of 24 stars,
其中十二个用于记录时间段
of which 12 were used to mark the passage of time.
古巴比伦传承了苏美尔六十进制的数字体系
Sixty was important to the Babylonians,
因此60对于古巴比伦人来说非常重要
who inherited a base 60 calculation system from the Sumerians
这真的很具独创意义
This is actually ingenious,
因为60是一个不用计算器就能算数的简便数字
because 60 is a convenient number for doing math without a calculator
它能被1到6
since it is evenly divisible by each of the numbers
和与计时最有关联的数字12整除
1 through 6, among others, and most relevant to timekeeping, the number 12.
公元前2世纪 希腊天文学家
Rather than using variable length hours,
开始使用等长而非多变的小时
Greek astronomers in the 2nd century BC
来记录时间
began using equal length hours.
这个想法是为了满足在发明理论和做实验时
The idea was to simplify the galatians needed
简化伽拉太书内容的需求
when devising their theories and in experiments,
尽管直到后来机械时钟问世
although the practice did not become widespread until after the
该理论才得到广泛使用
introduction of mechanical clocks;
而且直到中世纪 普通民众仍然靠
as such, regular folks continued to rely on seasonally-adjusted
随季节变化的方法来记录时间
hours well until the middle ages.
首先推动机械时钟发展的
The impetus to develop mechanical clocks
是欧洲的僧侣
in Europe first arose among monks who needed
他们需要精确的计时仪器以进行日常祷告
accurate timekeeping in order to properly observe daily prayer,
以及遵守严格的日常工作时间表
as well as maintain their rigid work schedules.
中世纪欧洲第一个用于计时的机械钟表
The first recorded mechanical clock
在1996年发明于德国马格德堡
in medieval Europe was constructed in 1996 in Magdeburg, Germany.
到了十四世纪
By the 14th century,
很多欧洲教堂都安装有大型机械时钟
large mechanical clocks were being installed in churches across Europe,
1386年装在索尔兹伯里教堂的 是现存最古老的一个
and the oldest surviving example, at Salisburycathedral, dates to 1386.
创新带来了更小型的时钟
Innovation led to smaller clock parts,
15世纪出现了室内挂钟
since the 15th century saw the appearance of domestic clocks,
16世纪出现了便携钟表
while personal timepieces were seenin the 16th century.
值得留意的是 甚至到文艺复兴时期
Note that, even well into the Renaissance,
时钟也没有显示分钟 直到17世纪
clocks did not display minutes, since the idea that an hour was divided
把一小时分为60分钟的理论才被普及
into 60 of them was not well known until nearly the 17th century.
那么人们是如何约定时间的呢?
So how did people keep appointments?
早期在赤道地区最常用的一个方法是
One early method, practiced especially around the Equator,
用手指向太阳在天空中的位置
was to point at the place in
来表达你将在何时与人见面
the sky where the sun would be when you wanted to meet.
但在中纬地区 人们普遍依靠日晷
A more common practice, particularly in the middle latitudes,
来确定时间
was to rely on a sundial;
日晷类型各异 从简单的一根
all types proliferated and included everything
插在地上的棍子
from a simple stick shoved into the ground
到地标(就像埃及的方尖碑)的影子
to the shadows that fell from landmarks ( such
再到形式精致的日晷计时仪器
as Egypt’s obelisks ) to formally crafted devices.
这种计时方式的流行
This popular method of telling time
为北半球文明的出现
adds the fact that matches a civilization
增加了事实依据
sprang up in the northern hemisphere
并且 日晷是顺时针概念的起源
is in fact tell the whole clockwise thing came about
如果你从北极上空俯视地球
If you look directly in the northern pole from space
你会发现地球是逆时针转动的
It would appear to spin count-clockwise
由于地球自转 当一根棍子被插在与地轴
given that spin, when a stick is sticked in the ground
平行的地方 比如说埃及
parallel to the earth’s axis, in say, Egypt.
由于太阳运动 棍子在地上的投影
The shadow cost by the stick cause the sun moved
将顺时针移动
across the sky will move in a clockwise direction
值得注意的是 在澳大利亚的某处插下的棍子
Noticeablely, a similarly place sticks in Australia would
它的投影将逆时针移动
cost the shadow that moves count-clockwise.
追溯到公元前3500年
As for all back it went to the Egyption since Babylonians
日晷在欧洲的巴比伦盛行
were fashion in the first shadow clocks around 3,500 BC
从那时开始 时间的测量变成了顺时针方向
The measurement of time moved to a clockwise direction
即使有了更精确的计时方法
Even has more precise time-keeping methods came about
有些公元前1500年发明的日晷盘
some dials reach being analyzed around 1,500 BC
到了中世纪 依旧很流行
remains popular through out the middle ages
它们不仅结构简单
and beyond given their simplicity of construction learns
而且计时能力优良 事实上早期的机械钟
relative reliability, in fact early mechanical clocks
经常要靠日晷来校准
were often regularly calibrated to MI sundials.
所以当机械钟表在十四世纪被引进欧洲
so, when mechanical clocks were introduced in Europe in the 14th century
它们的发明人已经对日晷
their inventors were quite familiar with sundials since the clockwise
依靠阴影顺时针移动确定时间的方法很熟悉
direction the shadow moves to mark time with.
因此在十七世纪末 连教堂里的
Accordingly by the end of the century when even Cathedral
钟表都有了可走动的钟面
clocks were sporting clockfaces
它们参照早期日晷的形象
they were made in imitation of their sundial forebears which included
有了顺时针转动的指针
hands that move in a clockwise direction.
除了日晷 先进的亚洲文明
moving on from sundials advanced ancient
也创造了各种不同的计时仪器
civilizations had a variety of other timekeepers as well.
包括从公元前1400-1500年
This included water clocks and hourglasses,
就一直在使用的水钟和沙漏
that go all the way back to at least 1400-1500 BC.
当然 这些方法在北极(或者南极)地区
Of course, these methods were far less efficacious
一点用也没有
in extreme northern (or southern) latitudes.
为了适应他们那多变的太阳
To accommodate their mercurial Sun,
斯堪的纳维亚人发明了白昼标志——
the Scandinavians invented daymarks – a system of dividing
一种把地平线分成了八份的体系
the horizon into eight sections, one eachfor north (midnight), south (midday), east (rise-measure),
每部分分别表示北(午夜)南(正午)东(清晨)西(傍晚)东北(黎明)东南(白天)
west (mid-evening), northeast(ótta), southeast (day-measure), southwest
西北(黎明)西南(晚上)
(undorn) and northwest (night-measure).
那时候一天的各个时间
The time of day was known by noting
是通过看太阳所在的白昼标志计算的
over which of these daymarks the Sun stood at that moment.
尽管这些方法都有小时计时
Regardless of the method of knowing the hour,
我们的祖先也得想出
our ancestors also had to come up with ways
准时起床的办法
to get up on time.
有个简单的方法
One simple technique relied
是靠睡前喝很多饮品这种权宜之计
on a full bladder and was accomplished by the simple expedient
来做到准时起床的
of drinking a lot of liquid at bedtime.
还有另外一个简单的计时法
Yet another time-tested simple method, at least in rural settings,
至少农村会养只公鸡
was keeping a rooster
在跟前(想想:为什么公鸡会打鸣?)
close at hand (see: Why Do Roosters Crow?)
另一方面 有些办法依赖于别人的好意
On the other hand, some approaches were dependent on the kindness of others.
在一个有一定规模的宗教机构服务的社区
In communities served by a sizable religious institution,
居民们一般都可以靠
residents could often rely on
教堂的钟声或者对祷告者的呼告起床
the ringing of church bells or the call toprayer. Likewise,
在18世纪工厂刚刚出现的时候
when factories were first introduced
工人们也可以靠听
in the 18th century, workers could depend
呼唤他们准时上工的工厂哨声起床
on the factory whistle to get them where they needed to be on time. Later,
后来 因为人们住得离他们雇主更远了
as people moved further away from their employers,
所以有些人就雇那些
some paid Knockers-Up, early-risers
带着长棍的早起者做敲门人
who carried long sticks,
在约定的时间敲他们的门或窗
to tap on their doors and windows at the appointed time.
现在是有奖竞答
Now for a bonus fact
你曾想知道a.m.和p.m.代表着什么吗
Have you ever wondered what a.m. and p.m.stand for?
不用想太多
Well, wonder no more
a.m.表示“上午”
a.m. stands for “ ante meridiem, ”
在拉丁语中是“午前”的意思
which is Latin for “ before midday ”;
p.m表示“下午”
p.m. stands for “ post meridiem,
在拉丁语中是“午后”的意思
which in Latin for “after midday”
太简单了
simple
真心希望你能觉得这个视频有意思
So I really hope you found their video interesting if you did
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please do give us a thumbs up below
也不要忘了订阅我们哦
and do not forget to subscribe
就像附在下面被我称为“高亮历史”的
we’ve got brand new videos just like this every day of the week
一个介绍了今天提及的历史事件的新节目一样
also a new channel from me call highlight history is linked below
我们有很多新的视频
it is sort of it today in history thing
去看看吧 让我知道你的想法
so go check that out, let me know what you think
像往常一样 谢谢您的观看
and always, thank you for watching.

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视频概述

本片段介绍了时钟的发明史,以及在没有时钟的日子里,人们是如何生活的。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

一千九

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0iapjPp_zog

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