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希特勒是怎么走向权力巅峰的? – 译学馆
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希特勒是怎么走向权力巅峰的?

How did Hitler rise to power? - Alex Gendler and Anthony Hazard

阿道夫•希特勒
How did Adolf Hitler,
一个精心策划了人类历史上最惨绝人寰的种族灭绝的独裁者
a tyrant who orchestrated one of the largest genocides in human history,
是如何在一个民主国家走上权力巅峰的呢
rise to power in a democratic country?
故事要从一战结束前说起
The story begins at the end of World War I.
1918年 随着协约国军队的成功推进
With the successful Allied advance in 1918,
德国意识到这场战争毫无胜算
Germany realized the war was unwinnable
于是签订停战协议结束了反抗
and signed an armistice ending the fighting.
当其帝国政府轰然倒塌时
As its imperial government collapsed,
内乱及工人罢工蔓延全国
civil unrest and worker strikes spread across the nation.
因害怕共产主义革命
Fearing a Communist revolution,
主要政党参与镇压起义
major parties joined to suppress the uprisings,
并建立了议会制魏玛共和国
establishing the parliamentary Weimar Republic.
新政府的第一件事
One of the new government’s first tasks
就是签订被协约国强加的和平条约
was implementing the peace treaty imposed by the Allies.
还要割让超过10%的领土并解散军队
In addition to losing over a tenth of its territory and dismantling its army,
德国不得不承担所有的战争责任并支付赔款
Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war and pay reparations,
这对其国家经济更是雪上加霜
debilitating its already weakened economy.
所有这些都被民族主义者和退伍军人视为耻辱
All this was seen as a humiliation by many nationalists and veterans.
他们误以为 若军队没有被政客和反对派出卖
They wrongly believed the war could have been won
这场战争本可以打赢的
if the army hadn’t been betrayed by politicians and protesters.
对希特勒来说 他坚信这些观点
For Hitler, these views became obsession,
而且他的偏执和妄想使他把这笔账算到了犹太人的头上
and his bigotry and paranoid delusions led him to pin the blame on Jews.
他的言论在社会上引起了很多反犹太人群的共鸣
His words found resonance in a society with many anti-Semitic people.
当时 成百上千的犹太人
By this time, hundreds of thousands of Jews
早已融入了德国社会
had integrated into German society,
但很多德国人仍把他们视作外来人口
but many Germans continued to perceive them as outsiders.
一战过后 犹太人的成功招致“颠覆政权和发战争财”
After World War I, Jewish success led to ungrounded accusations
的无端指责
of subversion and war profiteering.
这些陈词滥调般的阴谋论
It can not be stressed enough that these conspiracy theories
都是基于害怕 生气 以及偏执 而非事实
were born out of fear, anger, and bigotry, not fact.
尽管如此 希特勒以这种手段发现了成功之道
Nonetheless, Hitler found success with them.
当他加入一个小的民族主义者的政党时
When he joined a small nationalist political party,
其巧妙的公开演说把他推上了该政党的领导层
his manipulative public speaking launched him into its leadership
并逐渐吸引了更多的人
and drew increasingly larger crowds.
把反犹太主义者和民粹主义者的怨恨相结合
Combining anti-Semitism with populist resentment,
纳粹公开抨击共产主义和资本主义
the Nazis denounced both Communism and Capitalism
说它们是国际犹太人摧毁德国的阴谋
as international Jewish conspiracies to destroy Germany.
纳粹党一开始没那么受欢迎
The Nazi party was not initially popular.
他们在颠覆政府方面进行了一次失败的尝试后
After they made an unsuccessful attempt at overthrowing the government,
其政党被取缔了
the party was banned,
希特勒也因叛国罪被监禁
and Hitler jailed for treason.
但在大约一年后获释
But upon his release about a year later,
他很快又开始恢复(纳粹)运动
he immediately began to rebuild the movement.
随后 在1929年 大萧条爆发了
And then, in 1929, the Great Depression happened.
这导致美国银行从德国收回了它们的贷款
It led to American banks withdrawing their loans from Germany,
已经处于风雨飘摇中的德国经济一夜间土崩瓦解
and the already struggling German economy collapsed overnight.
希特勒利用人们的愤怒
Hitler took advantage of the people’s anger,
向他们提供了方便的替罪羊
offering them convenient scapegoats
并承诺恢复德国昔日的辉煌
and a promise to restore Germany’s former greatness.
当左翼反对派因内部纷争而分崩离析时
Mainstream parties proved unable to handle the crisis
主流政党已无力应对这场危机
while left-wing opposition was too fragmented by internal squabbles.
因此 一些失望的民众纷纷倒向纳粹一边
And so some of the frustrated public flocked to the Nazis,
短短两年间 使其国会得票数从不到3%增长到超过18%
increasing their parliamentary votes from under 3% to over 18% in just two years.
1932年 希特勒竞选总统
In 1932, Hitler ran for president,
输给了战功彪炳的英雄冯•兴登堡将军
losing the election to decorated war hero General von Hindenburg.
但获得选票的36% 希特勒已经证明了自己的支持度
But with 36% of the vote, Hitler had demonstrated the extent of his support.
接下来的一年 顾问和商业领袖们
The following year, advisors and business leaders
说服兴登堡认命希特勒为总理
convinced Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor,
希望能够借助其影响力达到他们自己的目的
hoping to channel his popularity for their own goals.
尽管总理只是国会的行政首脑
Though the Chancellor was only the administrative head of parliament,
但希特勒稳步扩大手中的权力
Hitler steadily expanded the power of his position.
同时 他的支持者组成了准军事化的集团
While his supporters formed paramilitary groups
并在大街上殴打反对者
and fought protestors in streets.
希特勒激起大众对共产主义的恐惧
Hitler raised fears of a Communist uprising
并宣称只有他能恢复法律和秩序
and argued that only he could restore law and order.
之后在1933年
Then in 1933,
一名年轻的工人因向国会大楼纵火被定罪
a young worker was convicted of setting fire to the parliament building.
希特勒借此事说服政府
Hitler used the event to convince the government
授权他便宜行事的权力
to grant him emergency powers.
在大约几个月内 新闻自由被废除了
Within a matter of months, freedom of the press was abolished,
其他政党被解散了
other parties were disbanded,
反犹太法律被通过了
and anti-Jewish laws were passed.
很多希特勒早期激进的支持者都被逮捕并处死
Many of Hitler’s early radical supporters were arrested and executed,
潜在的对手同样如此
along with potential rivals,
兴登堡总统在1934年8月逝世后
and when President Hindenburg died in August 1934,
显而易见 不会再有新的选举
it was clear there would be no new election.
令人不安地 很多希特勒早期的措施也不再遮掩
Disturbingly, many of Hitler’s early measures didn’t require mass repression.
他的演讲激起人们的恐惧和愤怒
His speeches exploited people’s fear and ire
促使人们支持他和纳粹党
to drive their support behind him and the Nazi party.
同时 商人和知识分子
Meanwhile, businessmen and intellectuals,
想在公众舆论中明哲保身
wanting to be on the right side of public opinion,
(选择)支持希特勒
endorsed Hitler.
他们彼此担保说
They assured themselves and each other
希特勒的极端言辞只是作秀而已
that his more extreme rhetoric was only for show.
几十年后 希特勒的崛起仍在警醒着人们
Decades later, Hitler’s rise remains a warning
民主政权在面对愤怒的大众时是如此的脆弱
of how fragile democratic institutions can be in the face of angry crowds
以及领袖是如何利用和放大这种愤怒的
and a leader willing to feed their anger and exploit their fears.

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视频概述

希特勒“发家史”过程,以及这留给后人什么样样的警示。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

启点—飞雪群山

审核员

审核团1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jFICRFKtAc4

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