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夏威夷岛链是如何形成的 – 译学馆
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夏威夷岛链是如何形成的

How Did Hawaii Form?

夏威夷坐落在太平洋的中央
Hawaii sits in the middle of the Pacific Ocean,
并不靠近任何通常会有火山
and nowhere near the edge of a tectonic plate
的构造板块上
where volcanoes are usually found.
那么这些火山又是
So how did the island chain form
如何形成岛链的呢
with all of its volcanoes?
夏威夷岛屿链位于一个热区上方
The island chain is located over a hotspot
炽热的岩石地幔柱终年为夏威夷岛提供热量
fueled by a mantle plume of heated rock.
地幔底部的坚硬岩石
Solid rock at the bottom
被地核加热
of the Earth’s mantle is heated by the planet’s core.
滚烫的岩石缓缓升起 推动地壳形成一个凸起
That hot rock slowly rises and pushes up the crust, forming a bulge.
在凸起的地壳下面 一些岩石融化成岩浆
Under that bulge, some of the rock melts intomagma.
岩浆通过地壳的裂缝流向地表
Magma makes its way to the surface through cracks in the crust.
一旦岩浆流出地表就成为了火山熔岩
Once it’s above ground, it’s known aslava.
夏威夷火山产生的熔岩 由融化的玄武岩构成
Hawaiian volcanoes produce lava flows made
这种熔岩相较于由喷发性火山产生的熔岩
of melted basalt, which is more liquid than
如圣海伦斯火山 更具有流动性
lava produced by more explosive volcanoeslike Mt. Saint Helens.
玄武质熔岩流形成的火山具有较缓的斜坡
Basaltic lava flows form volcanoes with gentlysloping sides.
有时在活火山顶部可以看到一个液态熔岩湖
A lake of liquid lava can sometimes be seen
比如基拉韦厄火山
at the top of active volcanoes, like Kilauea.
有时岩浆可以从地低流到
Sometimes the magma can flow underground to
主喷口的侧面 然后从裂缝中喷发出来
the sides of the main vent and erupt
这些地面裂缝被称为熔岩裂隙
out of cracks in the ground called fissures.
当岩浆与海水接触凝固时 岛屿地面就会增长
When lava meets ocean the island grows,
但你一定不想靠得太近
but you may not want to get too close.
因为那些蒸汽由盐酸和火山岩烟尘混合而成
That steam is hydrochloric acid laced with tiny shards of volcanic glass.
太平洋板块正在向西北移动
The Pacific plate is moving to the northwest,
带动地壳移动到热区上方
dragging the crust over the hotspot and creating
从而形成岛屿
islands as it goes.
热区也可能自主移动
The hotspot itself might be moving too.
位于夏威夷最西北部的岛链的
The volcanoes on Niihau and Kauai,
尼豪岛和考艾岛的火山
the northwesternmost islands in the chain, are about five million
已经有500万年的历史了
years old.
夏威夷上最大的岛屿也是最年轻的岛屿
The big island of Hawaii is the youngest and started forming
大约形成于四十万年前
about 400,000 years ago.
仍在不断的变化中 并且有四座活火山
It’s still changing, and is home to fouractive volcanoes.
最终最大的岛屿将不再位于热点上方
Eventually the big island will no longer be over the hotspot,
一个新的小岛将会生成
and a new island will grow
在它旁边
next to it.
但是地图暂时还不需要更新
But maps won’t need updating for a while
因为罗希海底火山
Loihi won’t break the ocean’s surface
在未来约二十万年内都不会浮出海面
for another 200,000 years, give or take.
科学美国人 我是凯尔西·肯尼迪
For Scientific American, I’m Kelsey Kennedy.

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视频概述

简单介绍了热区的形成,热区与地壳之间相互作用形成火山;岩浆凝固逐渐形成夏威夷岛屿链的过程。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LdlEufZop-Y

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