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海洋究竟有多深? – 译学馆
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海洋究竟有多深?

How Deep Is Ocean in Reality?

人类好奇心总是驱使我们探索未知
Curious humanity always seeks to become acquainted with that which is unknown.
我们花费了大量的精力和财力
With great vigor and much expense,
努力探索宇宙中最遥远的星系
we endeavor to glimpse the most distant galaxies in our universe.
但有时我们却忘记了自然界中最神秘的地方
But we sometimes forget that one of the biggest mysteries in all of nature
我指的是真实的自然界
in the truest sense of the word
就在地球上
is right here on earth.
我说的便是海洋世界
I’m speaking of the world ocean,
它是一片庞大的水体 包含太平洋
a vast body of water consisting of the Pacific,
大西洋 印度洋和北冰洋
Atlantic, Indian and Arctic oceans combined.
海洋面积3.61亿平方公里
These waters occupy 361 million km².
占地球表面积的71%
They make up about 71% of the Earth’s surface.
难以置信的是
And it’s hard to believe
海洋面积仅有2%到5%为世人所知
but only about between 2-5% of them have been explored.
难怪科学家们会开玩笑说
It’s no surprise then that scientists joke
人类对海洋的了解
that our knowledge of this Earth spanning pond
还不如对月球背面的了解得多
is less than that the of the dark side of the Moon.
我们真的知道海洋究竟有多深吗?
Do we really know then to what depths this abyss actually reaches?
近年来 人类已经揭开了
In recent times, humans have uncovered
海洋的诸多秘密
a number of mysteries in this oceanic waters.
人们发现在深海里有水下河流
It turns out that there are real underwater rivers deep inside.
水下河流中有甲烷 硫化氢
They consist of methane, hydrogen sulfide
和其它从地裂缝中排出的气体
and other gases that transpire through the cracks in the terrain.
不管你信不信 海洋中甚至还有瀑布
And there are even waterfalls in the ocean, believe it or not.
目前已知有七个瀑布
There are seven known as of today.
其中最大的瀑布高度超过4000米
The largest one has a height of more than 4000 meters
它最后流入丹麦海峡底部
and ends up crashing to the bottom of the Danish straits.
有时 海洋会出现神秘的乳海现象
Sometimes these delightfully named and mysterious
这个名字很可爱
milk seas appear in our oceans.
有观点认为
According to one view,
乳海的出现是因为发光细菌聚集
they arise due to the build-up of luminescent bacteria
这会让水体出现发光现象
which create the illusion of glowing water.
在海洋深处
In the depth of the ocean,
科学家发现了众多令人惊讶的海洋生物
scientists have found a multitude of astonishing creatures.
在海洋底部 这些生物猎食时
At the bottom, searching for victims,
鲈鱼会利用像鹈鹕嘴一样的巨型鱼嘴
the Jewfish filter out young juvenile fish from water
过滤掉水中的小鱼
with the help of giant pelican-like beaks.
琵琶鱼表面凸起
Then there’s the fishangler covered in outgrowth,
它用细长发光的鳍作诱饵 静待猎物上门
waiting for pray with its own bait, elongated luminous fins.
螳螂虾只需啪地一下合上它的钳子
The prawn mantis needs only to snap shut its claw
便可吞食猎物
and dinner is ready.
令人震惊的是 它钳子的夹击力
Astoundingly, the sheer force of its pincer blow
相当于22口径子弹的发射力量
is equal to that of a 22 caliber bullet.
海洋里有许多神奇之处
There are miracles in our world ocean
魅力不亚于宇宙
no less amazing than cosmic ones.
海洋里有一些非常像黑洞的地方
There are something very like black holes here.
至少运动方式上相似
For example, at least in their method of action,
来自瑞士苏黎世高等技术学校的科学家
scientists from the Swiss Higher Technical School of Zurich
在南大西洋发现了这些怪异的洞
discover these oddities in the southern part of the Atlantic.
根据调查
According to researchers,
这些巨大的洞和黑洞非常相似
this giant squirrels are the exact mathematical equivalents of black holes.
水龙卷吸入海水
Water tornadoes suck the water inside themselves
就像宇宙中黑洞吞噬光和物质
in the same way as black holes swallow light and matter in space.
任何被吞进这个漏斗状地方的东西
Everything that follows into these funnels,
不管是垃圾 浮油 甚至动物
garbage, oil spills, even animals
都会消失在里面 再也出不来
disappears into them for the first and last time.
这些洞不停地闭环旋转
This holes continuously rotate in a closed circle
并吞噬任何落入里面的物质
sucking up everything inside
被吞噬的物质最后分裂成无数的微粒
until finally they break up into a million little molecules.
对科学家来说 发现了这些复杂怪异的现象后
For scientists, it’s easier to answer the question about the depth of the world ocean
回答海洋究竟多深就容易点了
after the discovery of such complex and bizarre phenomena.
确实近些年
Indeed in recent years,
海洋学家已经上上下下 前前后后
oceanologists have comed up, down, back and forth
对海洋中的每一角落和缝隙进行了研究
all the different corners, nooks and crannies of the waters of the Earth.
他们测得海洋的平均深度
They determined that the average depth of the world ocean
在3550-3750米之间
ranges from 3550 to 3730 meters.
但在这片无垠的水域下却有无底洞
But they’re also real bottomless abysses in this endless reservoir.
在这些地方 地面发生开裂
They are where the Earth itself is cracked open
它们被叫做海底凹地或海沟
and are called cavities or gutters.
其中最大的就是位于太平洋的
The winner of this contest belongs to the Mariana Trench,
马里亚纳海沟
located in the Pacific Ocean.
最新的测量显示
According to the latest measurements,
它深达11022米
its depth is 11022 meters.
想象一下 登上峰珠穆朗玛峰将会比
Imagine, it’s easier to ascend the peak of the greatest mountain in the world, Everest,
潜入“挑战者深渊”——海底最深处更容易
than it is to descend to its deepest place, Challenger Deep.
珠穆朗玛峰高达8848米
The height of Everest mountain peak reaches to 8848 metres,
但也仅是“挑战者深渊”深度的80%
barely 80% of Challenger’s depth
这样的极限深度而且是在水下
and being underwater at crashing depths
会让人类很难达到那里
makes it all that much more difficult to reach.
我们可以想象出“挑战者深渊”就是
We can use our imagination to see mountains in the abyss
深渊中的一座巨峰
that is Challenger Deep.
但实际上 我们曾无数次窥见
But in actuality, we have a number of times being able to peek at
这些深渊下都藏着什么
what is really happening at these great depths.
一支来自美国新汉普郡大学的海洋探险队
An American oceanographic expedition from the University of New Hampshire
在近期 借助特殊设备
with the help of special equipment
在马里亚纳海沟底部发现了真正的山脉
recently discovered real mountains at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.
另外 还发现了四个桥状的天然石质结构
In addition, there are four natural stone bridge-like structures
这些石质结构绵延69公里
which extend for 69 kilometers.
在海沟下还发现了Xenophyophres
Xenophyophores, giant 10-centimetre long amoeba,
一种长达10厘米的巨型阿米巴虫
have also been found inside the trench.
这种变异的阿米巴虫有着惊人的能力
this mutant amoeba have incredible abilities.
它们能抵抗铀 汞和铅对它们的影响
They are resistant to the effects of uranium, mercury and lead,
正如你所知 这些元素会杀死其他生物
which as you probably know, normally kill just about everything else that lives.
但如果一切并不是这样呢
But what if it all weren’t really so?
如果真正的海洋底部并不在马里亚纳海沟
What if the true bottom of our world ocean isn’t located in the abyss of Mariana Trench,
而是在俄罗斯一个普通的湖里呢
but for example, inside an ordinary Russian lake?
至少索尔涅奇诺戈尔斯克的居民
At least residents of the city of Solnechnogorsk
针对这个令人难以置信的可能性
have been discussing on social networks for many years
在社交网络上讨论了好几年
such an incredible possibility.
令人惊讶的是 2003年他们在当地一个
The amazing thing is that they found a life jacket
叫Bezdonneye的湖里发现了一件救生衣
in their local lake called Bezdonneye in 2003.
这是一件美国海军的救生衣
This was a U.S. Navy life jacket.
根据救生衣上的身份牌
There was an ID inscription on it,
这件救生衣属于美国海员萨姆·贝洛夫斯基
that was the property of a sailor named Sam Belovsky
他曾在考埃尔号驱逐舰上服役
who it turns out served on the destroyer Cowell
2000年时 在几千海里外的亚丁湾
which was blown up by terrorists in the year 2000
被恐怖分子杀害
at the port of Aden thousands of miles away.
于是便有传闻说那里可能是
That roused up rumors that the lake could possibly
海洋真正的底部
be the real bottom of our world ocean
而且也没人能测量那里的真实深度
due to the fact that no one has been able to measure its depth.
事实上 湖底暗流涌动 水喷涌而出时
In actuality, the bottom does flow somewhat and water emerges up
有时会带来意想不到的东西
through it and sometimes bring surprises
就比如说这件来自其它地方的美国救生衣
such as an American life jacket that come from other parts of the world.
但有没有可能 这一切并不是盲目猜测
But is there any possibility that this is not just blind speculation
而是有些根据的?
but something more serious?
在人类历史中
In the history of mankind,
科学家们不仅一次 而是不断地
scientists have confirmed arguments
证实了一些关于水的秘闻是真实存在的
in support of waterborne mysteries, not once, but repeatedly.
我们来想想水体本身
Let’s consider the case of water itself.
几世纪以来 人们都信奉禁止在
For centuries people have said that it’s forbidden to
在水边说恶毒的话
speak evil words near water,
而且一旦喝了这些听过恶语的水
and that in drinking it after it hears these words,
就会招惹灾难
you invite disaster.
这听上去很疯狂迷信
It may sound crazy and superstitious.
但几年前 日本研究者得出了这样的结论
But just a few years ago, Japanese researchers came to the conclusion
水能够吸收信息并转化信息
that water can absorb information and then transmit it.
我们说的话 不好的话或其他的话
From these words, negative or otherwise,
会使水分子发生变形
the molecular makeup of a liquid becomes distorted
继而对饮用者造成影响
and can affect the imbiber,
甚至可能造成伤害
possibly even causing harm.
但事实上 并没有更多权威的专家再提出
However, in our case, no truly competent experts have expressed the opinion
观点证明这个特别的湖是海洋的最深处
that this particular lake is the deepest place in our world’s ocean.
大多数海洋学家认为海洋最深处是
That award goes to the Mariana Trench
马里亚纳海沟
in the opinion of most oceanologists.
人们不仅通过仪器准确测量了它的深度
And it’s not just instruments that have confirmed its credible depth,
还不止一次冒生命危险潜入这深海裂缝里
people have risked their lives more than once in this deep sea crevasse
那里的海水压力是普通海洋的一千多倍
where the pressure is a thousand times higher than that in the ordinary sea.
首次下潜的人是美国人多纳·沃尔什
The very first time, it was an American Don Walsh
还有他的瑞士同伴雅克·皮卡尔
and his Swiss partner Jac Piccard
1960年 他们乘坐
who slogged down into the water
“特里雅斯特号”探测器下潜
in the Bathyscaphe Trieste in 1960.
他们在底部不仅见到了大量淤泥和粘液
They observed besides loads of dirt and mucus at the bottom,
大量扁平怪异的鱼
a number of flat eerie fish
还见到了一些庞然怪物的一角和影子
and the shadows and glimpses of some huge chimeras.
后来 其他探险者在这个地球最深之处
Later, other daredevils found fish with spider legs
还见到了长了蜘蛛腿的鱼和发光的怪兽
and luminous monsters inside this deepest place on the planet.
一个探险者甚至开玩笑说
One of the trench’s researchers even joked
即便在这片神秘水域找到巨型哥斯拉蜥蜴
that he would not be surprised if a giant Godzilla lizard
他也并不觉得惊讶
were to be discovered inside these mysterious waters.
但如果这些勇敢探险者错了呢?
But what if these brave researchers are wrong?
2012年 著名电影导演詹姆斯·卡梅隆
World famous film maker James Cameron
亲自潜入了这个无底洞之后
has argued against the shocking statements of his predecessors
他对前人提出惊人说法表示反对
after he personally visited the abyss in 2012.
他说在马里亚纳海沟时他感到彻底的孤独
He said that he was absolutely 100% alone inside the Mariana Trench.
那里没有任何的活物 更不要说怪兽了
The depths did not hide any living creatures, let alone monsters.
有一种彻底与人类隔绝的感觉
A feeling of complete and total isolation from humanity
这种感觉让这位勇敢的探索者和
became the most terrible fear for
电影导演感到极大的恐惧
this intrepid researcher and filming maker.
但假如那些探索者都错了呢?
But what if these brave researchers are wrong?
当然了 他们都潜入到了极限深渊
Of course they all visited the incredible depths,
但是还没有人到达过真正的海洋底部
but none could reach the true bottom of the ocean.
最近 一帮国际科学家得出了这样的结论
Recently, an international group of scientists came to the conclusion
海底实际上就像一个巨大的三明治
that the bottom actually resembles a huge sandwich,
“挑战者深渊”只是自然形成的
and the Challenger Deep only completes the very first and top layer
这块巨大三文治的最顶层
of this huge so called sandwich produced by nature.
因为偶然的机会 研究人员发现了第二层:
It was only by chance that the researchers stumbled across evidence of a second layer,
一片巨大的地下海洋
a huge underwater ocean.
研究人员对唯一一种生存在
The group was studying unique bacteria
地热温泉里的细菌进行了研究
that live in the depths in hot thermal springs.
这种细菌通过氧化硫化氢或者分解甲烷
They received energy by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide
获取能量
or decomposing methane.
研究人员发现这种微生物能够进入到
The researchers found that these microorganisms could
海床下五千米的地方
penetrate 5 kilometres below the seabed
所以他们猜想海水也能到达同样的深度
and so they realized the waters of the oceans must also reach to the same depth
因为很明显 这种细菌不能在水外生存
as the bacteria obviously can not live outside of the water.
这证明了 在海洋底部还有一片
It turns out that there’s another enormous pond
庞大的水域
under the sea bottom.
它像是一个水库
Apparently it’s a system of reservoirs.
充满了海水并连接各大洋
These reservoirs are filled with sea water and connected with the ocean.
似乎不只是这样
And like it’s not,
第二层的下面很有可能还有第三层
there is most likely a third layer of ocean sandwich located beneath the second.
很难想象 海底到底有多少层?
It’s somewhat difficult to imagine, but how many layers like this could there be?
又到底有多深?
And where might they lead?
但有一点是明确的
One thing is clear,
还没有人能到达海洋底部的最深处
no one has yet been able to reach the bottom of the deepest abysses of our world ocean.
假如我们不再需要去探索海洋的最深处
But what if we no longer needed to search for the bottom
将会怎样?
of the grand sea’s abyss?
事实上 我们美丽的海洋终有一日会蒸发掉
The fact is that our beautiful world ocean could just evaporate one day.
如果你相信斯蒂芬·霍金
If you believe Stephen Hawking,
那么由于气候变暖
due to the warming up of the sun,
海洋将在至少10亿年内被蒸发掉
this could happen in less than a billion years.
但由于我们对地球的伤害
But this catastrophe could happen in even 100 years
这场灾难也可能在百年内降临
due to our harmful activities on the planet.
如果我们继续糟蹋我们的地球
If we continue to further mess up our planet,
温度将会大幅升高
temperatures on our beloved earth will greatly increase.
温室效应将达到可怕的极限
The greenhouse effect could reach an incredible extreme.
地表水可能会被迅速蒸发
And all the waters from the surface of the planet could quickly evaporate
海底也会一览无余
Leaving the bottom of our world ocean clearly visible.
然而 人类无法在这样的环境中生存
However, mankind could not survive under such conditions.
但如果事情正好相反呢?
But what if quite the opposite happened?
全球的洪灾替代了全球干旱
A worldwide flood could come instead of a world ending drought.
当然了 我们的海洋总有一天会干涸
Of course our world ocean might evaporate one day.
但时间还很长
But it’s not going to happen anytime soon.
更有可能的是 在不久的将来
It’s probably more likely that in the near future,
海平面上升 海水倒灌进入陆地
sea levels will rise and flood much of the land.
科学家一直在强调 海平面一直持续升高
Scientists keep saying that the level of world’s seas is constantly climbing.
自1992年起 海平面上升了近8厘米
They rose almost 8 centimeters just since 1992.
海平面上升有两个主要原因
There are two main reasons for this.
水温上升和极地冰川融化
An increas in water temperature and the melting of the ice at the poles of our planet.
根据NASA科学家的最新研究
And according to recent research by NASA scientists,
海平面上升速度超过了他们之前的预期
water levels are rising even faster than we had suspected previously.
根据他们的预测
According to their forecasts,
到2100年 海洋深度
the total depth of our world ocean
将加深0.3-0.9米
will increase between 0.3 to 0.9 meters by the year 2100.
如果继续这样下去 海洋深度将持续加深
The ocean’s depths will only get deeper farther away if this process continues.
人类也将永远无法知道海洋的深度
And we humans will never get a chance to finish our research.
照这样下去
Under such a scenario,
所有岛国以及美国
all the island states as well as large areas of USA,
荷兰 意大利 德国 波兰 西班牙 日本和中国
Holland, Italy, Germany, Poland, Spain, Japan and China
这些国家的大部分地区将在本世纪末被淹没
will be under water by the end of the century.
残存的土地上将充斥着饥荒 战争和暴乱
Repatriation of the remaining of land, will be accompanied by world wide famine, wars and riots,
很快 探索和发现海洋最深处的秘密
and quite soon it will become impossible to find what secrets
也将是不可能实现的了
lie in the great depths of Earth’s world ocean.

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译制信息
视频概述

海洋深度

听录译者

ABC

翻译译者

Claudia

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4wBeWMTMKA

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