Curious humanity always seeks to become acquainted with that which is unknown.
With great vigor and much expense,
we endeavor to glimpse the most distant galaxies in our universe.
But we sometimes forget that one of the biggest mysteries in all of nature
in the truest sense of the word
is right here on earth.
I’m speaking of the world ocean,
a vast body of water consisting of the Pacific,
Atlantic, Indian and Arctic oceans combined.
These waters occupy 361 million km².
They make up about 71% of the Earth’s surface.
And it’s hard to believe
but only about between 2-5% of them have been explored.
It’s no surprise then that scientists joke
that our knowledge of this Earth spanning pond
is less than that the of the dark side of the Moon.
Do we really know then to what depths this abyss actually reaches?
In recent times, humans have uncovered
a number of mysteries in this oceanic waters.
It turns out that there are real underwater rivers deep inside.
They consist of methane, hydrogen sulfide
and other gases that transpire through the cracks in the terrain.
And there are even waterfalls in the ocean, believe it or not.
There are seven known as of today.
The largest one has a height of more than 4000 meters
and ends up crashing to the bottom of the Danish straits.
Sometimes these delightfully named and mysterious
milk seas appear in our oceans.
According to one view,
they arise due to the build-up of luminescent bacteria
which create the illusion of glowing water.
In the depth of the ocean,
scientists have found a multitude of astonishing creatures.
At the bottom, searching for victims,
the Jewfish filter out young juvenile fish from water
with the help of giant pelican-like beaks.
Then there’s the fishangler covered in outgrowth,
waiting for pray with its own bait, elongated luminous fins.
The prawn mantis needs only to snap shut its claw
and dinner is ready.
Astoundingly, the sheer force of its pincer blow
is equal to that of a 22 caliber bullet.
There are miracles in our world ocean
no less amazing than cosmic ones.
There are something very like black holes here.
For example, at least in their method of action,
scientists from the Swiss Higher Technical School of Zurich
discover these oddities in the southern part of the Atlantic.
According to researchers,
this giant squirrels are the exact mathematical equivalents of black holes.
Water tornadoes suck the water inside themselves
in the same way as black holes swallow light and matter in space.
Everything that follows into these funnels,
不管是垃圾 浮油 甚至动物
garbage, oil spills, even animals
disappears into them for the first and last time.
This holes continuously rotate in a closed circle
sucking up everything inside
until finally they break up into a million little molecules.
For scientists, it’s easier to answer the question about the depth of the world ocean
after the discovery of such complex and bizarre phenomena.
Indeed in recent years,
oceanologists have comed up, down, back and forth
all the different corners, nooks and crannies of the waters of the Earth.
They determined that the average depth of the world ocean
ranges from 3550 to 3730 meters.
But they’re also real bottomless abysses in this endless reservoir.
They are where the Earth itself is cracked open
and are called cavities or gutters.
The winner of this contest belongs to the Mariana Trench,
located in the Pacific Ocean.
According to the latest measurements,
its depth is 11022 meters.
Imagine, it’s easier to ascend the peak of the greatest mountain in the world, Everest,
than it is to descend to its deepest place, Challenger Deep.
The height of Everest mountain peak reaches to 8848 metres,
barely 80％ of Challenger’s depth
and being underwater at crashing depths
makes it all that much more difficult to reach.
We can use our imagination to see mountains in the abyss
that is Challenger Deep.
But in actuality, we have a number of times being able to peek at
what is really happening at these great depths.
An American oceanographic expedition from the University of New Hampshire
with the help of special equipment
recently discovered real mountains at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.
In addition, there are four natural stone bridge-like structures
which extend for 69 kilometers.
Xenophyophores, giant 10-centimetre long amoeba,
have also been found inside the trench.
this mutant amoeba have incredible abilities.
They are resistant to the effects of uranium, mercury and lead,
which as you probably know, normally kill just about everything else that lives.
But what if it all weren’t really so?
What if the true bottom of our world ocean isn’t located in the abyss of Mariana Trench,
but for example, inside an ordinary Russian lake?
At least residents of the city of Solnechnogorsk
have been discussing on social networks for many years
such an incredible possibility.
The amazing thing is that they found a life jacket
in their local lake called Bezdonneye in 2003.
This was a U.S. Navy life jacket.
There was an ID inscription on it,
that was the property of a sailor named Sam Belovsky
who it turns out served on the destroyer Cowell
which was blown up by terrorists in the year 2000
at the port of Aden thousands of miles away.
That roused up rumors that the lake could possibly
be the real bottom of our world ocean
due to the fact that no one has been able to measure its depth.
事实上 湖底暗流涌动 水喷涌而出时
In actuality, the bottom does flow somewhat and water emerges up
through it and sometimes bring surprises
such as an American life jacket that come from other parts of the world.
But is there any possibility that this is not just blind speculation
but something more serious?
In the history of mankind,
scientists have confirmed arguments
in support of waterborne mysteries, not once, but repeatedly.
Let’s consider the case of water itself.
For centuries people have said that it’s forbidden to
speak evil words near water,
and that in drinking it after it hears these words,
you invite disaster.
It may sound crazy and superstitious.
But just a few years ago, Japanese researchers came to the conclusion
that water can absorb information and then transmit it.
From these words, negative or otherwise,
the molecular makeup of a liquid becomes distorted
and can affect the imbiber,
possibly even causing harm.
However, in our case, no truly competent experts have expressed the opinion
that this particular lake is the deepest place in our world’s ocean.
That award goes to the Mariana Trench
in the opinion of most oceanologists.
And it’s not just instruments that have confirmed its credible depth,
people have risked their lives more than once in this deep sea crevasse
where the pressure is a thousand times higher than that in the ordinary sea.
The very first time, it was an American Don Walsh
and his Swiss partner Jac Piccard
who slogged down into the water
in the Bathyscaphe Trieste in 1960.
They observed besides loads of dirt and mucus at the bottom,
a number of flat eerie fish
and the shadows and glimpses of some huge chimeras.
Later, other daredevils found fish with spider legs
and luminous monsters inside this deepest place on the planet.
One of the trench’s researchers even joked
that he would not be surprised if a giant Godzilla lizard
were to be discovered inside these mysterious waters.
But what if these brave researchers are wrong?
World famous film maker James Cameron
has argued against the shocking statements of his predecessors
after he personally visited the abyss in 2012.
He said that he was absolutely 100% alone inside the Mariana Trench.
The depths did not hide any living creatures, let alone monsters.
A feeling of complete and total isolation from humanity
became the most terrible fear for
this intrepid researcher and filming maker.
But what if these brave researchers are wrong?
Of course they all visited the incredible depths,
but none could reach the true bottom of the ocean.
Recently, an international group of scientists came to the conclusion
that the bottom actually resembles a huge sandwich,
and the Challenger Deep only completes the very first and top layer
of this huge so called sandwich produced by nature.
It was only by chance that the researchers stumbled across evidence of a second layer,
a huge underwater ocean.
The group was studying unique bacteria
that live in the depths in hot thermal springs.
They received energy by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide
or decomposing methane.
The researchers found that these microorganisms could
penetrate 5 kilometres below the seabed
and so they realized the waters of the oceans must also reach to the same depth
as the bacteria obviously can not live outside of the water.
It turns out that there’s another enormous pond
under the sea bottom.
Apparently it’s a system of reservoirs.
These reservoirs are filled with sea water and connected with the ocean.
And like it’s not,
there is most likely a third layer of ocean sandwich located beneath the second.
It’s somewhat difficult to imagine, but how many layers like this could there be?
And where might they lead?
One thing is clear,
no one has yet been able to reach the bottom of the deepest abysses of our world ocean.
But what if we no longer needed to search for the bottom
of the grand sea’s abyss?
The fact is that our beautiful world ocean could just evaporate one day.
If you believe Stephen Hawking,
due to the warming up of the sun,
this could happen in less than a billion years.
But this catastrophe could happen in even 100 years
due to our harmful activities on the planet.
If we continue to further mess up our planet,
temperatures on our beloved earth will greatly increase.
The greenhouse effect could reach an incredible extreme.
And all the waters from the surface of the planet could quickly evaporate
Leaving the bottom of our world ocean clearly visible.
However, mankind could not survive under such conditions.
But what if quite the opposite happened?
A worldwide flood could come instead of a world ending drought.
Of course our world ocean might evaporate one day.
But it’s not going to happen anytime soon.
It’s probably more likely that in the near future,
sea levels will rise and flood much of the land.
Scientists keep saying that the level of world’s seas is constantly climbing.
They rose almost 8 centimeters just since 1992.
There are two main reasons for this.
An increas in water temperature and the melting of the ice at the poles of our planet.
And according to recent research by NASA scientists,
water levels are rising even faster than we had suspected previously.
According to their forecasts,
the total depth of our world ocean
will increase between 0.3 to 0.9 meters by the year 2100.
The ocean’s depths will only get deeper farther away if this process continues.
And we humans will never get a chance to finish our research.
Under such a scenario,
all the island states as well as large areas of USA,
荷兰 意大利 德国 波兰 西班牙 日本和中国
Holland, Italy, Germany, Poland, Spain, Japan and China
will be under water by the end of the century.
Repatriation of the remaining of land, will be accompanied by world wide famine, wars and riots,
and quite soon it will become impossible to find what secrets
lie in the great depths of Earth’s world ocean.