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孤独到底有多危险呢? – 译学馆
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孤独到底有多危险呢?

How Dangerous Is Loneliness, Really?

[片头曲]
[INTRO ♪]
孤独的感觉很糟糕
Loneliness stinks.
我们或许都有过孤独的时刻
We’ve probably all been there at one time or another,
孤独时是很无趣的
and there’s no really arguing
这点毫无争议
with the fact that it is no fun.
但是 研究显示
But it turns out
孤独可能有一套更加恶劣的伎俩
that loneliness might have an even nastier set of tricks up its sleeve:
它可能会糟蹋我们的健康甚至减短我们的寿命
It could be wreaking havoc on our health and even cutting short our lives.
嗯……什么?
Um…what?
互联网上到处都是关于孤独有多么危险的头条新闻
The Internet is full of headlines about how dangerous loneliness can be,
但要是说孤独能够造成比肥胖症更严重的公众健康问题
but the idea that it causes more public health problems than obesity
甚至真的能够导致死亡
or that it can literally kill you
那也太疯狂了
is pretty wild.
值得庆幸的是 事情或许没有
Thankfully, things might not be quite as dire
谷歌搜索告诉你的那么可怕
as a Google search might lead you to believe…
但是 孤独如何影响你的健康 这个问题是值得研究的
but it is worth taking a look at how loneliness can affect your health.
意识到孤独和社交隔离不同是很重要的
It’s important to realize that loneliness isn’t
社交隔离是指
the same as social isolation, which is the state of
脱离与社会和其他人的联系
being out of contact with society or other people.
独居或者自己度过大部分时间并不是一件坏事
Living alone or spending lots of time by yourself isn’t bad,
只要这种行为对你有帮助就好
as long as it works for you.
孤独更多是指在你想要的互动以及社会支持
Loneliness is more about the psychological consequences of having a
和你实际得到的东西之间的落差
gap between the interaction and social support you’d
导致的心理影响
like and what you’re actually getting.
当你思考的时候
When you think about it,
在进化学说中 孤独实际上是一种非常敏感的东西
loneliness is actually a pretty sensible thing, evolutionarily-speaking.
心理学家提出 孤独感可能和饥饿感的机制类似
Psychologists have suggested that it could fulfill a role similar to hunger,
它会督促我们去寻找社交伙伴
urging us to seek out the kind of social
以帮助我们生存并且传播我们的基因
companionship that helps us survive and pass along our genes.
但是当孤独由一种短期的状态——
But it can become kind of problematic when it
比如你刚刚搬家到一个新的城市——
stops being a short-term thing—like after a move to
转化成一个长期的状态 那可就是大问题了
a new city—and becomes a long-term one.
如今 统计数据显示
Now, the stats on how many of us struggle
在孤独中挣扎的人们几乎满大街都是
with loneliness are honestly all over the place.
还有很多研究显示在青少年人群中孤独的
But many studies have shown that rates are highest
比例是最高的 也有些人认为
among adolescents, and some have suggested that loneliness
孤独感会在人至晚年时 再次变得普遍
becomes more prevalent again very late in life.
最近在英国 澳大利亚和新西兰的调查
Recent surveys in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand
显示在青少年和青年人中有10~30%的人
have suggested that about 10-30 % of adolescents and young adults
在中年人中有10~15%的人都感到长期孤独
and about 10-15 % of the elderly experience persistent loneliness.
一项研究甚至指出孤独感是可以传染的
One study even suggested that loneliness can be contagious.
换句话说 知道了你的朋友们和邻居们有多孤独
In other words, how lonely your friends and neighbors
就能预测你未来会有多孤独
are can predict your future loneliness,
这也许是因为孤独的人们会疏远周围的人
maybe because lonely people tend to pull away from others.
所以 这是很厉害的
So, you know, that’s great.
尽管如此 确定孤独感的
Even though it might be hard to pin down
普遍程度还是很难
exactly how common loneliness is,
有很多证据表明孤独感
there’s actually quite a lot of evidence that it’s
导致了相当数量的健康问题
linked to a number of health problems.
孤独会导致
It’s been associated with higher levels of
压力荷尔蒙皮质醇水平和血压升高
the stress hormone cortisol, higher blood pressure,
并且会增加患心脏病的危险
and increased risk of heart disease.
还能导致人体内控制炎症反应的基因
It’s also been linked to lower activity in
处于低活性状态
genes that reduce inflammation,
甚至导致痴呆
and even to dementia.
但是在这种情况下 我们尚不清楚
But in that case, it’s not clear
究竟是孤独导致了这些问题
if loneliness causes the condition
还是这些问题导致了孤独
or if the condition itself causes loneliness.
孤独还意味着
Loneliness can also mean
我们平时所做的保护自身健康的行为变得低效
that the things we normally do to protect our health are less effective.
举个例子 它会让我们失眠
For example, it can predict poorer sleep
并且让我们变得不爱锻炼
and make us less likely to exercise.
一项2005年针对83名大学新生的研究还发现
A 2005 study of 83 college freshmen also found that the
孤独感强烈的学生们的免疫系统
immune systems of the students with the highest levels of loneliness
对疫苗成分的应对反应更加低效
were less responsive to certain components of vaccinations.
甚至还有一些证据显示
And yes, there’s even some evidence that loneliness
孤独和英年早逝有关 但是要清楚
is linked to dying sooner, although to be clear,
这条仍在讨论中
the jury’s still out on that one.
好吧 这已经很多了
Yeah, so that’s a lot.
但是究竟是什么导致孤独感对我们有如此大的杀伤力呢?
But what could possibly make loneliness havesuch a powerful effect on us?
目前 还没有很多
Right now, there isn’t a lot of
长期观察同类型的人的实验数据
data looking at the same individuals over a long time,
所以还不能确定孤独导致健康问题的机理
which makes it hard to say for sure.
但是普遍接受的假设是 孤独感与压力增大
But the generally accepted hypothesis has to do
以及停止我们保护自身健康的行为有关
with loneliness’ability to increase stress and shut down those protective health behaviors.
进化学中的观点是
The idea is that, in an evolutionary sense,
社交隔离类似于没有安全保障
social isolation is similar to being unsafe.
周围没有保护和支持你的人
There’s no one around to support or protect you,
对早期人类来说是个坏消息
which would have been bad news for early humans,
这将会触发人类的“战斗还是逃跑”机制
so it triggers all that fight-or-flight stuff.
激活HPA系统
It activates the HPA axis,
一个分散在你身体各部位
a system spread throughout your body that
协调血压调节并分泌皮质醇的系统
coordinates your stress responses and gets the cortisol pumping.
这使我们对其他的社交威胁过度警觉
This makes us hypervigilant to other social threats,
可能会使我们对其他人不友善
which probably compounds the loneliness problem by making us
从而加剧孤独感
not very nice to other people.
总之 “持续警戒”不能让疯眼汉穆迪交到更多的朋友
After all, CONSTANT VIGILANCE! never made Mad-Eye Moody many friends.
总是高度警觉还会让我们失去
Being on high alert all the time also takes away
控制自己行为的能力
from our ability to control our behaviors.
所以我们会离开健身房 高高兴兴去买些玉米热狗!
So goodbye gym, hello package of corn dogs! Which,
虽然我知道这些对你的健康不是很好
you know, I’ve heard is not great for your health,
即使它们真的很好吃
even if they are the best.
好消息是有大量研究
The good news is that there has been a substantial bit
与如何对抗孤独感和它导致的后果有关
of research done on how to counter loneliness and its effects.
谢天谢地 它比下面这些建议更有帮助
And thankfully, it’s more helpful than just, like,
走出家门交些朋友吧!
“ Go out and make some friends!
去酒……吧!
Go to the… bar!”
一项统计分析发现带有学习或者讨论性质的群体活动
One meta-analysis found that group activities with an educational or discussion
能够降低中年人的孤独感
focus could reduce loneliness in older adults,
心理学家们还建议我们去做志愿者
and psychologists also recommend volunteering
或者去帮助其他人
or doing good deeds for others.
或者你可以养只宠物!
Or you could get a pet!
众所周知宠物可爱又粘人
Obviously we all know our pets our wonderful and perfect,
还有针对中年人的合法研究显示
but there’s also legit research in older adults showing
“动物辅助治疗”能够减少孤独感
that animal-assisted therapy can reduce feelings of loneliness.
尽管互联网的名声不太好
Even though the Internet often gets a bad rap,
研究也显示在论坛上与人交谈也有帮助
studies have also shown that chatting in forums can help, too.
另一项研究显示
And other research showed that
基于图片和视频的社交媒体比
social media that’s based around images and video
基于文字的社交媒体使人们更加亲近
offers more intimacy than text-based social media
能让你和其他人有更多的联系感 所以
and can make you feel more connected to people.
你懂的 跟随我们的脚步
So, you know, just keep hanging out with us!
孤独一点都不好玩
Loneliness is never fun,
而且它看起来对你的身体也没有益处
and it doesn’t seem to be great for your body, either.
但是要走出消沉 还有方法的
But there are ways to get out of that slump.
就算你穷途末路
And at the end of the day,
寻求专业的帮助也永远不会错
there’s nothing wrong with seeking out professional help, too.
感谢您收看本期心理科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
人这种生物很完美但也很复杂
People are wonderful and complicated, and if you ’
如果你想知道是什么造就了现在的你
ve ever wondered why you are the way you are,
我们或许有你想要的答案
we might have some answers for you.
如果你想看到我们的更多节目
If you’d like to watch more episodes just
或者期待我们最新的节目
stay up to date when new ones come out,
你可以登录youtube.com/scishowpsych订阅我们的节目
you can go to youtube.com/scishowpsych to subscribe.
[片尾曲]
[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

孤独的危害

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdcDKpLUajs

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