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创造出第二个地球的方法

How Could We Create A Second Earth?

Hi 大家好!
Hi, there!
欢迎来到品生活!
Welcome to Life Noggin!
在大量耗费地球资源时
As we blow through the resources on earth.
很明显
It’s clear that
不久后 我们就会需要一个新的星球
we’re going to need a new plant soon.
但世界上并没有另一个地球
And since there isn’t another earth out there.
那有没有可能通过地球化来造一个地球呢?
Is it possible we can make one through terraforming?
地球化就是一个将不利于人类生存的环境转变成
Terraforming is the process of turning a hostile environment into
能够支持的过程
one that can support human life.
火星就是一个可能实现地球化的地方
And a possible place where this could happen is Mars.
毕竟 它就在那
After all, it’s literally right there.
很可能 它就是地球的一个很好的替代物
And it might be a good replacement for earth.
那么我们要为此做些什么呢?
So what do we have to work with?
火星的大气层很稀薄
Well, Mars’s atmosphere is really thin.
大概只有地球的1%吧
So only about 1% of what we have on earth.
而且还都是二氧化碳
And it’s carbon dioxide.
那对我们来说简直就是有毒呀
So toxic to humans.
而且 火星离太阳更远
Mars is also further from the sun
再加上它稀薄的大气层
and that coupled with its thin atmosphere means
这就意味着火星上温度差不多有63°C
it’s about -63℃.
太可惜了 朋友们!
So sorry, folks!
你们冬天的大衣也没什么用了
Your winter coats won’t cut it.
而且在火星的上方
On top of that
没有磁场
Mars also has no magnetosphere.
也就是说 火星无法抵挡辐射
So, no protection against radiation.
而且火星上的重力
And it also has about 1/3 of the gravity
只有在地球上的1/3
we feel on earth.
很明显 火星有很多地方还需要我们的改造
So, clearly there is a lot we need to change.
那我们先从大气层开始吧
Let’s start with the atmosphere.
我们必须要让它更厚 还要改变它的成分
We’d have to make it thicker and change its composition.
而在这个过程
One way to do this
我们将会引发温室效应
would be to trigger a greenhouse effect
来自太阳的所有热量都会被用来
making it so any heat from the sun is trapped
烘烤着整个星球
heating the planet all over.
我们有很多种方法来做到
We can do this in a bunch of different ways.
比如 我们可以利用二氧化碳和从火星的岩石中开采出来的甲烷
Like using methane mined from rocks on Mars
前提是我们有足够的量
carbon dioxide if we can get enough of it
甚至是用阿摩尼亚
or even with ammonia.
我们先把注意力放到阿摩尼亚一下
Let’s focus on that one for a minute.
我们可以击碎太阳系外彗星之上的富冰土
We could release that ammonia by smashing ice-rich comets
来释放阿摩尼亚
from the outer solar system.
既然阿摩尼亚大部分是氮
And since ammonia is mostly nitrogen by weight.
一旦我们利用植物来增加氧气含量
Once we add oxygen through plant-life
那我们就可以拥有和地球几乎差不多的大气层了
we could have an atmosphere pretty similar to earth’s.
有了更厚的大气层
And with that thicker atmosphere
大气压力也就足以
the atmospheric pressure would be high enough for humans
让人类生存
to possibly live.
有了这一步 大气层会让火星温暖
From here, the atmosphere will warm the planet.
那接下来的地球化工作
And the rest of the terraforming job
就更好处理了
would be a relative cake walk.
我们可以融化火星的极地冰层
We can melt Mars’s polar ice caps
然后就会有水了
and have water
有了这些水
and with that water
生命就可以在这有机会生存了
we can have the environment for life
对火星的土地要做些改变
make some changes to the Martian soil
还要在原本是红色星球的火星上建一个商店
and set up shop on the formally Red Planet.
等等 还有更多的问题等着解决
But wait, there is more.
还记得火星没有磁场这个事吗?
Remember the whole Mars has no magnetosphere thing?
原来它就是火星一开始没用大气层
Turns out that’s a big part of why
最重要的致因
Mars lost its atmosphere in the first place.
火星的磁场大约在42亿年前
Mars’s global magnetic field shut down
失去作用
around 4.2 billion years ago.
自那以后 太阳风和太阳强大的“氢弹爆炸”
And from there the solar winds and powerful sun explosions
剥夺了大部分的大气层
stript away most of the atmosphere
还将其传送到了太空中
sending it off into space.
这并不是好事
And that’s not good
因为那意味着火星的岩石中
since that means there isn’t a trove of carbon dioxide
没有大量的二氧化碳来
in the Mars’s rock to release
引发温室效应
in order to trigger a greenhouse effect.
而且 我们制造的大气层也会因此
And also, any atmosphere we do add on Mars
并不长久
won’t last.
最后 它们同样会
Eventually, it would be shiped away
被辐射和太阳风弄走的
by radiation and solar wind, too.
但无论如何 火星上那微弱的重力
And whatever wasn’t would be hard to hold on to
根本无法让物体“站住脚跟”
with Mars’s weaker gravity.
所以 火星并不是最佳选择
So Mars isn’t the best option.
那我们来看看其它离我们最近的星球吧
Instead let’s check out our other nearest neighbour
金星
Venus.
金星的大气层非常厚 其表面温度约460度
Venus has a super thick atmosphere and temperatures around 460 ℃.
所以我们还是要对此进行很多改造
So we’d have to change a lot of that, too.
有一种方法就是用气体巨星上的氢气“轰炸”金星
One option is to bombard venus with hydrogen from gas giants
从而产生可以形成海洋的石墨和水
Creating graphite and water that would turn into global oceans.
这样可以溶解产生氮气
These would dissolve produce nitrogen
降低大气层的压力 让金星变得更像地球
and lower the atmospheric pressure to something more earth-like.
我们还可以将水星部分地球化
We could also terraforming parts of Mercury.
水星的北极地区存在水和有机分子
There’s water and organic molecules in the northern polar region.
用镜子反射太阳光加热火山口底部
So heating the bottoms of big craters with mirrors
可以将冰融化
could melt the ice.
在其上方再加个屋顶
And adding a dome on top
就可以在这个不利于生存的星球上创建出一个自由的生活泡泡
could create a literal life bubble on a hostile planet.
同样的方法也可以运用到月球
The same thing could be done on the moon, too.
多希望那个生活泡泡里有WiFi
Hopefully, that life bubble has WiFi.
所以 我们不希望你错过品生活
We don’t want you to miss out on Life Noggin.
我们或许可以将木卫二地球化
We can maybe terraform Europa.
嗯 确实有点可能
Well, sort of.
如果我们可以融化其表层的冰
If we could melt the surface ice.
释放一些氧气融入大气层里
Some of the released oxygen could populate the atmosphere.
人类也就能拥有一个“水世界”
And we could have a Water World on our hands, people.
我们甚至还有可能将土卫六也地球化
And it’s even possible to terraforming Titan, too.
同样地 我们还是要创造氧气
But we would also have to create oxygen
减少它的大气层对人类的危害
and make the moon less toxic to humans.
但这真的很难实现
But all this is really hard
把它运用到未来也还远着呢
and really far off into the future.
嗯 我确实想把宇宙中另一个地方
Well, I’d love to call another place in this universe
称作我的家
my home.
但现在我们应该要保护我们现在所拥有的地球
We should probably just protect the earth we have now.
你觉得呢?
So what do you think?
我们应不应该开始把其他的星球地球化?
Should we start terraforming other planets?
这个视频的原稿是由宇宙史学家Amy Shira Teite编纂的
This story was written by space historian, Amy Shira Teite.
每个星期她都会在她的频道里录制新的视频
She makes new videos every week on her channel.
你一定要好好去看看
And you have to check them out.
如果你现在可以看 说明栏处有这个的链接
There’s a link in the description if you are on mobo.
美国该被人造卫星的发射完全蒙住了双眼吗?
Should the U.S be completely blindsighted by the launch of Sputnik?
那为什么Gemini发射的东西
Why is it the Gemini launches look nothing like
一点都不像我们以前看到的?
any of the other launches we use to see?
美国国家航空和宇宙航行局到底做了什么调整
What changes did NASA make to avoid
从而避免了阿波罗13号近乎毁灭性的灾难再度上演?
a repeat of Apollo 13’s near fatal disaster?
这两架宇宙飞船究竟是怎样
How did these two spacecraft
合并成了现在的这架?
actually dock up to become this one spacecraft?
美国国家航天和宇宙航行局又是怎样拍摄到尼尔·阿姆斯特朗走在阶梯上
How did NASA get pictures of Neil Armstrong walking down
如果是在当时没有人
on the module’s ladder if there was nobody
到月球上操作好了相机的情况下?
already on the moon to operate the camera?
如果你现在可以看的话 说明栏处有链接
There’s a link in the description if you are on mobo.
我是方块人
As always, I’m Blocko.
这里是品生活
This has been Life Noggin.
不要忘了
Don’t forget…
要一直思考着
…to keep on thinking.

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视频概述
听录译者

WeiRan

翻译译者

ONLY

审核员

【MO】CrazyCandy

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peVJ2BtrtuY

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