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卢旺达大屠杀是如何发生的? – 译学馆
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卢旺达大屠杀是如何发生的?

How could the Rwandan genocide happen? - BBC Africa

25年前 短短100天内
25 years ago, over the course of just 100 days,
约80万人在卢旺达被胡图族极端分子屠杀了
about 800,000 people were slaughtered in Rwanda by ethnic Hutu extremists.
我叫维多利亚·沃昆妲
My name is Victoria Uwonkunda.
我是BBC非洲的一名记者
I’m a journalist with BBC Africa
我想解释下这次大屠杀是怎么发生的
and I want to explain how this genocide happened.
想要了解大屠杀是怎么发生的
To understand how the genocide came about,
我们要先了解下这里的民族
we need to know a bit about the people.
卢旺达有两个主要的民族
There are two main ethnic groups in Rwanda: Hutus,
胡图族 占人口的85%
Hutus, who make up about 85 % of the population
图西族 人数少但是长久以来是统治阶级
and the Tutsis, who are a minority but have long dominated the country.
19世纪晚期欧洲殖民者到来之前
Before European colonisers arrived in the late 19th Century,
图西族主要给贵族放牧
the Tutsis were mostly
胡图族则是贫穷的农民
aristocratic cattle herders; the Hutus weremainly peasant farmers.
两族语言相通 大部分都是基督徒
The two groups share the same language and the both are majority Christian.
1959年 胡图族推翻图西族统治
In 1959, the Hutus overthrew the Tutsi monarchy and tens
成千上万的图西族人逃到邻国
of thousands of Tutsis fled to neighbouring countries,
包括乌干达
including Uganda.
数十年后的八十年代末
Decades later in the late 1980s,
在一些温和胡图族人的支持下
Tutsi refugees in Uganda –
乌干达的图西族难民成立了卢旺达爱国阵线
supported by some moderate Hutus
领导人为卢旺达现任总统保罗·卡加梅
– formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF),led by Paul Kagame, the current Rwandan president.
他们的目的是推翻胡图族总统朱韦纳尔·哈比亚利马纳
Their aim was to overthrow the Hutu President Juvenal Habyarimana
争取返回家乡的权利
and secure the right to return to their homeland.
爱国阵线在1990年入侵卢旺达
The RPF invaded Rwanda in 1990.
但是在1993年八月
But In August 1993,
经过数次攻击和累月协商
after several attacks and months of negotiation, a peace accord
朱韦纳尔·哈比亚利马纳和爱国阵线签署了和平协议
was signed between President Habyarimanaand the RPF,
但这份协议没能制止多年来持续的社会动乱
but it did little to stop the continued unrest.
随后发生的一件事点燃了大屠杀的导火索
Then came the event that sparked the genocide.
在1994年4月6日晚上
On the night of 6 April 1994 a
一架载着总统朱韦纳尔·哈比亚利马纳和布隆迪总统西普里安·恩塔里亚米拉的飞机被击落
plane carrying President Habyarimana and his Burundian counterpart
两人均为胡图族人 机上人员全部罹难
Cyprien Ntaryamira – both Hutus – was shot down, killing everyone on board.
击落飞机的凶手到现在还没查明
The mystery of who shot down the plane endures to this day.
胡图族极端分子指责爱国阵线
Hutu extremists blamed the RPF
并随即发动有组织的屠杀运动
and immediately started a well-organised campaign of slaughter.
而爱国阵线则认为飞机是被胡图人击毁的
The RPF said the plane had been shot down
目的是给大屠杀找借口
by Hutus to provide an excuse for the genocide.
数个小时内 一场暴力运动蔓延开来
Within hours, a campaign of violence spread
从首都基加利扩散到整个国家
from the capital Kigali throughout the country,
并持续了三个月
which would not stop for three months.
大屠杀的实施经过了精心策划
The genocide was carried out with meticulousorganisation.
军队掌握了反对者的名单
Lists of government opponents were handed
而后按表索命 屠戮满门
out to militias who went and killed them, along with all of their families.
邻居互相残杀
Neighbours killed neighbours
一些男人甚至杀死了图西族妻子
and some husbandseven killed their Tutsi wives,
他们说如果不这么做自己就会被杀
saying they would be killed if they refused.
那时候身份证上有民族信息
At the time, ID cards had people’s ethnic group
于是军队设置路障拦截经过的图西人
on them, so militias set up roadblocks where Tutsis were slaughtered,
用大砍刀屠杀他们
often withmachetes.
数千图西族女性被掳走当做性奴
Thousands of Tutsi women were taken away and kept as sex slaves.
这引出另一个问题
This leads to another question:
国际社会怎么能允许这样的事件发生?
How could the international community allow this to happen?
我们先看联合国
Let’s start with the UN.
实际上联合国和比利时在卢旺达有军队
The UN and Belgium actually had forces in Rwanda
但是联合国驻兵从未接到干涉和阻止屠杀命令
but the UN mission was not given a mandate to intervene and stop the killing.
驻卢旺达的联合国军队司令官
The UN force commander
向联合国纽约总部发了一封现在臭名昭著的电报
in Rwanda sent a now infamous cable to the UN headquarters in New York.
电报中他提醒情报处关于胡图族灭绝图西族的计划
In it he warned of intelligence about a Hutu plan to exterminate Tutsis.
当天他就接到了回复
A response came the same day,
科菲·安南 当时的维和行动负责人
from the desk of Kofi Annan, head of U.N. peacekeeping at
没有对这份警报做出任何指示
the time, failing to act on the recommendations.
三个月后 所有的警报被证明是真的
Three months later, all the warnings cametrue.
当时胡图政府的盟友法国
The French, who were allies of the Hutu government,
派遣了一个特别行动组去疏散当地国民
sent a special force to evacuate their citizens
不过人们谴责法国没有为阻止屠杀行动做出努力
but were accused of not doing enough to stopthe slaughter
卢旺达现任总统保罗·卡加梅
Paul Kagame, Rwanda’s current president,
控诉法国支持大屠杀发动者
has accused France of backing those who carried
不过法国政府否认了该指控
out the massacres – a charge denied by Paris.
同时 因为在一年前的摩加迪休之战中
Meanwhile the US didn’t want to get involved
美国有18名士兵命丧索马里
in another African conflict after The Battle
因此美国不想牵涉进另一场非洲国家冲突中
of Mogadishu, which lead to the death of 18 US soldiers in Somalia a year earlier.
所以为什么这次屠杀这么有组织性?
So what made the killings so organised?
卢旺达一直是阶级壁垒森严的社会
Rwanda has always been a tightly controlled society,
从每个地区一直到政府顶层
organised like a pyramid from each
像金字塔一样
district up to the top of government.
当时的执政党 MRND
The then governing party, MRND,
下面有一个叫做联攻派的青年党派
had a youth wing called the Interahamwe, which was turned
后来变成了实施大屠杀的军队
into a militia to carry out the slaughter.
武器和屠杀名单被发给当地组织
Weapons and hit lists were handed out to local groups,
他们准确地知道去哪里寻找目标
who knew exactly where to find their targets.
胡图极端分子建立了广播站和报纸
The Hutu extremists set up a radio stations and newspapers
来传播仇恨言论
which broadcast hate propaganda,
煽动人们“清除蟑螂”——意思是杀死图西族人
urging people to”weed out the cockroaches”– meaning kill the Tutsis.
组织有序的爱国阵线在乌干达军队的支持下
The well-organised RPF, backed by Uganda’s army,
逐渐占领了更多的领土
gradually seized more territory, until
直到7月4日 他们的军队进入首都基加利
4 July, when its forces marched into the capital,Kigali.
大约两百万胡图族人
Some two million Hutus –
包括平民和屠杀者
both civilians and some of those involved in the genocide – then
因为害怕被报复
fled across the border into DR Congo,
穿过边界逃到了当时的扎伊尔 现在的刚果金
at that time called Zaire, fearing revenge attacks.
还有许多人逃到了坦桑尼亚和布隆迪
Many also fled to Tanzania and Burundi.
两周后 7月18日
Two weeks later, on 18 July,
爱国阵线宣布战争结束 发布了停火声明
the RPF announced that the war is over, declared a cease-fire
任命巴斯德·比齐蒙古为总统
and named Pastor Bizimungu as president.
人权组织声称爱国阵线在夺取权力中
Human rights groups say the RPF killed thousands
杀害了数千胡图族平民
of Hutu civilians as they took power –
后来还进入刚果金追捕联攻军
and more after they went into DR Congo to pursue the Interahamwe.
爱国阵线对此进行了否认
The RPF denies this.
卢旺达现在是什么样呢?
What’s Rwanda like now?
爱国阵线领袖 现任总统保罗·卡加梅
RPF leader and current President Paul
因为推动了这个小国家的经济飞速发展
Kagame has been hailed for overseeing rapid economic
受到了民众的爱戴
growth in the tiny country.
同时他试图将卢旺达变成一个科技中心
He has also tried to turn Rwanda into a technologicalhub.
不过他的反对者批评他独断专行
But his critics say he does not tolerate
他的几个政敌都神秘死亡
dissent and several opponents have met unexplained deaths.
大屠杀这一罪行被审判了么?
Have the guilty faced justice?
超过一百二十万人因参与大屠杀
More than 1.2 million people were tried in local courts
而在当地法院受审
for their role in the genocide
在邻国坦桑尼亚的联合国法庭
and dozens of senior Hutu officials were convicted
许多胡图高层被定罪
at a UN tribunal in neighbouring Tanzania.
现在在卢旺达讨论民族是犯法的
It is now illegal to talk about ethnicity in Rwanda –
当局称这是为了避免更多流血事件
the government says this is to prevent more bloodshed
不过有人认为这种掩盖事实真相的行为
but some say it prevents true reconciliation
反而妨碍了两族之间达成真正的和解
and is just putting a lid on tensions,
未来可能会重蹈覆辙
which might only boil over again in the future.

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视频概述

本是同根生,相煎何太急。卢旺达两族人民,以至于世界所有人都要铭记这段历史 不要让惨案重现

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Joseph

审核员

审核员_BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVnOGsJY5RQ

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