ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

宇宙射线如何让宇航员看到星星 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

宇宙射线如何让宇航员看到星星

How Cosmic Rays Make Astronauts See Stars

高能的宇宙射线时刻穿梭在宇宙中并轰炸着地球
High-energy cosmic rays are flying through space and bombarding the Earth every day.
只是我们看不见而已
We just can’t see them.
它们也是宇航员在宇宙旅行中一个奇异的副作用的始作俑者:宇航员能够
They’re also to blame for a strange side-effect of space travel: mysterious flashes of light
用余光看到神秘的闪光
that astronauts see out of the corners of their eyes.
这就是所谓的宇宙射线可视现象 已经被报道了无数次
These so-called cosmic ray visual phenomena have been reported enough times that scientists
科学家们也在试图解开这个存在在宇航员眼球中的谜题
are trying to research what’s going on with astronaut eyeballs.
但是我们仍旧不能透彻理解为什么会出现这些光线
But we still don’t really understand why these flashes happen, or how exactly cosmic
或者说宇宙射线如何损坏人类眼睛和神经系统 从而更好地保护我们的宇航员
rays damage eyes and nervous systems, so we can better protect our astronauts.
虽然名为宇宙射线 但它们实际上根本不是光线
Despite the name, cosmic rays aren’t really rays of light at all.
它们是拥有极高能量的次原子粒子 大多数为质子或原子核
They’re extremely high-energy subatomic particles, mostly protons or atomic nuclei,
它们被抛射穿过宇宙空间然后轰炸地球
that are being flung through space and bombarding the Earth.
我们并不能十分确定宇宙射线来自何处
We’re not exactly sure where cosmic rays come from.
一个主要理论认为 在太阳系之外的放射性超新星
One main theory is that explosive supernovae outside of our solar system basically act
本质上像自然而又巨大的粒子加速器 可以产生宇宙射线
like huge, natural particle accelerators and generate them.
如今 地球磁场在很好地保护着我们这些地表住户
Now, Earth’s magnetic field is pretty good at protecting us surface-dwellers from cosmic
因为它可以使这些宇宙射线和其他带电粒子 例如那些来自太阳风的粒子转移方向
rays and other charged particles, like the ones from solar wind, by deflecting them.
许多这样的高能粒子都被围绕地球的环状辐射带所捕获
Lots of these energetic particles are trapped in donut-shaped bands around the Earth called
它们名为范艾伦辐射带 对任何在宇宙中漂浮的事物来说都像
the Van Allen belts, which are like radiation-filled minefields for anything floating around in
布满辐射的雷区
space.
我们设法确保将我们的轨道卫星和空间站建在
We try to make sure our Earth-orbiting satellites and space stations are nestled in the gaps
范艾伦辐射带的中间地带 以保证宇航员和设备的安全
between Van Allen belts, to keep the people and equipment safe.
但是在有一些区域 如南大西洋磁异常区
But there are certain regions, like one called the South Atlantic Anomaly, that orbiting
轨道卫星最终也只能穿过
spacecrafts end up passing through.
所以不幸的是 它们将被所有的这些高能粒子一起轰炸
So unfortunately they get bombarded with all those high-energy particles.
这些辐射对人类来说都不是特别严重 但却是让宇航员在地球磁场的保护层之外的空间
All that radiation isn’t great for humans, and is one of the biggest dangers of spending
耗费许多时间的最大威胁之一
a lot of time in space, outside of the protective blanket of Earth’s magnetic field.
所以NASA之类的组织非常关注宇航员的身体健康
That’s why organizations like NASA study astronaut health so carefully.
长期受到辐射也许会增加宇航员得癌症的风险
Long-term exposure might increase astronauts’ risk of getting cancer, and it has weird,
而且会对他们的眼睛和神经系统造成古怪的负面影响
harmful effects on their eyes and nervous systems, like increasing the likelihood of
如增加他们多年后患白内障的风险
cataracts many years later.
有些时候 当宇航员受到宇宙射线辐射时
Sometimes, when astronauts are exposed to cosmic rays, they even start seeing flashes
他们甚至每隔几分钟就会看到闪光 我们将这种现象叫做宇宙射线可视现象
of light every few minutes, which we call cosmic ray visual phenomena.
有些宇航员对这些光线尤其敏感 但是其他人从未表示
Some space travelers are especially sensitive to the flashes, while others never report
看到过它们
noticing them at all.
第一次对宇宙射线进行描述的阿波罗号宇航员表示它们多数看起来像点状
The Apollo astronauts who first described them said that they mostly look like spots,
但是有时也会以条状和云状出现
though sometimes they appear to be streaks and clouds.
它们非常明亮 明亮到甚至会让一些宇航员整夜睡不着
They were bright enough that they even kept some astronauts awake at night.
通过仔细查看阿波罗号宇航员的头盔 NASA研究者能够看到
By taking a close look at the Apollo astronauts’ helmets, NASA was able to see tracks left
穿过塑料质头盔的次原子粒子的痕迹
by subatomic particles passing through the plastic.
在20世纪70年代 一些地基科学家们进行了某些也许不太安全的实验
And in the 1970s, some ground-based scientists conducted some maybe-not-super-safe experiments.
他们让试验者在黑暗的屋子里看中子束 这样能在他们的视线中
They had people look at neutron beams in dark rooms, which caused similar flashes to appear
造成类似的闪光
in their vision.
一些更加现代的宇航员全副武装 配备带有宇宙射线探测器的特殊头盔
Some more modern astronauts are outfitted with special helmets with cosmic ray detectors.
当这些宇航员看到闪光时 他们会密切关注它们 来收集相关数据
The astronauts keep track of when they see a flash, to collect data on what types and
如最有可能产生宇宙射线的粒子可能是何种类型 在哪个能量层次
energy levels of particles seem most likely to cause them, and how often they appear in
以及它们在不同的宇宙空间中出现的频率
different parts of space.
所以我们确信是宇宙射线造成的闪光 而研究者们也希望
So we’re pretty sure that cosmic rays are the cause of the lights, and researchers hope
利用这些数据来想出保护宇航员免受宇宙辐射的更好方法
to use these data to come up with better ways to protect astronauts from cosmic radiation.
但是仍有一大谜团未能解开:我们不能确切知道当宇航员看到闪光时
But there’s still a big mystery: we don’t really know what’s happening inside astronauts’
在他们的眼球中到底发生了什么
eyeballs when these flashes occur.
一个可能的原因是切连科夫辐射 它能够造成一种蓝色光 你也许在核反应堆的照片中
One possible culprit is Cherenkov radiation, which causes the blue glow you might have
见过它们
seen in photos of nuclear reactors.
真正的高能粒子以比光在液体中穿行的速度快的速度穿过液体时
Cherenkov radiation happens when really energetic particles pass through a liquid, faster than
就能造成切连科夫辐射
light can travel through it.
这些粒子可以与液体中的某些微粒相互作用
Those particles can interact with some of the liquid molecules, which respond by emitting
这些微粒会以发射光量子——炽热的切连科夫辐射作为回应
some photons of light — the glowing Cherenkov radiation.
宇宙射线穿过眼球中的液体时能够造成切连科夫辐射
Cosmic rays passing through eyeball fluid could be generating some Cherenkov radiation,
在宇航员眼中就会看到光点与闪光
which astronauts see as spots and flashes.
另一个可能原因是宇宙射线产生的辐射可以与视网膜产生奇异的互动
Another possibility is that radiation from cosmic rays could interact weirdly with the
视网膜是位于眼球后部的组织 用于检测可见光
retina, the tissue at the back of your eye that normally detects visual light.
或者 宇宙射线可以完全避开正常视觉并穿过眼球
Or, cosmic rays could bypass normal vision completely and pass right through the eyeball,
直接刺激视神经甚至大脑的视区皮层
directly stimulating the optic nerve or even the brain’s visual cortex.
科学家们仍不能完全确定正确的解释是什么
Scientists still aren’t totally sure what the right explanation is, since it’s hard
因为研究在宇宙中繁忙穿行的宇航员的眼球是一件十分困难的事情
to do research on the eyeballs of busy astronauts in space.
造成这些闪光的甚至有多重原因 这也可以解释为什么它们看起来
The flashes could even have multiple causes, which would explain why they don’t all look
并不完全一样
the same.
宇宙射线可视现象与被流星碰撞或被太阳耀斑辐射比起来
Cosmic ray visual phenomena are ultimately a pretty minor issue compared to being smashed
只是一个微不足道的小事件
by meteors or fried by solar flares.
但是它们可能是宇航员眼睛甚至脑部损坏的一个原因
But they are a possible indication of damage to astronauts’ eyes or even brains.
而且如果我们要离开地球在宇宙中穿行
And cosmic radiation is one huge obstacle have to contend with if we ever do leave our
宇宙辐射就是我们必须要解决的一大障碍
home planet behind to travel the galaxy.
感谢收看本期宇宙科学秀 特别的感谢送给Patreon的
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space, and special thanks to our patrons on
赞助者们!
Patreon!
如果你想要帮助我们制作像本期这样的视频 欢迎访问patreon.com/scishow
If you’d like to help us keep making episodes like this one, go to patreon.com/scishow.
如果想要观看更多关于宇宙的视频 欢迎访问并订阅youtube.com/scishowspace !
And for more videos about the universe, go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

宇航员在宇宙中旅行时眼中会看到星星,这是为什么呢?会对他们有什么影响呢?欢迎收看本期视频寻找答案

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Zelery

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gn26xDLL5R4

相关推荐