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集装箱如何塑造了现代世界 – 译学馆
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集装箱如何塑造了现代世界

How Containerization Shaped the Modern World

片头音乐
(Music)
这年头,一切无处不在。
Everything is everywhere these days.
你去超市看看——中国的橙汁,印度的坚果,
Check out the supermarket — orange juice from China, nuts from India,
日本的剑鱼,捷克斯洛伐克的拉格啤酒,
swordfish from Japan, lagers from Czechoslovakia,
大量的欧洲奶酪。
scores of European cheeses.
不管你想要什么,全有。 可我小时候可不是这样的,
You name it, it’s there. Not when I was growing up.
你永远尝不到一些列的法国芝士,
You’d never taste a range of French cheeses
或者波西米亚的拉格啤酒。
or Bohemian lager beer.
至少,你做不到这些除非你非常有钱
At least, you couldn’t unless you were very rich
你可以去任何你想去的地方。现在,一切都变了。
and could go anywhere when the fancy took you. All that has changed.
但不仅仅是食物变了。有iPhone手机吗?
But it’s not just foods. Got an iPhone?
每个人都知道它是在加州的库比蒂诺研发和设计的,
Everyone knows it was invented and designed at Cupertino
但是谁知道
in California, but who knows where
它内部复杂的小零件都是在哪里制造或者组装的呢?
the complex bits and pieces of its innards are made or assembled?
苹果公司可没有告诉你。
Apple doesn’t say.
这个产业归功于中国,日本,德国,韩国,
The industry credits China, Japan, Germany, South Korea
当然还有美国自己。
and, of course, the United States itself.
想想看,每秒钟有数万亿的零部件
Just think for a moment of the trillions of parts
和制成品在全球范围内低价流通
and finished goods moving cheaply around the world
其中一小部分是通过空运
every second, a small portion by air,
绝大部分是通过海运。
but most by sea.
这被我们称为全球化,
We call it globalization,
但是那个把全球化带到我们生活中来的人
but the man who basically made globalization a reality in our lives
我们对他却几乎一无所知。这是他的故事。
is too little known. This is his story.
一个造就了你今天生活的人的故事。
The story of the man who makes your day.
在三十年代的大萧条时期,
In the Great Depression of the ’30s,
那时有数百万美国人失业了,比现在的状况还要糟糕,
when millions of Americans were out of work, worse than now,
马尔科姆 是一个24岁的卡车司机,
Malcolm McLean was a 24-year-old truck driver.
他得到了一个把棉包
He got a job to take cotton bales
从北卡罗来纳州的费耶特维尔一路
from Fayetteville in North Carolina all the way
运送到新泽西州霍波肯的一个码头的工作, 棉包会在那里被运到海外。
to a pier in Hoboken, New Jersey for shipping overseas.
他本来对这份差事感到很开心,但是当他到了码头
He was glad of the work, but when he arrived
他无聊的快要发疯了,他坐在他的卡车里
he got bored out of his mind, sitting in his truck
等啊等啊等啊,等着
waiting and waiting and waiting on the docks
工人们费劲的搬运板条箱,从其他的卡车上
as the worker ants muscled crates and bundles off other trucks
卸货,把货物挂在绳索上,升起来,装到船上。
and into slings that lifted the goods into the hold of the ship.
而在船上呢,
On board the ship itself,
装卸工们不断的叫喊,挥舞手臂,
with much yelling and arm waving,
把每条吊索的货物卸下来
the stevedores then unloaded each sling
然后看着这些货物放到船舱
and saw its contents placed in a designated position
指定的位置上。
in the hold.
马尔科姆不只是无聊,他气得冒烟了。
Malcolm wasn’t just bored, he was fuming.
他的薪水取决于他回到北卡罗来纳州
His income depended on getting back to North Carolina
装更多的货物在他的卡车上。
to pick up more loads in his truck.
挫败之中产生灵感。
Out of the frustration, inspiration struck.
这样不是很棒嘛,他想,
Wouldn’t it be great, he thought,
如果我的拖车可以直接被吊起来
if my trailer could be lifted
并且放到船上
and placed on the ship
同时棉包不用动。 对,这个想法太棒了。
without its cotton bales being touched. Yes, it would be great.
这将会是革命性的。几个世纪以来,
It would be revolutionary. For centuries,
非散装的一般货物都是以 他看到的这种方式装船运送的。
general non-bulk cargo had been shipped in the process he watched.
这被称作散货装船
It was called break bulk shipping.
箱子,大包,板条箱一件一件的处理
Boxes, bales, crates handled piece by piece.
马尔科姆的设想只能节省他一天的时间,
What Malcolm envisaged would have saved him only a day,
但是却能够节省其他人装船卸船
but it would have saved everyone else
大概两周的时间。
something like two weeks in loading and unloading the ship.
一般来讲,拖运和分配散装货物
On average, it was eight days
到船舱里需要8天的时间,
to haul and distribute break bulk shipments in the hold,
外加另外的8天时间
plus another eight days at the other end
在另一头取回和分配
to retrieve and distribute.
所有这些时间都可以节省下来
All that time would have been saved
如果马尔科姆可以直接把他的卡车开到船上
if Malcolm McLean could have just driven his truck onto the ship
然后从另一边把卡车开走。
and at the other end, driven it off.
今天,那个概念成为了现实。
Well, today that concept is a reality.
马尔科姆想到的那个概念
The concept that occurred to Malcolm
被称作集装箱化。
is known as containerization.
它不仅仅是节省了大量的时间。
It has done more than just save a great deal of time.
它让我们拥有了繁荣的全球市场,
It’s the reason why we have a thriving global marketplace,
这个市场为我们提供了无限丰富种类的商品,
offering us that infinite variety of things,
它也让我们能够在最低的成本下
and it’s the reason we can move cargo
从世界的各个角落运输货物。
from remote parts of the world at minimal cost.
马尔科姆在1937年有了他的那个想法。
Malcolm had his idea in 1937.
这个在霍博肯坐在卡车里的24岁卡车司机
The 24-year-old truck driver sitting in his truck in Hoboken
在40岁之前什么也没有做。
was 40 before he did anything about it.
但是之后,他把他唯一的卡车
By then, he’d built his one truck
建成了一个大型卡车运货公司。他从纽约花旗银行
into a big trucking company. He borrowed money
的一个有魄力的副总裁那里借了钱,
from an enterprising vice president at Citibank in New York,
着手设计铁箱和可以把
and set about designing the steel boxes and the decks of the ships
铁箱叠在一起的船甲板。
to carry them stacked one on top of another.
很多人认为他疯了。
A lot of people thought he was crazy.
发明家总是吸引大批的否定者
Inventors always attract armies of naysayers
这些否定者永远不会记得他们曾经有多挑剔。
who can never remember how critical they were.
至于我们,我们应该记住马尔科姆。
For our part, we should remember Malcolm McLean.
他的第一只集装箱运货船,理想X号,
His first container ship, the Ideal X,
从马诗街154号,
sailed from Shed 154
纽瓦克港口起航,
at Marsh Street, Port Newark
它装载了59个被装满的箱子。
with 58 well-filled boxes.
这是集装箱时代的开始,
It was the beginning of the container era,
它把世界变小的同时
shrinking our world
扩大了人类的选择。
and enlarging human choice.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gn7IoT_WSRA

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