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喷嚏有多强的传染能力?

How Contagious Is A Single Sneeze?

Narrator: Are you sick?
解说员:你生病了吗?
Don’t you dare sneeze on me.
别朝着我打喷嚏
Do you know how far your germs can travel?
你知道喷嚏里所含的细菌能传播多远吗?

Normally you hold about half a liter of fluid in your lungs
正常情况下 人的肺部中大约有半升液体
so when you sneeze,
所以 当你打喷嚏的时候
you’re able to spray as much as a water bottle’s worth
你会将一满瓶的黏液
of mucus into the air around you.
喷射到周围的空气中
It shoots out of your mouth
这些液体从你的口中喷出
in the form of moist, germ-infested clouds
形成潮湿且充满病菌的云状物
traveling up to 35 meters per second.
其传播速度可达每秒35米
That’s fast enough to give you a speeding ticket on the highway.
若以该速度在高速公路上行驶 足以给你开张超速罚单了
Once that cloud hits the air,
一旦该云状物与空气相遇
it expands, breaking up into snotty strings,
便会不断膨胀 并分散成线状的黏液
then a series of different-sized droplets
然后形成大小不同的液滴
all trapped in a turbulent gas cloud.
全部包裹在湍流的气体云中
One brave group at MIT discovered
麻省理工学院的某个团队发现
that the biggest droplets can travel up to two meters,
最大的液滴可以飞两米远
about the distance between your desk and two desks away.
大约为一到两张桌子的距离
But most other droplets,
但大部分液滴
those travel much farther, up to eight meters.
可以飞得更远 最远可达八米
That’s about five desks away.
大约为五张桌子的距离
Not only that, the germ-infested gas cloud
不仅如此 这朵充满病菌的气体云
is less dense than the air around it,
比周围气体的密度要小
so it rises upwards right to where ventilation systems
所以它会向上升
right to where ventilation systems
直接飘向通风口
and other people’s unsuspecting noses and mouths await.
以及毫无防备的人的鼻子和嘴巴中
Even though these are relatively smaller droplets,
尽管这些液滴的体积相对较小
they’re probably still teeming with harmful pathogens
但它们仍可能充满了有害的病原体
like the flu virus.
比如流感病毒
Even worse, depending on the ventilation,
更糟糕的是 凭借通风系统
they can spread through a room in just a few seconds
它们在几秒之内便会传遍整个房间
and remain suspended for up to 10 minutes.
并在空气中悬浮10分钟之久
Now, if you happen to notice someone around you sneeze or cough,
现在如果你碰巧发现身边有人打喷嚏或咳嗽
you can hold your breath as you move out of range.
你可以屏住呼吸直至撤离出感染区
But during the flu season,
然而 如果是在流感高发季节
that might not even be enough
这么做还远远不够
because there are danger zones everywhere
因为“危险地带”无处不在
especially on surfaces like desks, doorknobs
尤其是桌面 门把手
and steel handrails.
以及铁制扶杆的表面
It turns out the flu virus has been found to survive
研究发现 流感病毒可以在钢铁表面
for 24 hours on a steel surface,
存活24小时
and if you touch that surface
如果你不幸接触了这些被污染的表面
and don’t wash your hands before eating,
并且没有在进食前洗手
you may have just gotten infected.
那你可能已经被感染了
So, let’s say you go into work sick with the flu one day
假设有一天你得了流感 拖着病体去上班
and you start to sneeze.
然后你开始打喷嚏
Now, according to one study
某项研究表明
you’ll probably only infect one to two other people.
这时你可能只会感染一到两个人
You’re clearly showing symptoms of the flu.
你已经表现出了明显的流感症状
However, it’s gonna take a few days for symptoms
然而 你感染的其他人可能过几天
to show up in other people you’ve infected,
才会表现出此类症状
so those poor souls unknowingly
然后 在接下来的几天里 这些倒霉鬼
also come into work sick over the next few days,
在毫不知情的情况下继续带病上班
and they will potentially infect one to two more people.
他们可能会再感染一到两个人
In an office of 100 desks,
在一个有100张桌子的办公室里
this could mean 10 or 15 sick people by the end of two weeks.
这意味着两周后
by the end of two weeks.
会有10到15个人感染上流感
That’s over 10% of the office.
超过整个办公室人数的10%
And all of it started with just one sick person. You.
而这一切都是因为某个病人引起的 那就是你
All thanks to the germ-laden cloud
还要“感谢”那朵充满病菌的鼻涕云
you so generously shared.
是你慷慨分享给大家的
So, the next time you’re not feeling great
所以 下次当你感到身体不适
and you’re sneezing up a storm,
或打喷嚏时
just think about your poor coworkers,
为你可怜的同事们考虑考虑
and take a sick day
请一天病假吧
for yourself and for them.
为了你自己 更为了他们

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视频概述

打喷嚏在日常生活中极为常见,但你知道打喷嚏的时候细菌能传播多远吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

寇起风了璠fly

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MKAHNoni0KI

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