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我们离治愈艾滋病还有多远? – 译学馆
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我们离治愈艾滋病还有多远?

How Close Are We to Curing HIV/AIDS?

[特雷斯]在90年代 我们在每个当地新闻广播中都听说过艾滋病的流行
[TRACE]In the 90s, we heard about the AIDS epidemic on every local newscast.
我们当时不合理地害怕公共马桶垫 公共电话
We were irrationally afraid of toilet seats, pay phones,
甚至亲吻别人
even kissing people;
性行为变得
sex became
让人提心吊胆
scary.
虽然我们现在不再看到那些公共服务告示了
And while we don’t see those Public ServiceAnnouncements anymore…
但是艾滋病从未远去
AIDS hasn’t gone away.
它仍是一种全球性的流行病
It’s still a global epidemic.
直到今天 已经有超过3900万人死于获得性免疫缺陷综合征
Today, over 39 Million people have died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
以现在的药物治疗水平艾滋病患者可以过上正常的生活
Current drug therapies mean it ’ s now possible to live a normal life span with HIV,
但是这种治疗方法非常昂贵
but that ’ s expensive
而且也不是一个长远之计
and not a long term solution.
我们真正需要的
What we really need
是艾滋病疫苗和它的根治方法
is an HIV vaccine anda cure.
那么 我们离这个目标还有多远?
So, how close are we?
[特雷斯]只有一个艾滋病患者曾经被治愈了
[TRACE] Only one person has ever been curedof HIV.
蒂莫西·雷·布朗
Timothy Ray Brown.
在2007年 他当时正在进行癌症化疗
In 2007, he was undergoing cancer treatment
然后被治好了艾滋病
and was cured of the HIV virus.
专家们至今不知道其中的原因
Researchers still don’t understand exactly why
或者这是到底怎么做到的
or how.
[马戈利斯博士]治好了他癌症的东西结果也治好了他的艾滋病
[DR MARGOLIS] The things that he went throughto cure his cancer also ended up curing his HIV
那种治疗方法相当骇人
and the treatment was
并且还有许多可怕的副作用
rather dreadful and had many terrible side affects
致死率预计为70%左右
and had an expected fatality rate around 70%
[特雷斯]在与这种病毒斗争将近40年后
[TRACE] After fighting this virus for nearly40 years,
只有一个人被治愈了
and with only one person cured
还是个我们完全不能理解的侥幸
which was a fluke we don ’ t completely understand,
也无法复制 还很可能会使你丧命
and can ’ t replicate, and which could probably kill you
但是我们还是学到了很多
we still learned a lot.
一旦科学家们弄清楚了这种病毒是如何运作来攻击人体的
Once scientists figured out how the virus worked,
接下来他们就需要弄明白怎么去消灭它
they needed to figure out how then to eradicate it.
但是这件事说起来容易做起来难
But that was easier said than done.
要知道 病毒的核糖核酸
You see, the virus ’ s RNA
可以入侵你的细胞并且发生逆转录 以此改变你的DNA
invades your cells and changes your DNA.
因此 科学家们面临的挑战是找到一种可以杀死艾滋病病毒
So the challenge was finding a drug that could kill HIV,
但却不会误伤自身的细胞的药物
but not your own cells.
到了1996年 科学家们能够
By 1996, they were able to make advances
在抗逆转录病毒的组合治疗技术中有所突破
in antiretroviral combination therapy,
意味着得了艾滋病不再意味着被判死刑
meaning that HIV was no longer a death sentence.
就像打橄榄球 一群防守队员拖住一个前锋队员
Like a gang of defensemen dragging down a football player,
所有药物合力工作
the drugs work together
来阻止艾滋病病毒的蔓延
to stop HIV in it’s tracks.
在数百万的男男女女死于艾滋病之后
After killing millions of men and women,
这种混合式药物疗法能让人们过上相对正常的生活
this cocktail let people live relatively normal lives.
然后博士们可以有时间去寻找根治方法
Doctors could then take the time to look fora cure.
[格林博士]艾滋病病毒肯定还是在继续传播的
[DR GREENE] There’s certainly an AIDS epidemicthat continues.
事实上 它在全世界都大范围地传播
In fact, it is pandemic in proportions throughoutthe world
艾滋病可能是我们曾经有过的
[DR THUMBI]HIV/AIDS is probably the most
[汤姆比博士]最严重的公共健康危机
serious public health crisis we’ve had
在非洲撒哈拉沙漠以南的地区 在非洲地区 事实上在全世界都是这样
in Sub-Saharan Africa, in Africa, in the world in fact,
从一开始就是
since the beginning of time.
除了大量被感染的人之外
In terms of the numbers of people infected
还有它的大范围 以及它对社会经济的冲击
and the scope, the social-economic impact of the problem
[特雷斯]解决艾滋病的流传 我们需要疫苗和根治方法
[TRACE] To fix the AIDS epidemic, we needa vaccine and a cure.
一种可以防止艾滋病病毒传播的疫苗
A vaccine to stop the HIV virus from spreading
和一种可以根治艾滋病患者的方法
and a cure for the people who already are infected.
[汤姆比博士]在制作抗艾滋病毒疫苗中我们面对的最重大的问题是
[DR THUMBI] The most significant problem thatwe face in making a vaccine against HIV
病毒的遗传变异性
is the genetic variability,
也就是说 病毒看起来长一样
which is viruses are look similar to each other,
但却并不完全相同
but they are not all alike.
所以在制造疫苗时
And so in making a vaccine,
我们必须制作出一种疫苗 可以对抗所有的
we have to make a vaccine that would be able to protect against all the strains
存在于人体内的艾滋病毒
of HIV that exist in the body,
和存在于外界的艾滋病毒
but also that exist throughout the world.
[特雷斯]这就是为什么一旦感染了艾滋病病毒就很难被治愈
[TRACE] And this is why it’s so difficult toget rid of HIV once it infects your body.
记住 病毒的核糖核酸入侵你的细胞 使其发生逆转录以改变你的DNA
Remember, the virus’s RNA invades your cellsand changes your DNA.
抗逆转录病毒疫苗阻止了病毒 但却并没有杀死它
The anti-retroviral stops it, but it doesn’tkill it.
[马戈利斯博士]在未来 对艾滋病的治疗可能会变得更好
[DR MARGOLIS] In the future, treatments mightget even better
或者疗效的持续时间会变得更长 病患可以通过注射或者植入药物
or more long-lasting, where one could have an injection or an implant
药物的药效会长达几个月甚至一年
of drugs that lasted for months or even a year.
[特雷斯]现在有一些接种疫苗的试验成功了
[TRACE] There are vaccination trials goingon now with some success.
但如果你有关注科技新闻的话
But if you follow science news,
你可能已经想通了这个点……
you might have made this connection already…
这种病毒隐藏在我们的DNA里面
this virus is hiding in our DNA,
现在我们有一种新的基因编码技术叫CRISPR-cas9
and we ’ ve got a new DNA-editing technique CRISPR-cas9.
为何我们不直接使用这种技术呢?
Why don’t we just use that?
CRISPR-cas9使用一种叫cas9的蛋白质
CRISPR-cas9 uses a protein called cas9,
去切断任何它被编程去切断的基因片段
to cut DNA wherever it ’ s programmed to.
这是我们的细胞内在免疫系统的一部分
It’s part of our own cells internal immune systems.
蛋白质Cas9可以被告知去寻找特殊的基因序列
Cas9 could be told to search for a specific sequence,
比如艾滋病病毒的一小片基因片段……
like a bit of HIV…
如果它找到病毒
And if it finds the virus,
这种蛋白质就可以把艾滋病病毒切除出细胞
the cas9 could cut the HIV out of the cell,
然后让基因自行愈合破裂的片段
and let the DNA heal itself.
如今这种操作是可行的
This can be done today…
在实验室里
in the lab.
我们还不能把它应用在人体上
We can’t yet do it with humans.
用药物去控制艾滋病毒仍是一个
Drugs to control the virus are still the best way
过上“半正常”生活的最好方式
to live a semi-normal life.
[格林博士]我不能确切地说寻找根治方法需要多少年
[DR GREENE] I can’t say how many years toa cure,
但是我可以告诉你全世界有许许多多的人
I an tell you that there are many many people throughout the world
都在努力寻找最前沿的根治方法
that are working hard on new cutting edge approaches to a cure.
[汤姆比博士]说实话我觉得我们离目标还远
[DR THUMBI] I don’t think we are close, tobe honest, to a cure,
但我们一直在进步
but… but we are making progress,
而且我认为我们应该继续研究下去 我怀有着这种坚定的信念
and it’s my firm belief that we should continue to do research,
希望在未来我们会有一些新的科学发现
and hopefully we’ll have some scientific discoveries
会带领我们找到根治方法
in the future that will lead us to a cure.
[特雷斯]瞧 我们已经在这条路上走了很久 但我们还没到达目的地呢
[TRACE] Look, we’ve come a long way, butwe’re not there yet.
在与艾滋病抗争的研究中
The research into the fight
我们学会了许多关于我们身体机能如何运转的知识
against AIDS has taught us so much about how our body functions
这也教会了我们一些关于许多其他的疾病的知识
it ’ s taught us a lot about other diseases as well,
像丙肝或者寨卡病毒
like Hepatitis C or Zika.
每年 在与艾滋病作斗争我们都有新的突破
And every year there are new breakthroughs in the fight against HIV.
全世界的科学家都在夜以继日地解决这个问题
There are scientists around the world working on this problem day-in and day-out.
那么 我们离治愈艾滋病毒和艾滋病还有多远?
So how close are we to curing HIV and AIDS?
也许需要等待很久 也可能明天治愈方法就会被发现
A cure could be a while or it could be tomorrow…
动动手指头订阅本期节目
Take a second and subscribe How Close are we
来帮助我们照亮人类通往
to help illuminate humanity ’ s path to
其他重大科研发现的道路
other major scientific discoveries.
你知道男同性恋者经常拒绝献血活动吗?
Did you know gay men are often turned away at blood drives?
甚至即使是在血液需求极大的时期!
Even during times of severe need!
为什么?
Why?
在接下来这个视频中你可以找到答案
Find out in this video here.
最后 多谢观看《探求者》
And thanks for watching Seeker.

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视频概述

讲述了对艾滋病和艾滋病毒的治疗方法的进展,以及科学家们此的看法。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

桃都建木

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yROEorvz6NY

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