ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

我们离人类完整的大脑地图有多远 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

我们离人类完整的大脑地图有多远

How Close Are We to a Complete Map of the Human Brain?

想想人类潜心做成的那些事情
When you think about all the things humans have put their mind to,
真是令人赞叹!
it’s impressive:
我们制造出机器人登陆火星去探索太空的奥秘
we built and landed robots on Mars to learn more about space.
我们提出关于宇宙如何运作的理论
We conjured up theories about how the universe works,
并加以证实
and then proved them right.
我们对人类的基因组进行测序 绘制出完整的基因图
We sequenced the human genome to paint a complete picture of our dna.
然而尽管大脑使一切成为可能
But as for the minds that made this all possible,
我们仍然不太了解它们实际是如何工作的
we still don’t know much about how those actually work.
几百年来科学家们一直在研究
Scientists have been trying to navigate the mechanics
我们庞大而复杂的大脑机制
of our large, complicated brainsfor hundreds of years.
如果有脑谱图的话 对我们帮助会非常大
What would be really helpful is if we had a map.
为了得到一张大脑图像
And in order to get one of those,
我们需要一些勇敢的科学家
we’re going to need some brave scientists
和非常先进的技术
and very advanced technology.
那么 我们离绘制人类脑谱图有多远呢?
So how close are we to mapping the human brain?
如果我们能够建立一个完整的大脑地图进行转化
If we could build a complete map of our brain and translate it,
想象下我们能做些什么
imagine what we could do.
我们认为这可能会为我们提供有关
We think maybe that will give us clues as to the causes
各种精神疾病 学习困难 衰老疾病的病因线索
of various forms of mental illness, learning difficulties, diseases of aging,
这也许能更好地让我们弄明白 是否有治疗方法
and that might better allow us to figure out are there treatments
或者预防这些疾病发生的方法
or prevent the onset of some of those illnesses.
脑谱图甚至可以帮助我们 了解其他的科学奥秘
A map of the brain could even help us understand other scientific mysteries,
例如意识的起源
like the origins of consciousness.
我们的大脑很强大 如果我们深入了解它是如何工作的
Our brain is so powerful that if we better understood how it worked,
我们也许能够制造更智能的机器人和计算机
we might be able to create smarter robots and computers.
在我们的大脑中有这种技术……
There is this technology in our brain for…
实际上 每个哺乳动物的大脑中都有
acturally, in the brain of every mammal,
这让我们能够自主行事
that allow us to behave autonomously.
十分高效
It is very power-efficient.
人脑图谱被认为非常有价值
A map of the human brain is seen as so valuable
世界各国都在对此进行多项研究
that multiple efforts across the world are underway to get us there.
除了美国的一些大项目外 这个我们稍后会谈到
Aside from some big projects in the U.S.-we will get that soon,
欧洲委员会正在资助100所大学
the European commission is funding 100 universities
创建一个精细的人脑计算机模型
to create a detailed computer model of the human brain.
中国还推出了一个绘制大脑图谱的项目
China also announced a project to map the brain,
日本也不例外
and so has Japan.
甚至有几个私人项目专注于这一目标
There’s even several private projects focusedon this goal.
那当我们提及到人脑图的时候
So what do we mean when we say
究竟指的是什么呢 ?
a map of the human brain?
具体的说 我们在讨论关于
Specifically, we’re talking about
创建一个叫做“连接组”的东西
creating something called a “connectome”,
一个大脑中所有结构的完整目录
a complete catalog of all the structures in the brain
以及它们是如何连接的
and how they connect.
我们通常认为存在结构性连接组和功能性连接组
We typically think of there being both a structural and a functional connectome.
结构连接组就是
So the structural connectome is the white matter fibers
连接大脑不同部分的白质纤维
that connect different part of the brain
或连接神经元的突触
or the synapses that connect neurons.
我们称它是结构上的
And we call that structural
因为那里有一个可以被测量观看的
because there’s a physical synapse there
物理突触
that we can measure and look at.
我们设法找出更多连接大脑区域的路线图
We’re kind of making more of a roadmap of connections among brain regions.
也就是我们所说的人脑功能连接
But there’s also what we call functional connections in the human brain,
它有跨脑区协调的功能
which have to do with kind of coordination and function across brain regions.
可以识别大脑中
That means identifying parts of the brain
共同工作但未必有接触的部分
that work together but don’t necessarily touch.
我们还没有完全了解功能连接组
We don’t have any fully mapped functional connectomes yet
我们唯一完全解构的结构连接组是秀丽隐杆线虫
and the only structural connectome we’ve fully mapped is of “ C elegans”
一种大约一毫米长的透明线虫
a transparent nematode about 1 millimeter in length.
尽管我们已经研究过 但它仍是个复杂的机体
Even though they’ve been able to do that, it’s still a complex organism.
要了解它们如何相互作用
And there’s still a lot of work to be done
甚至秀丽隐杆线虫完成相对简单的动作
to understand how the interactions give rise
我们要做的工作还有很多
to even the relatively simple behaviors that the C elegans can accomplish.
秀丽隐杆线虫的脑连接组能识别302个神经元
The connectome of the c. elegans brain identifies 302 neurons.
如果研究 建立连接组这么复杂的话
And if researching and building that connectome was complicated,
可以想象 在人体含有1000亿神经元的地方做同样的连接
imagine how exponentially more difficult it is to do the same
难度会是线虫的指数级别
with humans who have somewhere in the region of 100 billion neurons.
庞大的规模和令人生畏的复杂性
This is probably the first obstacle scientists have to overcome
也许是科学家们绘制脑图要克服的第一个障碍
in mapping our brains — the sheer size and daunting complexity.
他们必须从小处着手 是真的小
So, they have to start small, and I mean really small — the
——他们研究的样本只有一粒沙的大小
samples they are studying are the size of a grain of sand.
在那颗小沙粒里 有10万左右的神经元
Inside that small grain of sand, there’s about 100,000 neurons
形成了大约10亿个连接体
and form about one billion connections.
所以现在你看 相较于这粒沙子
So now, you see our brain is more than a million times
我们的大脑大了不止一百万倍
bigger than this grain of sand,
你可以看到在这么小的空间里压缩了多少单位
so you can see how much units are compressedin such a small space.
大脑总是在变化
And the brain is always changing,
这使得研究变得更加困难
which makes it even more difficult to study.
我们出生时 大脑在发育生长
When we’re born, the brain grows over the course of development.
会有新的神经元建立
It builds new neurons,
我们一直在学习 在和周遭环境互动
we’re learning and interacting with the environment
这个过程也在塑造大脑的联系
and that’s also shaping brain connections
让大脑不同部分协调工作
and how different parts of the brain work together,
但是随着年龄的增长 我们步入晚年
but then it also starts to change as we get older
大脑也开始有变化了
and we move into later in life.
为了应对这些挑战
To tackle these challenges,
奥巴马政府于2014年启动了“大脑计划”
the Obama administration started the Brain Initiative in 2014,
几个科学机构一起探讨和治疗人类的大脑
bringing several scientific institutions together to understand and treat the human mind.
作为联盟的一员
As part of that coalition,
艾伦研究所正通过分析老鼠大脑样本
the Allen Institute is analyzing mouse brain samples
来统计连接许多不同的细胞类型
to count catalog and connect the many different cell types
为最终研究人脑打下基础
as a foundation for eventually doing the same for the human brain.
利用电子显微镜
Using electron microscopy,
研究小组对一立方毫米老鼠大脑皮层的
the team imaged billions of tiny synaptic connections
数十亿个微小的突触连接进行了成像
in a cubic millimeter of mouse neocortex.
绘制脑图 至少在解决这个问题上是很困难的
Mapping the brain at least at the resolution that we do it is difficult
因为在这一系列研究中需要做到万无一失
because many things have to go right in the series.
样本制备要完美
Preparing the sample has to be perfect.
科学家们必须将颗粒大小的鼠脑样本
Scientists had to section the grain-sized brain sample
切成25000片40纳米宽的原始切片
into 25,000 pristine slices 40 nanometers wide.
以一根头发为参考 切片厚度是它的1/5
For reference, a strand of hair is five times as thick as that.
将这些切片分散在六台电子显微镜上进行拍照
Then those slices were distributed over six electron microscopes to be photographed.
我们花了五个月左右的时间才拍完
It took us about five months to take
那立方毫米皮层的照片
all the pictures of that millimeter cube.
我没有最终的统计数字
I don’t have the final tally,
但是肯定有几十亿张
but there’s certainly hundreds of millions of those.
这种类型的数据收集需要全天候周密 专注地工作
This type of data gathering took exhaustive, dedicated work around the clock.
当收集完所有的图像资料
When all the images were collected,
研究人员就可以分割每个神经元
researchers could then segment each single neuron
创建一个三维线路图
and create a 3D wiring diagram…
这是建立完整结构连接组的第一步
step one towards that complete structural connectome,
该团队估计需要五年时间才能完成
which the team estimates will take five years to finish.
需要储存大约2PB的数据
In terms of data storage was about two petabytes of data.
仅一毫米就占了大约200万GB
That’s about 2 million gigabytes from justa millimeter.
为了最终研究更庞大的人类大脑样本
To eventually work with bigger human brain samples,
研究过程需要进行一些改变
something about this process will have to change,
因为这将成为有史以来最大的数据库
as it will eventually be the largest data setever collected about anything in the world.
考虑到样品制备和切片方面的重大进展
I think substantial advances on sample preparations, sample sectioning,
数据的存储量会非常大
and above all, the storage of such will be immense.
我们必须革新技术
Either technology will have to evolve in a way
来满足如此庞大的存储要求
that such storage is available
或者改进采样技术
or our sampling will have to evolve in ways that
压缩我们想要从中提取出的信息
we can compress information that we want to extract from it.
我们还需要非侵入型的技术形式
We’ll also need forms of technology that aren’t as invasive as this,
让我们同样能研究活的人脑
so we can study live human brains, too.
为了开发出真正实用的脑图
And to develop a really robust map,
我们不仅要研究一种大脑
we’re going to need to work with more than just 1 single brain.
我们需要研究年轻的大脑
We’ll need to study young brains,
年老的大脑 男性的大脑还有女性的大脑
old brains, male brains, female brains.
我们收集了1200份非常有趣特别的样本
We collected a pretty interesting and uniquesample of 1200 individuals.
由NIH领导的人类连接组项目
The human connectome project, led by the NIH,
采用非侵入性工具来研究人类大脑
is using non-invasive tools to study human brains now.
我们首先使用的主要工具是核磁共振成像仪
So the main tool we use to start out is an MRI machine.
在研究结构连接组的时候
If we’re looking at the structural connectome,
我们通常采用弥散成像技术
we typically use something called diffusion imaging.
观察水分子
It’s looking at the diffusion of water
沿着这些脑白质连接区扩散
along these white matter connections in the brain.
如果两个部分之间一定方向
And if you have a nice strong connection
有非常强烈的联系
going in a certain direction between two parts of the brain,
那么我们就可以进行测量
we can measure that.
我们观察人脑功能连接组的时候
We do something pretty different though
因为研究的内容有很大差异
when we look at the functional connectome in the human brains.
所以尽管我们仍使用核磁共振扫描仪
So we still use an MRI scanner,
但用的是另一种序列
but we use a different kind of sequence.
它实际上是在观察
It’s looking actually at blood flow
神经活动之后 我们认为会发生的血液流动
that we think happens after there has been neural activity.
如果你观察到大脑某一区域的活动
So if you’re looking at brain activity in a brain region
随着时间的推移不断上升下降 你可能会问:
going up and down over time, you can say,
“大脑其他区域也会显示一样的活动吗?”
” Are there other brain regions that show that same pattern?”
如果运动模式随着时间推移都很类似
And if the patterns are very similar over time,
我们就称之为功能连接脑区
we call those functionally connected brain regions.
到目前为止 人类连接组项目在绘制大脑图像这一领域
So far, the human connectome project has made a lot advances
已经取得了很大的进展
in this area of mapping the brain.
他们在2016年发布了最详细的大脑图谱
In 2016, they released the most detailed map
公布数据显示 除证实了83个脑区存在外
of these reported data discovering 97 new brain regions
还另发现了97个新脑区
in addition to confirming the existence of 83 others.
我们现在对不同脑区如何连成网络
We understand much more now about how different brain regions kind of
有了更加深入的了解
wire up together to form networks.
我们开始弄清楚
We’re starting to get a good sense of
这些网络与哪些行为如何相互关联
how those networks relate to which types of behaviors.
我想我们还需要做的工作就是
Where I think we still have work to do is
准确地理解这些行为产生的原因
understanding exactly how those contribute
会不会因为疾病产生变化
or are changed by the experience of illnesses,
哪些不同的环境因素可能造成影响
how different kinds of environmental factors might have an impact.
所以我们面临着巨大的挑战
So this challenge is immense.
这将迫使我们突破技术和创造力的极限
It will push our technology and creativity to their furthest limits;
然而发送机器人登陆火星 测序人类基因组
but so did sending robots to mars,
也面临过同样的挑战
and sequencing the human genome…
但是我们都做到了
and we did all that.
那么 我们离绘制人脑图谱还有多远呢?
So how close are we to mapping the human brain?
我们创建高度精细的人类连接组的最大障碍
The biggest barriers keeping us from building a highly detailed human connectome
实际上就是技术
is really technology.
在我的科学生涯中 技术已经在以指数发展
In my scientific lifetime, the progresshas been exponential.
所以我一点也不意外 10年或者20年后
So I wouldn’t be surprised in 10 or 20 years
我们对大脑的理解会有巨大的飞跃
if we had a sort of dramatic leap in our understanding.
我想我们可能永远无法描绘出人脑中
I think we may never have a map of every connection
所有连接的图谱
in the human brain
无法准确理解他们是如何相互作用
in the sense of understanding exactly how they interact together
从而产生人类所有的行为 认知
to give rise to exactly all the human behavioral and cognitive
和情感能力
and emotional abilities.
这是一个艰巨的任务 我并不确信
That’s a tall order and I’m not entirely convinced
我们会完成这个任务
that we will ever be there.
看看这些神经元的形状 多么漂亮!
Looking at the shapes of those neurons theyare beautiful.
它们让我感到快乐
They make me happy.
我们和我们的合作者是第一个看到
We and our collaborators are the first ones to see such detail
大脑中如此规模的细节
at such scale on the brain and that’s like
就像老探险家们到了新大陆一样
the old explorers when they arrived at the new continent.
我们正在进入一个全新的领域
We are going into a territory where things are new.
想要观看更多有关我们的节目
For more episodes of How Close Are We,
请看这里的播放列表
check out this playlist right here.
别忘了订阅我们的频道 继续收看更多视频
Don’t forget to subscribe and come back to Seeker for more episodes.
感谢您的观看!
Thanks for watching.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

视频将深入浅出的讲解我们如何一步一步靠近并绘制完整的大脑地图

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HiyaTay

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlJa6qH4BAs

相关推荐