Welcome to Life Noggin.
Oh look it’s my invisible friend!
So glad you finally got to meet him!
Living in the water,
and nearly everywhere else on Earth, are tiny, microscopic organisms
called microorganisms or microbes.
They have existed for at least 3,500 million years
and were the only living things on Earth
for the majority of that time.
Different types include bacteria, archaea, fungi,
微生物的类型包括细菌 古生菌 真菌
protozoa, algae, and viruses.
Microbes are able to survive in harsh environments
like hot springs, the Dead Sea, and Antarctic ice,
as well as ordinary places like swamps, rivers, and soil.
以及沼泽 河流 土壤 这些普通的地方
And there are a whole lot of them out there.
Overall they make about 17 percent of the total biomass,
which is the weight of everything living here.
In the sea alone they are extremely abundant.
In all of the world’s oceans,
they make up 98 percent of the total ocean biomass.
Yeah, there are millions upon millions of tiny little communities
that you probably have even thought about!
While not all microbes are harmful,
there are definitely some to watch out for that cause foodborne illnesses, and infectious diseases.
These include the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
that can cause tuberculosis,
the Protozoan Plasmodium, which causes Malaria,
the fungus Trichophyton rubrum, which causes ringworm,
and the virus Varicella zoster, which causes Chickenpox.
These and other disease-causing microbes are called pathogens.
If we come into contact with them and they enter our bodies,
they can cause an infection by damaging our cells
and could even challenge our immune system
by killing or disrupting cell or tissue function.
Some of these harmful microbes can make their way into drinking water through feces
and cause diseases like cholera, typhoid fever, and dysentery.
The World Health Organization estimates that over two billion people around the world
use a drinking water source that is contaminated by feces,
resulting in nearly half a million deaths.
But, as I said, not all microorganisms are bad.
In fact, without them,
we wouldn’t have pizza bagels!
Fungi like yeast are used to make bread and beer,
and mold is used to make some cheeses.
And, because microbes create oxygen while processing greenhouse gases,
they could potentially be an option for fighting climate change.
Scientists have already found a way to use E. coli bacteria to make biofuels.
Marine microbes play a big role
in maintaining the health of coral reefs
and the recycling of their nutrients.
They also help clean our own water at wastewater treatment plants,
where they are used to eat biodegradable materials.
Helpful microbes can even be found closer than you may think.
On and inside our bodies are trillions of microorganisms.
Some of these microbes help with digestion,
protect you from infection, and maintain your reproductive health.
That’s right the tiny communities living on and inside you are working very hard!
No need to panic about that thought at all.
But just because they are helpful ones,
that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t protect yourself
from potentially harmful microorganisms.
So, remember to wash your hands often,
keep your immunizations up to date,
and make sure your drinking water is clean.
So, what do you want me to talk about next?
Let me know in the comment section below right now
and your suggestion can become a future Life Noggin episode!
Curious to know what the heck this is?
Yeah, you’re gonna want to check out this video!
Tardigrades, or more adorably known as water bears and moss piglets,
are a phylum of small invertebrates
that are bilaterally symmetrical and have four pairs of legs.
Thank you so much for watching and liking this video!
As always my name is Blocko.
This has been Life Noggin.
Don’t forget to keep on thinking!