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慢性压力是如何伤害你的身体的 – 译学馆
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慢性压力是如何伤害你的身体的

How Chronic Stress Harms Your Body

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人总会有压力 但压力不一定是坏事
Stress happens and that’s not always bad,
即便是开始新工作 结婚等开心事
starting a new job or getting married can both be happy things,
也会形成压力
but they also can be really stressful.
不过某些种类的压力似乎不会消散
There are some kinds of stress that just don’t seem to go away, though.
比如 忙得不可开交
Like the feeling that you’re drowning in work,
却老是担心入不敷出的感觉
but still perpetually worried about making ends meet.
日复一日 长年累月的压力
If you deal with a lot of stress every day, for months or years on end,
不仅会让人觉得难受
then stress doesn’t just feel awful,
还会伤害你的身体
it actually causes you physical harm.
任何会造成压力或危害健康的状况
Psychologists call any event or situation
都被心理学家称作“应激源”
that puts pressure on you or threatens your well-being a stressor,
而“压力”指的是你在心理上和生理上的反应
while stress refers to your psychological and physical reactions.
一次性的应激源
Stressors that are one-and-done,
比如 钥匙被反锁在车里 忘带钱包
like locking your keys in your car,
都会带来急性压力
or forgetting your wallet, bring on acute stress.
但重复或持续存在的应激源会形成慢性压力
But when stressors are repeated or continuous, that’s chronic stress.
虐待关系 家境贫困 受到歧视等情况
Things like abusive relationships, living in poverty, and being discriminated against
都已被证实会引起慢性压力
have all been shown to cause chronic stress.
而这类精神上的痛苦也会损害健康
And that psychological anguish takes a toll physically.
当你经历急性压力时
When you experience acute stress,
体内的下丘脑—垂体—肾上腺皮质轴就会被激活
your body activates a system called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis,
此系统简称HPA轴
or just HPA axis,
因为重复这名称实在太麻烦了
because why would you want to say all that other stuff over and over again?
它开始于大脑深处的边缘系统
It starts deep in your brain, in the limbic system,
很多无意识的情绪反应都由这个部位产生
the part responsible for a lot of your automatic emotional reactions, among other things.
这里有个叫做下丘脑的区域
There, a region called the hypothalamus releases hormones
它分泌的激素会引发一连串其他激素的分泌
that start a whole chain of more hormones being released
首先是垂体
— first by your pituitary gland,
接着是肾上腺
and then by your adrenal glands,
肾上腺会往血液分泌肾上腺素和皮质醇
which release a bunch of adrenaline and cortisol into your bloodstream,
这两者会引发“战斗或逃跑”的反应
and those two hormones trigger the “fight-or-flight” response.
为提高身体活动量
They boost physical activity
这两种激素会让血糖升高 增加肌肉的血液供应
by increasing your blood sugar and blood flow to your muscles,
同时加快代谢速度
and bump up your metabolism at the same time.
一旦身体受到了激发
The idea is that the physical boost
它能帮你抵抗或逃避应激源
helps you fight the stressor or run away.
假如你突然遇到了一只熊
So like, if you were suddenly face to face with a bear,
能量的激增会帮你逃走
the surge in energy would help you either outrun it,
也可以帮你把它打死
or go all like Revenant on it.
这个系统也会被慢性压力激活
The same system is activated by chronic stress,
但是情况较为复杂一些
but things get a bit more complicated.
研究人员发现 某些慢性压力患者
Researchers have found that people under some kinds of chronic stress
皮质醇水平一直居高不下
have perpetually high cortisol levels,
好像他们的HPA轴不停运作似的
as if their HPA axis is running constantly.
其他人则要看看时间了
For others, it can depend on the timing,
皮质醇水平在压力开始时偏高
with higher cortisol levels near the start of the stress
之后则降到低于平时的水平
before it actually dips lower than usual.
虽然这种压力反应有时对我们有帮助
But we do know that while this stress reaction can be helpful at times,
但持续的压力反应会出现问题
having it running all the time is a problem.
慢性压力患者患上各种疾病的风险较高
People under chronic stress are at higher risk for all kinds of ailments,
比如心脏病 自身免疫疾病
like heart disease, autoimmune diseases,
以及焦虑症 抑郁症等精神障碍
and mental disorders like anxiety and depression.
原因是 无时无刻的压力
That’s because in addition to it being super unpleasant
让人觉得非常难受
to be stressed out all the time,
而且压力反应会不断地把精力消耗掉
the stress response is constantly sapping your energy.
“战斗或逃跑”用到的资源必须来自某处
The resources used by fight-or-flight have to come from somewhere,
其中一个地方就是你的免疫系统
and one of the places they come from is your immune system.
在分子层面上
On the molecular level,
皮质醇虽然会增加肌肉的葡萄糖供应
the same cortisol that works to get extra glucose to your muscles
却也会减少抗感染白细胞的生产
also stops your body from making as many infection-fighting white blood cells as it normally would.
所以压力会削弱人体抵抗感染的能力
So stress can tank your ability to fight infections.
就好像人体经过进化后
It’s kind of like evolution is telling your body
学会先不要急着反抗感冒病毒
not to worry about fighting off that cold right now,
因为你要跟你面前的那只熊搏斗
because you need to fight that bear that is right in front of you.
但慢性压力患者面对的不是一只熊
Except with chronic stress, the bear isn’t a bear.
而是一份烂工作
It’s your crappy job.
或者一份不愉快的关系
Or your unhappy relationship.
或者任何让你一直紧张的东西
Or whatever it is that stresses you out all the time.
导致免疫系统无法像平时那样
And that means your immune system never gets the chance
轻易地把感冒病毒处理掉 让身体痊愈
to recover and deal with that cold as easily as it normally would.
一项著名的实验证实了这一点
One famous experiment demonstrating this involved 11 dental students
11名牙医学生自愿接受两次口腔活检
who volunteered to have their mouths biopsied twice:
第一次在暑假期间 第二次在考试周
first during summer vacation, and then again during exam week.
为考试紧张的学生口中的伤口
It took an average of 3 days longer
平均需要多三天的时间才能愈合
for the wounds to heal in their mouths while they were stressed about exams.
其他研究得到了相似的结果
All kinds of other studies have gotten similar results
有些研究在人们身上打洞
— some by punching small holes in
就像牙医学生那样
people like they did with the dental students,
也有研究观察了
and others by observing how stress affects
压力如何影响手术和大型伤口的复原
recovery from surgery and other major wounds.
也有研究表明
There’s also research suggesting
贫困对健康的影响 一部分可归咎于慢性压力
that chronic stress explains part of the relationship between poverty and health.
即便只是以为自己社会经济地位较低
Even just the perception of being in a lower socioeconomic class
也会导致呼吸道感染率增加
is associated with an increase in respiratory infections.
压力也会加速衰老的过程
Stress can also advance the aging process.
当你变老之后
By the time you get older,
你的DNA早已被复制了很多次
your DNA has had to replicate so many times
以至于在染色体末端保护染色体的端粒
that the protective parts at each of the ends of the chromosome,
开始受到磨损
called telomeres, can kind of start to fray.
一旦端粒变短
When telomeres are shorter,
基因就更有可能发生复制错误
it’s more likely that there will be errors in copying genes.
从而增加你患病的风险
And those errors increase your risk of disease.
有证据表明 血液中的皮质醇升高
There’s evidence that having more cortisol in your blood
会导致端粒的修复被中断
interrupts the repair of telomeres.
所以压力跟一些老人病有关联
Which might explain why stress is linked to
可能就是这个原因
diseases that are also associated with age,
比如心脏病 癌症和贫血症
like heart disease, cancer, and anemia.
保持健康的最佳方法
To stay healthy, the best thing you can do
就是摆脱慢性压力
is get rid of the chronic stress.
但是说总比做容易
But, easier said than done.
如果你没法完全摆脱慢性压力
If you can’t get rid of it completely,
冥想和放松疗法等活动
things like meditation and relaxation therapies
也可以帮你降低压力反应
can help lower your stress response.
奇怪的是 改变你对压力的看法 可能也会有同样效果
And, weirdly enough, so might changing how you think about stress.
研究表明
Studies have shown that when people think
只要把应激源看成一个需要去克服的挑战
about the source of stress as a challenge to overcome
而非一个威胁自己幸福感的力量
instead of a threat to their well-being,
人们所感受到的压力似乎会减轻
that seems to lower their perceived stress
而他们身体对压力的反应也会减少
and reduce their body’s physical response.
还有一个让你变得更健康的方法:
There’s another way you might be able to improve your health, too:
帮助其他人减少压力
help others reduce their stress.
在一个800位老年人的样本中
In a sample of over 800 older adults,
那些压力高的人
those with high stress who also reported helping
如果也去帮朋友或邻居做家务 带孩子
friends or neighbors with things like housework or childcare
他们的死亡率就变得跟压力低的人一样
had mortality rates similar to those with low stress,
然而那些压力高又不帮助别人的人
whereas those with high stress who didn’t help
存活的几率则会减少
out had reduced odds of survival.
因此 慢性压力对任何人都无益
So, chronic stress is not good for anyone.
但是就算你不能避免压力过大
But even if you can’t avoid being stressed out all the time,
你也有办法放松下来
there are ways to help yourself relax
有时候 你还可以在过程中
— and sometimes you can even reduce
减少其他人的压力
other people’s stress in the process.
感谢收看这集“心理科学秀”
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
想观看最新的视频
If you would like to keep up to date with all our latest videos
了解大脑运行的原理
explaining how these big ole noggins of ours work,
请前往网站youtube.com/scishowpsych
head over to youtube.com/scishowpsych
点击订阅按钮
and click on that subscribe button
视频就会存到你的订阅栏
because it’ll all come into your subscription box
然后你就可以看到每一集视频
and you’ll watch every single one of them
这样对YouTube的算法也很有帮助 感谢!
and it really helps… with the YouTube algorithm. Thank you!
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视频概述

生活中总有一些压力无法逃离,但是如果压力持续作用,在慢性压力的影响下,会对你的身体产生伤害。持续的压力会激活HPA轴一直升高的皮质醇水平 让你的身体消耗能量让你更容易生病 。还和端粒有关系。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mh4E3xiNGe4

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