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中国正在改变好莱坞 – 译学馆
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中国正在改变好莱坞

How China is changing Hollywood

在电影变形金刚4里 有一幕是某个路人甲出现在电梯里
In the fourth Transformers movie, there’s a scene where a random guy in an elevator
帮史坦利•图奇所饰演的角色痛揍了别人一顿
helps Stanley Tucci beat someone up.
他是谁?邹市明—一名中国拳击手 世界冠军和金腰带的获得者
That guy? Turns out he’s a Chinese boxer, Zou Shiming – a world champion & gold medalist.
在电影里 你能够看到中国的牛奶盒 甚至是遍布德克萨斯州的
Elsewhere in the movie, you’ll see a Chinese milk box, and even a Chinese bank ATM in Texas
中国的银行ATM机
of all places.
如果你认不出来这些中国标志 那就是因为你并不熟悉它们
If you didn’t recognize these references, that’s because they weren’t meant for you.
中国中产阶级的崛起在娱乐业形成了一个
The growth of China’s middle class has created a massive new market for the entertainment
巨大的新兴市场
industry.
明年 中国市场的票房收益很有可能超过美国
Next year China’s box office revenue will likely surpass the US, making it the largest
成为世界上最大的电影市场。
movie market in the world.
中国这一年来平均每天新建27座电影屏幕 截止到
China has built 27 new cinema screens per day on average this year, and as of November
2016年11月份 中国所拥有的屏幕总数已经超过了美国的40475块
2016, the country has more screens in total than the 40,475 in the US.
显然 好莱坞的制片人希望能够触及到这些电影观众 变形金刚4
Obviously, the movie makers in Hollywood want to reach those customers. Transformers 4,
这部被诟病为毫无意义的电影 是2014年唯一一部
a movie criticized for making literally no sense at all, was the only film in 2014 to
在世界范围内斩获超过十亿美元票房的电影 这多亏了中国的影迷
collect over 1 billion dollars worldwide at the box office, thanks to Chinese viewers.
现在的问题是 中国政府每年只允许引进
The problem is the Chinese government only allows a certain number of foreign films into
规定数量的外语片
the country each year.
并且每一部都要经过广电总局的审查
And each one has to pass through the government’s censorship agency.
这两者在一定程度上是相悖的 一方面 中国希望成为电影强国
There’s kind of contradictory impulses. On the one hand, China wants to be the best at
另一方面 他们希望能够符合”组织”的要求
everything. They want to succeed. On the other hand, they want to promote what the leader
宣传中国特色社会主义核心价值观
is promoting. Chinese propaganda and socialist core values.
在19世纪90年代之前 只有极少数的好莱坞电影是面向中国观众的
Before the 1990s, very few Hollywood movies made it to Chinese audiences.
中国政府为了形象宣传设有独立的电影体系 但是他们失败了
The Chinese government had its own film industry to distribute propaganda, but it was failing.
在1979年 总票房达到了239亿美元,但是到了1993年 这个数字下降为95亿美元
In 1979 $23.9 billion tickets were purchased in 1993 that dropped to $9.5 billion.
事情在1994年发生了变化 《亡命天涯》成为美国第一部
In 1994 things started to change. The Fugitive became the first new American film set for
到中国公映的电影
a general release to the Chinese public.
这部电影在中国的爆红使得黄牛票价翻了一倍
It was so popular that scalpers outside theaters were getting double the price of the ticket.
每张1美元25美分 1994年中国引进四部外语片
One dollar and twenty-five cents. Ten foreign movies were allowed in 1994. Since
从那时开始 好莱坞不断地要求美国政府向中国协商更多的引进额度
then, Hollywood has pushed the U.S. government to continually negotiate for higher quotas.
现在 美国电影想要进驻到中国的影院通常有
These days, a U.S. film typically makes it into a Chinese movie theater in one of three
三种方法
ways.
一是票房收益分成;二是与中国电影公司合资拍摄;三是支付通过固定费率
Through revenue-sharing, co-producing with a Chinese company, or through a flat fee.
最常见的是分成 制片方分享票房的25%
The most common is the revenue-sharing model where the studio gets 25% of the revenue.
但是每年外语片的引进份额只有34部
But only 34 foreign films per year are allowed.
在过去10年里 美国电影通过有策略地结合中国
Over the last 10 years American films have strategically incorporated positive Chinese
故事的积极成分使他们的电影更有机会入选
story elements to bolster their chances of being one of the films selected.
在电影《赤色黎明》里 反派的原型就是中国 但是在后期制作时改成了朝鲜
In Red Dawn, the enemy was originally China but was changed to North Korea in post production.
电影《2012》里,奥利弗•普莱特所饰演的角色
In the film 2012 Oliver Platt says
赞美了中国修建方舟的远见
praising China for building arks in advance.
《僵尸世界大战》的这本书以中国的病毒为开始 因为
World War Z the book had the virus start in china due to illegal organ trade that’s
非法器官交易这样的情节电影里是没有的
not the case in the movie.
在《火星救援》这部电影里 中国的空间站拯救了一切 中国博纳影业
In the Martian, the Chinese space industry saves the day. The Chinese based Bona Film
为这部电影投资了数百万
Group invested millions in the film.
其实对于电影公司来说不必如此 哈利波特就是一个
It’s important to note though that studios don’t have to do this. Harry Potter is great
很好的例子
example.
如果严格来看这些规定 理论上像哈利
If you look at the regulations in a very strict sense, theoretically something like a Harry
波特这样的电影是不允许上映的 因为不允许有像迷信和巫师
Potter film should not be shown because you’re not supposed to have superstition and wizards
这类东西出现 但是中国哈迷的民意是不容忽视的
and things like that. But it’s very hard to deny the Chinese audience Harry Potter.
只有两种方法可以应对引进份额的限制
There are two ways to get around the 34-film limit.
对于今天的好莱坞大公司来说 下下策是采用固定费率因为
The least popular among big Hollywood studios today is the flat-fee model because they’re
这样要贱卖电影而且中国的公司能够拿到全部的票房收入
selling the film at fraction of the cost and China gets 100% of the ticket sales.
另外一种选择是和中国公司合拍 这样
The other option is co-producing the movie with a Chinese company so that it’s not
从技术层面上来说就不算是一部外语片 但是合拍片也受到最严格的监管 在一些方面有很严格
technically a foreign film. But co-productions are the most tightly regulated, with strict
的限制 像拍摄地点和资金来源 并且
guidelines on things like the film’s shooting location and its finances. It has to also
演员表里至少有三分之一是中国演员 总之 中国必须在电影里扮演着
have at least ⅓ Chinese actors in the cast. In short, China somehow has to play a significant
重要角色 而且不能是反派角色
role in the film, and it can’t be as the villain!
放下武器!不然我杀了他!
Drop your weapons! Or I kill the man!
在《环形使者》上映之前 这部电影的导演和制片人与DMG娱乐传媒集团合作—一家
Before Looper was released its director and studio partnered with DMG, a Chinese based
中国的娱乐公司 他们负责电影在国内的宣传 这家公司为电影提供了40%的资金
entertainment company to help adapt the film to a Chinese audience. DMG invested 40% in
电影脚本也因此被修改 拍摄地点从原来的
the film too. The script was re-written to take place in Shanghai rather than its original
巴黎变为了上海
location, Paris.
但是最终 这不电影还是被分为中国版和美国版独立上映
But ultimately, separate American and Chinese versions of Looper were released because the
因为电影中的中国场景并不吸引美国以及其他国际市场
Chinese scenes in the film didn’t resonate with U.S. and other international markets
国际市场的观众
audiences.
和中国合作电影项目总是会产生各种各样的问题
That’s always the issue when you’re dealing with China and deciding on a co-production.
尽管中国市场很重要 但它并不是唯一的市场
As important as the China market is, it’s not the only market.
最终 中国还是希望他们的电影可以从质量和数量上超过其他外国竞争者
Ultimately China wants their own films to outnumber and outplay their foreign competitors
所以 他们正在构筑属于自己的好莱坞
so they’re building their own Hollywood.
这是一个82亿美元的投资 计划于2017年4月投入使用
It’s an $8.2 billion dollar investment slated to open it’s doors in April 2017 from the
这和2012年收购美国第二大院线 AMC的公司是同一家(万达) 并使其票房收入翻了一番
same company that bought AMC in 2012 and subsequently doubled their ticket sales.
当然 中国会与美国的电影公司共享设备 但是这之间总有一道跨不过去的坎儿
Sure, China will share their facilities with U.S. studios but their doors are still only
这种电影配额的限制在过去20年内让美国电影在中国陷入困境
half open. That film quota that has held the US at bay for the last two decades will also
同时也影响好莱坞电影公司抢夺最新拍摄设备
apply to Hollywood studios vying to book the state of the art facilities.

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