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奇美拉神话是如何变成现实的 – 译学馆
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奇美拉神话是如何变成现实的

How Chimaera Mythology Became Reality

Thanks to Curiosity Stream for supporting PBS
感谢好奇心流媒体对PBS的支持
Sphinx, Jackalope, Manticore,
狮身人面兽 鹿角兔 人头狮身蝎尾兽
Griffin, Hippogriff.
狮身鹰首兽 马鹫
All monsters made up of body parts from more than one animal.
这些怪兽都至少由两种动物的身体部位组成
We now call these hybrid monsters chimeras,
我们现在称这些混血怪兽为奇美拉
owing to the original Chimaera of ancient Greece.
这个名字源于古希腊原始的奇美拉怪兽
A ridiculously impractical mythological monster,
它是一种不切实际且非常魔幻的神话怪兽
with three heads: a lion, a goat, and a snake,
它有三个头:狮子的头 山羊的头以及蛇头
which seems absurd, but then again,
虽然这听起来十分荒谬
humans have been crafting these mythological creatures
但几千年来 人们一直以不同的方式
for thousands of years. In more ways than one.
制作这些神话中的生物
我是Emily Zarqa
这里是《怪物理论》
When I say humans have crafted Chimeras for thousands of years…
说到几千年来人们一直在制作奇美拉
I mean hand crafted.
我指的是手工制作
As in sewing dead bodies together.
也就是把不同的尸体缝到一起
The Ancient Romans displayed a “centaur” preserved in honey.
古罗马人曾经展出了保存在蜂蜜里的“半人马”
The figure was likely made from mummified human and horse remains.
它很可能是由做成木乃伊的人和马的遗骸制成
The Romans also exhibited a puppet
古罗马人还展出过一个木偶
with a false human head attached to a large serpent
它由假人头和巨大的蛇身拼接而成
that could open and close its mouth
它能张开和闭上嘴巴
and flick its snake tongue.
还能伸出蛇那样的舌头
It fooled quite a few people.
许多人信以为真
And don’t even get me started on
更别提维多利亚时期掀起的
all the weird taxidermy trends in the Victorian period .
制作各种怪异动物标本的潮流
But it’s not all jumbled up animals,
但它们不全是随意拼接的动物
and antlers glued to rabbits.
也不是粘了鹿角的兔子
A real, living chimera of a sheep and a goat–
1980年代 一只活生生的“山绵羊”的诞生了
a “geep”– was made in the 1980s.
它是绵羊和山羊的嵌合体
Now I could try to explain all of this,
我可以试着解释这一切
and do a terrible job at it,
但这的确不是我的专长
but I’ll turn to the esteemed Dr. Joe Hanson.
我得向尊敬的Joe Hanson博士求助
Joe, can you help me out here?
Joe 能帮个忙吗?
Ok, maybe you’ve heard of ligers?
好的 也许你听说过狮虎
Mules?
骡子
Beefalos?
皮弗洛牛
Zonkeys, coydogs, wholphins, or maybe pizzly bears?
斑驴 郊狼狗 鲸豚 或者北极灰熊
Those are all real examples of two animals combined into one.
这些都是两种动物合二为一的真实例子
But they’re not chimeras, biologically speaking.
从生物学上讲 他们都不是奇美拉
They’re hybrid animals,
它们是杂交动物
one embryo that came from
是两种有亲缘关系的动物
two related species mating,
比如狮子和老虎
like a lion and a tiger.
交配之后产生的胚胎
But the geep was different.
但山绵羊不一样
That started with two embryos, one goat and one sheep,
它是两个胚胎(一个山羊的 一个绵羊的)
that were combined to make one embryo.
结合之后形成的一个胚胎
Two bodies or embryos combined into one?
两种个体或者说两种胚胎结合到一起
That’s a chimera.
那就是奇美拉
SCIENCE!
这是就是科学!
So scientists refer to these animals as chimeras,
所以 这些动物被科学家们称为奇美拉
a concept with its roots deep in mythology.
一个与神话故事息息相关的名字
Mythical hybrid animals have existed
这些神秘的嵌合体动物
in cultures around the world for centuries.
已在人类文明的长河中存在了几个世纪
It wasn’t until Homer’s Iliad,
“奇美拉”这个词首次出现在
that the word “chimaera” first appears.
诗人荷马的《伊利亚特》中
Here, The Chimaera is a female “beast”
书中的奇美拉是一头雌性野兽
with the “upper body of a lion,
它有的上身是狮子
the tail of a snake, and a goat head in the middle of its torso.”
尾巴是一只蛇 躯干中间还有一个山羊头
A fire-breathing goat head.
这个羊头会喷火
Yeahhh, it has three heads
是的 它有三个脑袋
and the goat is the most threatening one.
其中山羊头是最恐怖的
In the story, Bellerophon is ordered to kill the Chimaera,
故事中 柏勒罗丰受命杀死奇美拉
a seemingly impossible task.
这看起来是一个不可能的任务
Luckily for our hero, his noble steed is none other
幸运的是 这位英雄的战马
than the winged horse Pegasus, which
正是双翼飞马——珀加索斯
helps him kill the Chimaera from above.
柏勒罗丰骑着飞马杀死了奇美拉
Pegasus?
珀加索斯?
Also, a chimera – lower case “c” chimera.
也是一种嵌合体(chimera) 这里的“c”是小写
Go figure.
想想看吧
After Homer’s tale, other Greek writers followed
荷马写了这个故事之后 其他希腊作家纷纷效仿
with their own versions of the Chimaera story.
创作了他们的奇美拉故事
Most set Chimaera’s home in Lycia;
故事发生的地点大多在利西亚
500 long miles from Athens,
利西亚距离雅典500英里
a metaphor for the Greeks’ fear of the foreign,
“利西亚”一词代表古希腊人对境外之地的恐惧
and what they saw as “uncivilized” territory.
古希腊人还认为利西亚是一片蛮荒之地
It’s also a place known for mysteriously burning ground fires
这个地方还因为有神奇的地火而闻名
caused by natural gas leaking to the surface,
地火是天然气泄漏到地面形成的
but to humans of the time,
但对于当时的人们来说
a fire breathing goat was just as likely.
这有可能是一只会喷火的山羊
The mountain where these fires burned
人们把这些有地火的山
was appropriately called Mount Chimaera.
形象地称为奇美拉山
So how the heck do we explain the inspiration
人们究竟是怎么想出这个
for the lion/goat/serpent heads thing?
三头(狮头 羊头 蛇头)怪物的呢?
[Joe] We don’t see actual animal chimeras in the wild,
我们并没有在野外见过真正的奇美拉
but we do sometimes see certain traits on one species
不过我们确实发现个别物种身上的某些特征
that kind of appear to come from other species?
似乎来自于另外一个物种
Like extra limbs,
比如动物多长了几条腿
or how some humans have extra fingers that
或者有的人多长了几根手指
make them look kinda reptile-y.
使他们看起来像爬行动物
And during development,
在进化过程中
many vertebrate embryos pass through stages
许多脊椎动物胚胎
that resemble more ancient branches of life,
会经历类似于古生物分支的阶段
like fish, complete with gill-looking growths…
比如像鱼一样长出腮状物
so that would be confusing in olden dayes.
过去的人们就会对此感到疑惑
And finally, some animals can be born with multiple heads…
最后要说的是 有的动物可能出生时就有几个头
though they’re always the same kind of heads,
虽然都是一模一样的头
so you pretty much gotta stretch the scientific truth
要解释奇美拉的来源
to get to mythical chimeras.
就得用上大量的科学事实
One explanation for the creation of this
人们想出三头怪物的其中一个原因
odd three-headed creature might come from human confusion of early fossil discoveries.
也许是由于他们对早先发现的化石产生了误解
It’s possible that the fossilized bones of a goat,
人们很有可能在同一个地方
a lion, and a snake could have
发现了一只羊 一只狮子
been found in the same place,
和一条蛇的骨骼化石
when they were killed by a flash flood or fell into a tar pit.
它们可能死于山洪爆发或是掉进了沥青坑里
Humans discovered their fossilized remains together,
被人们发现的时候 它们的骨骼化石连在一起
and imagined a Chimaera to explain what they saw.
于是人们想出了奇美拉来解释他们所看到的景象
There is a ton of ancient art that depicts the Chimaera,
无数的古代艺术作品中都有奇美拉的形象
everything from coins and statues to containers and plates
硬币 容器以及盘子几乎所有物品上都有它
Because of its presence in The Iliad
由于奇美拉出现在《伊利亚特》
and other Classical Greek texts and art,
以及其他古典希腊文学作品和艺术作品中
the Chimaera continued to be
几个世纪过去了
a recognizable myth as the centuries wore on.
奇美拉仍是一个大家公认的神话
The word “chimaera” came to signify not just
“奇美拉”这个词不仅指的是杂交动物
a hybrid animal but any thing that seemed to be impossible
它还可以指任何看起来不可思议
or a figment of the imagination.
或是凭空想象的事物
Only over the last few decades have we been able to accept,
过去的几十年里 我们才开始接受并证明
and prove, that interspecies chimeras are possible.
跨物种的奇美拉是有可能存在的
After the “geep,” another crazy moment in chimera history
山绵羊之后 奇美拉史上再现疯狂的一刻
happened in 1998 when two scientists
1998年 有两位科学家打算
tried to get a patent on a variety of human-animal chimeras.
为人兽嵌合的各种“奇美拉”申请专利
And yes, they used that term specifically.
是的 他们特别使用了“奇美拉”这个词
The patent was rejected as an invention
他们的专利申请被驳回了
that would be “injurious to the well-being, good
理由是有损身心健康 社会守则
policy, or good morals of society,”
以及社会伦理
and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office commissioner
并且 据说美国专利商标局局长
reportedly even referred to these proposed creations as “monsters.”
甚至将他们提议的人兽嵌合体称为“怪物”
But research into human-animal chimeras continues.
但是对人兽嵌合体的研究并未停止
Some scientists are growing human tissues
有些科学家在猪的体内培育人体组织
inside pigs in order to one day improve how we transplant organs.
以便以后能获得用于移植的人体器官
But the ethics and feelings surrounding
但是 这种研究涉及的伦理问题
this kind of research are… complicated.
是相当复杂的
I mean, in a world of human-animal chimeras…
我的意思是 在一个有人兽嵌合体的世界里……
What constitutes a human?
人类是什么?
If I grew bird wings, would I be considered a human or a chimera?
如果我长了鸟的翅膀 我属于人类还是奇美拉?
As technology advances,
随着技术发展
the possibility of even human chimeras becomes real.
人兽嵌合的奇美拉可能会成为现实
The world of biological chimeras is even weirder,
一个有着“奇美拉”生物的世界更是怪异
so head over to Its Okay to be Smart
想了解更多
and watch Joe’s video to learn about that.
去It’s Okay to be Smart观看Joe的视频吧
So we’ve come full circle.
回到今天的话题
From the impossible Chimaera monster of Greek mythology
从希腊神话中不可能存在的奇美拉
to the potential for real animal chimeras.
到现实中可能会出现的嵌合体“奇美拉”
When we move from the realm of fantasy into reality,
当幻想成为现实
things get much more complicated.
事情就变得复杂多了
So it’s no longer just an exercise of imagination but a question about ethics.
这不再是想象的游戏 而是关乎伦理的问题
We can craft chimeras,
我们能够创造奇美拉
but should we?
但这么做对吗?
A huge thank you to Curiosity Stream
特别鸣谢好奇心流媒体
for supporting PBS digital studios
对PBS数码工作室的支持
Curiosity Stream is a subscription streaming service
好奇心流是一家订购流媒体
that offers documentaries and nonfiction titles
为大家提供各类纪录片
from a variety of filmmakers including Curiosity Stream originals
以及电影制作人制作的非虚构类电影
they have a series about some pretty monstrous looking
他们有一系列视频叫《远古大地》
real world creatures that once occupied our world called Ancient Earth
是关于远古巨兽的 它们曾经称霸地球
Check it out and learn more at curiositystream.com/monstrum
去看看吧 想了解更多请登录curiositystream.com/monstrum

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视频概述

什么是奇美拉,我们可以创造奇美拉吗?一起来看看吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-GjSU4nOxE

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