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儿童时代的阴影是如何影响你的成年时期的 – 译学馆
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儿童时代的阴影是如何影响你的成年时期的

How Childhood Trauma Can Make You A Sick Adult

大想法精神健康频道
Big Think mentalhealthchannel.tv
童年阴影的终生影响
Lifelong Impacts of Childhood Trauma
在我们的ACE研究中
What we found in the ACE study
通过对17500名中产阶级成人的观察研究发现
involving seventeen and a half thousand middle-class adults was
童年经历随着时间黯淡下来
that life experiences in childhood that are lost in time
但其影响却会因为羞耻 遮掩(秘密)
and then further protected by shame and by secrecy and
和社会禁忌(不能盘问某些个人经历)而遗留下来
by social taboos against inquiry into certain realms of human experience,
研究还发现这些经历影响深远 即便是很多年后
that those life experiences play out powerfully and proportionately a half century later
在自身情绪状况方面
in terms of emotional state,
生物医学疾病方面
in terms of biomedical disease,
或寿命方面(这些经历仍会有影响)
in terms of life expectancy.
惊人发现
A Surprising Discovery
1985年 我还很小时
In 1985, I first became interested in developmental life experiences
我突然对人生经历影响产生兴趣
in early childhood really by accident.
在我们着重研究的肥胖问题中
In the major obesity program we were running,
一个年轻姑娘来到我们这
a young woman came into the program.
她28岁 重达408磅
She was twenty-eight years old, and weighed 408 pounds,
向我们求助
and asked us if we could help her with her problem.
在接下来的51周中 我们帮她从408磅减到132磅
And in fifty-one weeks, we took her from 408 to 132.
我们想 谢天谢地 终于解决这个大麻烦了
And we thought, well my god, we’ve got this problem licked.
这项胜利将举世闻名
This is going to be a world-famous department here!
但她的132磅只维持了几周
She maintained her weight at 132 for several weeks,
3周后 她又胖了37磅
and then in one three-week period regained 37 pounds in three weeks,
我之前压根没想到会有这种可能性
which I had not previously conceived as being physiologically possible.
这是由工作中一个比她大的多的人对其性暗示导致的
That was triggered by being sexually propositioned at work by a much older man,
(当然)她是这么描述的
as she described him.
很快 她就就增肥到400磅 比她减重快多了
And in short order, she was back over 400 pounds faster than she had lost the weight.
我记得问过她为什么会出现这种极端情况
I remember asking her why the extreme response.
她起初一直说她也不知道原因
After initially claiming not to have any understanding of why the extreme response,
后来 她告诉了我 祖父对她漫长的乱伦经历–
she told me of a lengthy incest history with her grandfather
从10岁直到21岁
from age 10 to age 21.
最终得到证实 在我们这项肥胖研究中
Ultimately it turned out that
有55%的人
fifty-five percent of the people in our obesity program
都有童年时被性侵的经历
acknowledged a history of childhood sexual abuse.
我想说 显然问题不止一个
I mean that obviously is not the only issue going on
但我们就是从那个问题起步的
but it was where we began.
随着我们的继续追查 发现在很多机能失调家庭(或其他家庭)中
And as we went down that trail, then we discovered other forms of abuse
其他形式的侵害也大幅增加
also growing up in massively dysfunctional households, etc.
ACE研究目的就在于确认是否大多数人都经历过这些侵害
the ACE study was really designed to see whether these things existed at all in the general population,
果真如此 那它们(指侵害)又如何随着时间的推移造成影响?
and if so, how did they play out over time?
普遍现象
A Common Condition
我们研究了十类有害生活经历
We studied 10 categories of adverse life experiences
因为它们都与体重研究紧密相关
that were chosen because of their prevalence in the weight program–
这些包括童年性侵 严重的童年身体伤害
childhood sexual abuse, heavy-duty childhood physical abuse
我不是指打屁股
I’m not talking spanking—
还有严重的情感伤害 经常性的精神羞辱 以及两类忽视
um, major emotional abuse, recurrent humiliation, two categories of neglect
孩子童年和青春期成长过程中
growing up in a home
家庭中有人
where one of the members of the household,
长期抑郁 自杀 患精神疾病 或长期住院的家庭环境中
uh, was chronically depressed, suicidal, mentally ill, or in the state hospital;
或者是 没能与亲生父母生活在一起
growing up in a home without both biological parents;
或者是 有家人嗜酒或吸毒
growing up in a home where, um, one of the members of your household was alcoholic or a drug user;
或者是 妈妈被家暴
growing up in a home where mother was beaten;
或有家人
growing up in a home where one of the members of your household
入狱
was imprisoned during your childhood or adolescence.
以上就是这十类
Those were the 10 categories.
中产阶级群体中 每11人中就有一人经历过以上六类或更多
In a middle-class population, one in 11 people has experienced six or more of those adverse life experiences in childhood.
这种情况非常普遍
So this is very common
却完全不被了解
totally unrecognized.
明显关联
A Clear Correlation
让我们接受他们的共性很难
It was difficult for us to accept their commonness.
但另一方面 大多数人从未接触过这些问题
But on the other hand, these are issues that most people never touch.
如果没有例行公事的询问又有谁会知道呢
And so who would know without routinely asking?
但在ACE六类测评分中 (如果一个人)经历了我们研究得出的10类中的任何六类
But at a so-called ACE score of six, experiencing any six of the ten categories that we studied,
那他相较于什么都没经历过的正常人
that person was 4,600% more likely to become an IV drug user than a person
就会有4600%更可能变成静脉注射毒品的瘾君子
who had experienced none of those ten categories.
好吧 现在 你知道了
Okay? Now, you know,
你想 你看报纸 本周最新的癌症恐慌
you think, you read the newspaper, the latest cancer scare of the week,
前列腺癌或乳腺癌上升了30% 每个人就都无法淡定了
prostate cancer or breast cancer increases 30%, and everyone goes nuts.
我说的可是4600%的上涨
I’m talking 4,600% increase.
同样的 ACE研究也暗示了这些人的潜在自杀可能性
The same ACE score of six produces a likelihood of attempting suicide
也要比其他人高
that is between 3,100% and 5,000% greater than the likelihood of suicide attempts in someone with none of those
3100%到5000%
life experiences.
所以这种联系的影响是很大的
So the power of this relationship is enormous.
为什么 又如何处理它
Why and What To Do About It
那么 最后 问题来了 童年的阴影是如何
So ultimately the question arises: how do life experiences in childhood end up with
影响到一生的生活的
with disease states a half century later?
主要有两大方面原因
There are at least two big categories to account for that.
一种是通过各种各样的应对方法
One is through the use of various coping devices.
如通过吸烟来安抚自己
One smokes to feel better;
通过暴食 喝酒 等等
one overeats to feel better; one drinks to relax, etc..
这些行为(如果)过度都会有极恶劣的影响
And those things carried out in heavy amounts have major destructive patterns,
即使可能短期内很有效果
even though they may be immediately beneficial.
另一种是必须处理
The other broad category has to do with
慢性难除刺激对这个人的大脑或中枢神经系统产生的影响
the effect of chronic major unrelieved stress on the workings of one’s brain and central nervous system.
近年来 这些研究不断发展
In recent years, this is relatively new,
研究结果也逐渐清晰——慢性难除刺激
it’s become clear that chronic major unrelieved stress
会产生促炎性细胞活素
can produce the release of pro-inflammatory chemicals in a person’s body,
也会抑制免疫系统功能
and also can suppress immune system function.
我们研究的十类中
Of the ten categories that we studied,
其中任何六类都会削减大概20年寿命
any six of them produces a shortening in life expectancy of almost twenty years.
这个问题的影响太深远了
The magnitude of this problem is so huge,
处理这影响也太复杂了
and the complexity of dealing with it after the fact is so huge,
唯一可行的方法就是防患于未然
that realistically, the only serious approach is going to have to involve primary prevention.
没有人知道如何做 但我们仍需关注它
No one knows how to do that, but it’s the right question to focus on.

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视频概述

ACE研究发现体重与童年经历有关,病进一步调查研究了童年人生经历对整个人生的影响。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Patricia

审核员

萨默之光

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3cCAcGeG8E

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