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血液是如何拯救两百万婴儿生命的? – 译学馆
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How Can One Person's Blood Save 2 Million Babies?

世界上最大的献血记录保持者是澳大利亚一个叫James harrison的人
The world record holder for making the most blood donation is an Australia man named James harrison.
He has made more than 1000 donations in the past 60 years, and his credit
他的行为拯救了两百多万生命 其中多数为新生儿
were saving over 2 million lives mainly newborn babies. So how could a strange blood
救活这些孩子呢 有时候胎儿血型可能与母亲不同
save the baby’s life. Sometimesa fetus can have different blood types than it’s mother, when
这样就麻烦了 携带蛋白质的红血球叫抗原
that happens it can spell trouble. In red ball cells have proteins called antigens,
在抗原表面携带着独立的遗传基因 你可能听说过A型血和B型血
on their surfaces and they are very independant genetics. You probably have heard of type A and type B blood.
举例来说 若是你是A型血 那就意味着你的红细胞带有一个抗原
For example, if you have type A that means your red blood cells have the a antigens. And the
在妊娠期引起麻烦的抗原是D抗原 也就是我们熟知的RH因子
antigens that causes trouble in pregnacy is the D antigen also known as the RH factor.
若是你有D抗原 那么你就是RH阳性 没有就是RH阴性
If you have the D antigen, then you are RH-positive, if you don’t, you are RH-negtive. And a pregnant woman
RH阴性的孕妇就会有这种问题的风险 因为她们的D抗原并不相同
is RH-negtive that’s when they risk the broblem. Because their D antigens aren’t the same, the mother’s
immune system treats the fetus’s blood cells as foreign invaders and attacks them which can
从而导致胎儿贫血 严重时甚至会引起心脏衰竭
lead to anemia in the fetus, and sometimes even heart failure. But the first when it comes
但是 首先怀上RH阳性胎儿的孕妇 这件事情本身并不是很大的问题 因为她并没有发展出
a woman becomes pregnant with an RH-positive fetus, this isn’t much of an issue, because she hasn’t developed
由于RH因子引起的强烈免疫反应 从而使母体免疫系统不会强烈进攻胎儿红细胞导致胎儿危险
a strong immune response to the RH factor, her immune system won’t attack enough of the fetus’ red blood cells to be dangerous
之后 她将对阳性RH红细胞致敏 所以如果
After that, she’ll be sensitized toRH-positive red blood cells. So if she becomes
她又一次怀孕 胎儿又一次是RH阳性 那么可能会引起一种叫新生儿溶血病的状况
pregnant again, and the fetus is positive again, that can cause a condition called hemolytic disease
这可能是个大问题 妈妈的免疫系统会发动攻击 杀死胎儿的大部分红血细胞并且引发
of the newborn, which can be a big problem. The mother’s immune system will mount an attack, killing many of the fetus’ red blood cells and cause anemia
因为缺乏红细胞的贫血 若是胎儿没有足够的血细胞
or a deficiency in red blood cells. If the fetus doesn’t have enough blood cells, it’s heart
胎儿的心脏不得不为了给身体的其他部分输送氧气而更加努力的工作 这样就加大了引发心脏疾病的可能性
has to work harder to deliver oxgen to rest of the body, and in some cases it can be lead to heart failure.
同时 所有这些被杀死的红细胞有一部分会被破坏性的转化为胆红素
Meanwhile, all those destroyed red blood cells are getting broken down by a compon called bilirubin.
胆红素是主要由肝脏来处理的 但是胎儿的肝脏经常不能处理如此大量的情况 这就引起了
Bilirubin is processed by the liver, but often the fetus’ liver can’t handle the overload, that causes
黄疸病 当情况发展严重时 会导致脑损伤 但是像harrison先生那样的血液
jaundice which can lead brain damage when it is severe. But blood like harrison’s
能够停止所有这些可能发生的后果 因为他的血液里包含高浓度的被称作D抗体免疫球蛋白的抗体
can stop all of this from happening, becuse it contains high levels of certain antibody called anti-D immunoglobulin.
当D抗体被输入孕妇体内的时候 D抗体能停止孕妇的免疫系统
When anti-D is injected to a pregnant woman, it can stop immune system
去进攻胎儿的血红细胞 抗体会破坏来自胎儿的任何RH阳性血细胞
from attacking fetus’ blood cells. The antibodies destroy any RH-positive blood cells from the fetus that
end up in the mother’s bloodstream before the develops an immune response to them. But anti-D
但是D抗体不能通过进入胎儿体内 所以胎儿体内的红细胞是安全的
doesn’t pass through to the fetus, so the red blood cells inside the fetus remain safe. Anti-D injections
come from the blood plasma of people with unusually high levels of the anti-D immunoglobulin antibody.
D抗体存在于像James harrison这样的人体内 这是针对RH阳性怀孕妇女的标准治疗方案
in their bodies like james harrison. There are a standard treatment for RH-negative pregnant woman
在大约28周的妊娠期间 有太多的胎儿血液流经母体的血液系统
at around 28 weeks of gestation, before too much of the fetus’s blood has passes into the mother’s
bloodstream. Usually doctors don’t know for sure whether the fetus is positive or negative,
并不能确保所有的RH阴性孕妇彻底及时的得到治疗 若是她们再一次受孕
the all RH-negative pregnant women get treated just in case. If they get pregnant again,
它可能只是拯救了婴儿的生命 谢谢观看这集科学秀节目 非常感谢你们在patreon网上购买我们的节目
it may just save the babies’s lives. Thanks for watching this episode of SCI SHOW which bought you by our
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有一段时间 很多人都认为这种温和宜人的香味只是婴儿粉或是甜气味纸巾散发出来的
For a while, a lots of people thought this mild pleasant scent was just baby powder or sweet-smelling wipes,
others claiming peoples just a myth and halucination by sleep deprived new parents…