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咖啡因成瘾如何改变历史

How Caffeine Addiction Changed History (ft. Michael Pollan) | WIRED

– [Narrator] 90% Of the world’s adults consume
-[旁白]世上90%的成年人
some form of caffeine every day,
每天都会摄入某种形式的咖啡因
making it the most widely used psychoactive drug on earth.
这让咖啡因成为地球上使用最广泛的精神药物
Michael Pollan, best-selling author of books
植物药理学的畅销书作家 Michael Pollan
on plant pharmacology explains why.
向我们解释了个中缘由
– A very strong case can be made that caffeine contributed
–有一个强有力的证据表明
to the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason
咖啡因在启蒙运动和理性年代
and the Industrial Revolution,
以及工业革命
all of which required us to think
这些需要人们
in much more focused, linear terms.
以更清晰 线性的角度思考的时期作出了巨大贡献
Caffeine was an amazing aid to the rise of capitalism.
咖啡因是资本主义兴起的一大助力
[contemplative music]
[冥想音乐]
– [Narrator] Compared to other beverages,
与其它饮料相比
coffee is a relative newcomer,
咖啡是后来者
spreading slowly from Africa,
它从非洲慢慢传播开来
through the Middle East
传到中东
and into the West only a few centuries ago.
再进入西方也仅是几个世纪以前的事
Yet, it’s hard to even imagine a world without it.
尽管如此 咖啡在生活中已是不可或缺
– Before caffeine comes to Europe,
–在咖啡传到欧洲前
people were drunk or buzzed most of the day.
人们大部分时间都醉醺醺或飘飘然的
People would have alcohol with breakfast.
他们在早餐时就喝酒
Water was contaminated with disease,
由于水受到疫病污染
but alcohol, because of the fermentation process,
而酒经过发酵加工
would kill a lot of microbes.
大量的细菌被杀灭
So you gave your kids hard cider in the morning.
所以人们早餐会给小孩喝烈苹果酒
There were beer breaks on farms.
农场曾有啤酒小憩时间
People addled on alcohol are not gonna be so rational,
沉迷酒精的人不会那么理性
are not gonna be so linear in their thinking
思维不那么清晰
and are not gonna be so energetic.
人也没什么精神
– [Narrator] Coffee consumption,
–[旁白]咖啡
along with tea and chocolate, all of which have caffeine,
茶和巧克力 这些含咖啡因产品的消费
became widespread in Europe in the 17th century,
在十七世纪的欧洲变得非常流行
and coffee houses popped up all over London.
咖啡馆如雨后春笋般开满伦敦
– So there were coffee houses dedicated to literature,
当时有很多文学主题的咖啡馆
and writers and poets would congregate there.
作家和诗人们会在那聚会
There was a coffee house dedicated to selling stock,
也有一家咖啡馆做股票交易的
and that turned into the London Stock Exchange, eventually.
它最后发展成如今的伦敦证劵交易所
There was another one dedicated to science,
还有另一家是科学主题的
tied to the Royal Institution
它与英国皇家学会关系紧密
where great scientists of the period would get together,
很多当时优秀的科学家都会在那聚首
and Isaac Newton was a big coffee fan,
艾萨克·牛顿是咖啡的忠实粉丝
Voltaire, the Enlightenment figure,
启蒙运动的代表人物 伏尔泰
apparently had 72 cups a day.
据说一天要喝72杯咖啡
I don’t know quite how you do that.
难以想象他是怎么做到的
Diderot wrote the encyclopedia on caffeine.
狄德罗靠咖啡因写完了百科全书
This new, sober,
这种新的 提神的
more civil drink was changing the way people thought
更大众的饮料在改变当时人们的思维方式
and the way they worked.
和工作方式
Once you’re doing work with machinery, indoors,
只要从事操作机器的 在室内的
doing double-entry bookkeeping
做复式记账工作的
and all that kind of head work,
以及所有脑力劳动
alcohol is the wrong drug,
那酒精就是坏事的
and caffeine is the right drug.
咖啡因才是正确的选择
Caffeine allows you also to break your ties
咖啡因还让人摆脱
to the rhythms of the sun.
随日出日落作息的束缚
Before caffeine, basically,
在有咖啡因之前
people started work when the sun came up
人们基本是日出而作
and stopped when it went down.
日落而息
With caffeine and with light or gas light,
随着咖啡因 灯或煤气灯的出现
you could have a night shift,
人们可以上夜班
you could now have an overnight shift.
甚至是通宵工作
– [Narrator] It’s not hard to see a through-line
–[旁白]不难看出咖啡因贯穿
from coffeed-up workers keeping up with the pace of the machines in the factories,
从 靠喝咖啡与机器同步工作的工厂工人
to the rise of office culture
到办公室文化出现
and the establishment of the coffee break in the 1950s.
以及20世纪50年代咖啡时间的形成的整个过程
Caffeine has made us super productive.
咖啡因让我们有超高的效率
– There’s a very interesting body of research
–有一个很有趣的研究表明
that suggests that caffeine does improve focus and memory
咖啡因确实能提高注意力和记忆力
and the ability to learn.
还有学习能力
So it seems to help us lock in memories.
它似乎能帮助我们留住记忆
As for focus, it increases our ability
在专注方面 咖啡因能提高
to concentrate on a task,
我们集中注意完成任务的能力
it’s incredibly important for modern work.
这对现代工作来说十分重要
– [Narrator] And of course,
–[旁白]当然
caffeine also gives us a burst of energy, but how exactly?
咖啡因还让我们短期内精力倍增 但这究竟怎么做到的呢?
Coffee has less than five calories.
咖啡只有不到5卡路里的热量
– Caffeine seemed to be in violation of the laws
–咖啡因的作用机制似乎不符合
of thermodynamics.
能量守恒与转换定律
Essentially, caffeine borrows energy from your future
本质上说 咖啡因是预支了人未来的精力
and gives it to you in the present.
放到现在去使用
Caffeine occupies a receptor that normally is occupied
咖啡因霸占了 原来与
by a chemical called adenosine,
一种叫腺苷的化学物质结合的受体
and this is the chemical that,
而正是腺苷
over the course of the day,
在一天中不断累积
builds up and makes you feel tired
让身体感到疲惫
and prepares the brain for sleep.
并让大脑准备好进入睡眠
Caffeine gets in there and blocks that receptor
咖啡因到脑区后 阻碍腺苷与受体结合
so you never feel that tiredness.
所以你不会感到疲惫
– [Narrator] Right, and that’s the catch.
–[旁白]是的 这就是问题所在
Caffeine messes with your sleep
咖啡因扰乱了人们的睡眠
because four to six hours after you drink it,
因为在喝完咖啡4到6小时后
half of it is still swirling around in your body.
一半的咖啡因还在人体内流转
– But even if you cut it out earlier in the day,
–但即使你早早就喝完了咖啡
the quality of your sleep may suffer.
你的睡眠质量也可能受影响
Not the quantity, necessarily, but the quality.
关键的不是睡眠时长 而是质量
By which, I mean your deep sleep, your slow wave sleep,
我指的是深度睡眠 慢波睡眠
a kind of sleep that’s dreamless and very deep
那种一夜无梦的 深度的睡眠
and is very important to kind of brain hygiene.
这对大脑健康非常重要
That’s where your brain kind of takes out the garbage
那是大脑每晚清除垃圾
every night and cleans up the desktop.
自我修整的时候
And that kind of sleep suffers.
而受影响的正是这类睡眠
So there’s no free lunch, right, in nature and in medicine.
天下没有免费的午餐 对吧 无论是自然界还是医学界
– [Narrator] So is the price we pay
–[旁白] 那么咖啡因
for poor sleep worth the benefits that caffeine gives us?
带来的好处值得我们牺牲睡眠吗?
– There’ve been decades of research into caffeine,
–人们对咖啡因的研究已有几十年
and the current research is that, on balance,
目前研究表明 总的来说
it contributes much more to your health than it takes away.
咖啡因对人类健康的贡献远大于它所带来的损失
And that it’s protective against many kinds of cancer,
它能降低多种癌症
cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s, dementia.
心血管疾病 帕金森病 痴呆症的发病风险
In the American diet,
在美国人的饮食里
coffee and tea represent the single biggest source
咖啡和茶是抗氧化物
of antioxidants,
最大且单一的来源
and antioxidants are very important to cellular health
而抗氧化物对细胞健康
and preventing cancer.
癌症预防都非常重要
And we eat so few plants,
我们美国人吃太少植物了
so few vegetables and fruit in this country,
蔬菜水果都吃得少
that we’re getting most of those antioxidants
所以我们只有通过咖啡和茶
from coffee and tea.
获得大部分的抗氧化物
It’s kind of remarkable
咖啡因很了不起的是
that it has such a clean bill of health
它在健康方面着实可圈可点
with that one exception of what it does to your sleep
当然除了影响睡眠
or what it can do to your sleep.
这个例外
– [Narrator] Right.
–[旁白] 是的
Caffeine ruins our sleep
咖啡因糟蹋了我们的睡眠
so that the next morning we reach for more caffeine
以至于第二天早上需要摄入更多咖啡因
and the cycle of addiction continues.
这个上瘾的循环就不断延续
– You know, we tend to moralize addiction,
–人们总会对上瘾这件事指指点点
but is it really a bad thing to be dependent on a plant
但这真的是件坏事吗?
that you have easy access to, you can afford,
依赖上一种易获取 负担得起
that isn’t ruining your life and is giving you some benefit?
且不会毁掉人生又能带来好处的植物 真的不好吗?
The way in which individuals are addicted
每个人对咖啡因成瘾的方式
to caffeine is mirrored in our society.
会反映到社会中
We have organized our society in such a way
我们让社会以某种方式运转
with, like, globe-spanning trade, working long hours
就像是全球贸易 人们长时间工作
and changing the climate and changing the environment.
改变了气候和环境
We have created a world in which caffeine is indispensable,
我们创造了一个离不开咖啡因的世界
and therefore the coffee plant
也正因此咖啡作物
and the tea plant are indispensable.
和茶树是不可或缺的
And we’ve created exactly the world they need
我们也创造了正好是它们需要的
in which to thrive.
能让它们蓬勃生长的环境
So, I can’t think of a more clever evolutionary strategy.
所以 我想不出还有比这更巧妙的进化策略了
[contemplative music]
[冥想音乐]

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视频概述

Michael Pollan为您讲述 人对咖啡因上瘾的原因

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WD6cYabx0nk

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