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廉价航空是如何运行的

How Budget Airlines Work

两周前 我发布了一个关于坐飞机为何如此昂贵的视频
Two weeks ago, I posted a video on why flying is so expensive,
反响还不错
and, people seemed to like it.
然而大家似乎很想知道 为什么廉价航空却这么便宜?
However, they wanted to know, how are budget airlines so cheap?
好吧 这是另一个复杂的问题 但也很有趣
Well it’s another complex answer but an interesting one.
为了简单明了说明问题 同时也为了不让欧洲观众感觉受了冷落
For the purposes of simplicity, and to keep our European friends from feeling left out,
我们将重点聊一聊欧洲的廉价航空
we’ll focus on the European model of budget airlines.
尽管廉价航空遍布全球 北美 南非 印度 亚洲……
While there are low-cost carriers in North America, South Africa, India, Asia, and plenty
但廉价航空首次取得成功 却是在欧洲
of other places, budget airlines really were first successful in Europe and that’s where
并且如今欧洲仍是其重要市场
they’re still most prominent today.
廉价航空如瑞安 易捷在欧洲的成本缩减的规模也是最为显著的
The magnitude to which airlines like Ryanair and EasyJet reduce the cost in Europe, is also much more significant.
美国的廉航票价可能比传统航空便宜10%到20%
Budget airlines in the US might be 10 or 20% less expensive than their traditional competitors
但在欧洲 廉航票价可能仅仅是普通航空公司的1/2 甚至1/3
while in Europe a fare on a budget airline might only cost half or a third of what you would pay to a normal airline.
你经常可以找到2-3小时航程的廉航机票 售价不足10欧元
You can regularly find 2-3 hour flights on budget airlines for less than 10 euros
那么这一切是怎么办到的呢?
So how do they work?
毋庸置疑 廉价航空本质是将飞行中昂贵的部分
Well, unsurprisingly, budget airlines essentially take every expensive part of the flight and
变得没那么昂贵
make them less expensive.
一家航空公司的根本当然是飞机 在这方面是可以想办法消减花销的
The most essential thing an airline needs is airplanes and it is possible to spend less on those.
在911后很长一段时间里 航空运输业止步不前
In the months and years following 9/11, the growth of air travel stalled and most airlines
多数航空公司在挣扎求存
were simply fighting to survive.
同时瑞安 易捷却迅速发展
Meanwhile, Ryanair was thriving
并以难以置信的低价订购了151架波音737
and placed a massive order of 151 737’s from Boeing at unbelievably low-prices.
这种机遇并不常见 但廉航随时可以通过大量的订单
A circumstance like that luckily isn’t frequent but budget airlines can place large orders
来获得较大的折扣
at any time which gives them a bulk discount.
廉价航空会买新飞机 这听起来可能有些怪
It might seem weird that a budget airline would buy brand new airplanes, but the newest
但最新的机型 意味着更高的燃油效率
planes are the most efficient which saves fuel.
节省的油料抵消了新飞机的高售价
The fuel efficiency of new aircraft offsets the higher purchase price, so EasyJet (4.0),
因此易捷、捷蓝、瑞安、精神都有着比传统航空公司更年轻的机队
JetBlue (4.7), Ryanair (5.0), and Spirit Airlines (5.7) all have younger fleets than any major airline (KLM 9.4, Air France 11.5, Lufthansa
12.4).
廉价航空另一特色是机型单一
Budget airlines will also typically have only one type of plane.
瑞安只有737系列 易捷只有a320家族
Ryanair only operates 737’s and EasyJet only operates the a320 family.
机型单一意味着飞行员、乘务员、机械师
Having only one type of Aircraft means that pilots, flight attendants, mechanics, and
以及地面人员只用接受一种机型的训练
ground staff only need to be trained on one type of aircraft,
大大节省了时间与金钱
which saves an enormous amount of time and money.
客舵中 廉航通常会避免使用昂贵的内饰
Within the planes, budget airlines will often avoid luxuries to keep costs down.
举个例子 瑞安的座椅不能后仰
Ryanair seats, for example, don’t recline,
因为这会增加客舱座椅采购价格
because that increases the initial purchase price for seats,
与后续维护费用
and also requires more maintenance.
无口袋的座椅设计 同样使乘务员节省了打扫时间
The seat design also saves time for flight attendants since there are no seatback pockets to clean between flights.
廉航的机组成员同样也是刚入职场的新人
Flight attendants on budget airlines are often in the beginning of their careers and receive
相对缺乏训练
little training.
当然他们会接受必要的安全培训
Of course they’ll get the required safety training,
但服务方面的培训只是点到为止
but only minimal hospitality training.
他们通常也身兼多职
They’ll also often serve multiple roles.
在地面时 有些乘务员会去门口检票
While on the ground, some of the flight attendants might go to the gate and check tickets while
其他人则负责打扫飞机
others clean the airplane.
通过这些手段 公司可以减少3-4个常规岗位
Through this, the airline eliminates three or four positions that they regularly would pay for.
在飞机上 乘务员从不提供免费的食物和饮料
Onboard, flight attendants are of course responsible for food and drinks which are almost never free.
机上服务是一种非常好的赚钱方法
Onboard service can be an excellent way for the airline to make money.
许多廉航还会卖免税商品 瑞安甚至还卖彩票
Many budget airlines also do duty free sales and Ryanair even sells lottery tickets.
再来说说机场
Let’s talk Airports.
你从没见过瑞安降落在伦敦希思罗机场 或巴黎戴高乐机场
You’re never going to see Ryanair fly to London Heathrow or Paris Charles de Gaulle
因为这些机场非常昂贵
because those airports are expensive.
每天只有固定数量的航班能在这些机场执飞
There’s only a set amounts of flights per day that can operate out of them so supply
因此供需关系决定了他们高昂的降落费 和受限的降落次数
and demand dictates that landing fees are high and slots are regulated.
于是 瑞安选择飞往伦敦的盖特威克 斯坦斯特德 卢顿机场 或是巴黎的博伟机场
Instead, Ryanair flies to Gatwick, Stansted, or Luton in London or Beauvais in Paris, which,
顺便说 博伟是一个距离巴黎80分钟车程…
by the way, is a 80 minute bus ride away from Paris, isn’t even technically in the same
…甚至和巴黎都不在同一地区 以及有着这样一个的官网的机场
region of Paris, and has a website that looks like this!
许多情况下 瑞安和其它廉航是这些机场仅有的航班
In a lot of cases, Ryanair or other budget airlines are the only or one of a few airlines
这就给了廉航强大的议价能力
flying out of an airport which gives them huge negotiating power.
通常他们会选择一个偏远的小型支线机场
Often they will take a small regional airport a ways away from a city and rebrand it as
将其改造成一个城市机场
another city airport.
他们可以要求低廉的起降费用 如果机场不妥协
They can ask for lower landing and takeoff prices and, if the airport doesn’t comply,
那么就直接离开 这个机场终将倒闭
just leave and the airport will essentially cease to exist.
如果城市周围没有廉价机场
If there isn’t a viable cheap airport available around a city, budget airlines can also fly
廉航也会选择常规机场的非繁忙时段
to regular airports at less busy times,
在这一时段起降费和延误率都相对较低
when landing fees and the chance of delay might be lower.
再来聊一聊细节
Now let’s get into the nitty-gritty—the small details.
廉航飞机需要全天不间断执飞
The planes of budget airlines tend to operate all day non-stop.
举个例子 在一天之中 这架瑞安的飞机从布鲁塞尔飞往哥本哈根
For example, in one day, this Ryanair plane went from Brussels to Copenhagen, Copenhagen
再从哥本哈根回到布鲁塞尔 之后又从布鲁塞尔出发至布拉格 然后又回到布鲁塞尔 接着又从布鲁塞尔飞往尼姆 再从尼姆回到布鲁塞尔
to Brussels, Brussels to Prague, Prague to Brussels, Brussels to Nimes, Nimes to Brussels,
之后再从布鲁塞尔到特莱维索 最后从特莱维索回到布鲁塞尔
Brussels to Trevioso, then finally Trevioso to Brussels.
廉航飞机在降落和下次起飞之间常只有30-45分钟的间隔
Budget airlines will schedule only 30-45 minutes between the landing of one-flight to the take-off
这常常导致延误 并且缺少打扫飞机的时间
of another which often leads to delays and leaves very little time to clean the aircraft.
但这也意味着飞机一直在赚钱
This does, however, mean that the airplane is always making money and passengers are
同时乘客也不必为候机时间买单
not paying for the time it’s sitting around.
想没想过为什么西南航空不能预订座位?
Ever wonder why Southwest doesn’t have reserved seating?
因为先到先得的原则 乘客几乎总是提前赶到登机口
Well by having a first come first serve system for seats, people almost always show up to
并自觉排成一队
the gate early and line up in an orderly line.
通过这种方法 廉航减少了登机时间 增加了飞行时间
This way, less time is spent on the ground boarding and more time in the air flying.
廉航的另一原则是“点对点模式”
Another principle of budget airlines is the point-to-point model.
多数传统航空公司都有中心枢纽 绝大多数航班都在这些中心起降
Most traditional airlines have hubs where most or all of their flights go in and out of.
英航的在伦敦 法航的在巴黎 荷航的在阿姆斯特丹
British Airlines has London, Air France has Paris, KLM has Amsterdam.
坐这些公司航班去大多数地方 都需要经过他们的中心
To get to most places on these airlines, you have to connect through their hubs.
另一方面 廉航则是尝试在尽可能多的地方起降
Budget airlines, on the other hand, try to have a lot of destinations from everywhere.
虽然这也意味着许多地方一周可能只有几班航班
That does mean, however, that many destinations are served only a few times per week.
最便宜的廉航甚至不允许出售联程机票
The cheapest budget airlines don’t even allow for connections between their flights.
这会增加成本 因为你需要付钱给地面转运行李的工作人员
Allowing connections adds cost because then you have to pay for ground crews to transfer
建造一个更复杂的检票系统
bags, create a more complicated ticketing system, and pay to rebook a passenger if a
以及赔偿因首班延误而错过第二趟航班的乘客
delay in their first flight makes them miss their second.
说到票务系统 廉航通常没有售票人员
Speaking of ticketing, there’s often no way to get a ticket from a real person on budget airlines.
如果你没有在家打印好登机牌 瑞安会收取你45镑的手续费
Ryanair charges 45 pounds if you fail to print your boarding pass at home and EasyJet and
易捷和其他廉航也几乎都只由机器办理登机手续
some other carriers have almost all their check-in’s handled by machines.
这再一次减少了人力开支
This, once again, cuts down on personnel costs.
在机场 这些廉航甚至不会使用廊桥 因为廊桥非常昂贵
At the airport, these budget airlines won’t bother using jetways because they’re expensive.
它们只需要让乘客步行或乘车穿过机场 从梯子登机即可
They’ll use steps and just have passengers walk across the tarmac or take a bus to the plane.
如果掌握了正确的方式 廉航可以很赚钱
Budget airlines make a lot of money, if done right.
易捷(11.15%) 瑞安(24.10%) 维兹(10.2%)都有着更高的利润率
EasyJet (11.15%), Ryanair (24.10%), and Wizz Air (10.2%) all have higher profit margins
相对于汉莎(4.03%) 英航(7.09%) 法航(2.15%)来说
than Lufthansa (4.03%), British Airways (7.09%), and Air France (2.15%).
许多传统航空公司员工 都是有着不可变动工资的公会员工
Many of the traditional airlines have unionized workers with salary agreements that cannot
而廉航则可以雇佣任何人 并在短短几月内完成培训
be changed while the budget airlines can hire anyone and train them in a few months.
传统航空同时也更难以成长
It’s also hard for these traditional airlines to grow.
由于他们的主要客户是商务旅行者
Any route they make has to be one with a lot of preexisting demand since much of their
因此每条新航线的开设都需要有大量需求为前提
business comes from business travelers.
而廉航目标客户大多是游客
Since budget airlines are targeted more towards tourists, any destination that Ryanair, for
以瑞安为例 每条新航线 都能使其目的地成为受欢迎的景点
example, opens up in will become a popular destination just because it’s possible to
因为去这些地方变得非常便宜
go there for so cheap.
一些传统航空公司也在欧洲建立了自己旗下的廉航
Some traditional airlines in Europe are opening their own budget airlines,
来抢占这块蛋糕
to get in on this profit.
法航建立了泛航航空 汉莎建立了欧洲之翼
Air France created Transavia and Lufthansa created Eurowings,
这两家都在巨额亏损
both of which are losing massive amounts of money.
他们似乎忘记了美国几十年前就经历过传统航空旗下建立廉航的阶段
What they seem to forget is that the US went through this budget airline within an airline phase a couple decades ago.
达美建立了Song 失败了
Delta created Song, which failed.
全美建立了快捷航空 失败了
US Airways created MetroJet, which failed.
美联航建立了通勤航空 失败了 随后宣布破产
United created Shuttle, which failed, then they went into bankruptcy and decided they
但又还想再试一下 于是建立了泰德航空 又失败了
should try again and make Ted, which failed.
没有一个成功!
None of these worked!
瑞安和易捷之所以能够脱颖而出 取得成功
The reason Ryanair and EasyJet are able to succeed where others have failed is largely
主要是因为其巨大的规模和高度的灵活性
because they are so large and flexible.
他们有着数百架飞机 数百个目的地 数千名员工
They have hundreds of planes, hundreds of destinations, thousands of employees, and
以及优于竞争对手的强大的议价能力
negotiating power that allows them to overpower competitors.
最后 对于我们消费者来说 竞争永远是好事
In the end, for us consumers, any competition is good competition.
即是是失败的廉航 也能够拉低传统公司的售价
Even failing budget airlines will bring down the cost of traditional airlines and allow
让我们以更便宜的价格旅行世界各地
us to travel the world for less.
感谢观看
Thank you for watching.
希望你喜欢这个视频
I hope you enjoyed this video.
点击订阅按钮 或关注我的推特@wendoverprp
Make sure to click subscribe and follow me on twitter @wendoverpro.
如果你想和我以及其他人讨论这个视频
If you want to discuss this video with me and others, I’ll link the first reddit thread
reddit讨论串链接如下
of my video here.
下周我将给大家带来另一集“维基百科”系列
I’ll be back next week with another episode from That Wikipedia List.

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视频概述

在成本高昂的航空业,廉价航空公司是如何做到以不足传统公司一半的售价,赚取超过传统航空三至四倍利润的呢?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员

译学馆审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=069y1MpOkQY

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