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鸦片贸易

How Britain Got China Hooked on Opium I Empires of Dirt

We arrest drug dealers,
我们抓捕毒贩
we criminalize people, mainly black and brown people,
我们将他们定罪 大多是黑人和棕色人种
for possessing small amounts of drugs like weed.
因为他们持有少量毒品 比如大麻
We do this because drugs are bad.
我们这么做是因为毒品有害
Unless, of course, it’s your government that’s dealing the drugs.
当然 除非是你们的政府在贩毒
Like that time the British Empire got China hooked on opium.
就像曾经大英帝国让中国迷上鸦片一样
Empires of Dirt, a show about Europeans getting rich
《尘埃之境》 一档关于欧洲人牺牲别人的利益
at the expense of everyone else.
让自己发财的节目
[How Britain Hooked A Nation On Drugs]
大英帝国是如何让一个国家迷上毒品的
Opium had been grown in China since the 11th century,
自11世纪起 中国就开始种植鸦片
but it was only until the 17th century that usage really took off,
但直到17世纪 鸦片才真正得到利用
when people realized you could smoke it instead of just chewing it.
那时人们意识到 鸦片可用来吸食而不仅仅是咀嚼
By the 1800s, there were foggy back alley opium dens in the streets of Canton,
到19世纪 广州府即现在的广州 以及上海
now known as Guangzhou, Shanghai,
甚至伦敦Pennyfields街的华人聚集区
and even in London’s Limehouse on Pennyfields Street.
等地的街巷里就有了烟雾缭绕的烟馆
In the early 19th century,
19世纪初期
Chinese exports like silk, ceramics, and tea
中国向英国出口丝绸 陶器 茶叶
were hugely popular in Britain.
广受欢迎
Opium was one of the few things the British Empire could trade back.
鸦片是大英帝国少有的可以卖到中国的物品
It’s estimated that as many as 15 million people
据估计 截至1890年 有1500万人
were addicted to opium by 1890,
对鸦片上了瘾
making it one of the worst cases of national drug addiction ever seen.
成为有史以来全国最严重的吸毒事件之一
They would ship opium grown in colonial India to Canton,
他们把在印度殖民地种植的鸦片运到广州
where Chinese traders would take it into China.
中国商人再把它们带到国内
As opium grew in popularity,
随着鸦片种植范围的扩大
British trade increased.
英国的贸易也增加了
In 1800, 300 metric tons of opium was shipped into China.
1800年 有300吨鸦片运入中国
Four decades later,
40年后
this had increased to 3,500 metric tons of opium.
这一数字增长到3500吨
Opium was a highly addictive drug
鸦片是一种极易上瘾的毒品
with similar effects to modern-day heroin.
效果与现在的海洛因类似
Long-term users could experience liver, kidney, and heart problems,
长期吸食 会引起肝 肾 心脏方面的问题
and could die of withdrawal.
戒断会致人死亡
Opium use had been banned by the Chinese Emperor Yongzheng in 1729,
1729年 看到毒瘾对其子民的危害后
after he saw the effects of addiction on his citizens,
清雍正帝颁布禁烟令
and again in 1796 by the Emperor Jiaqing,
1796年 在大家已经遗忘第一次禁令后
after everyone ignored the first ban.
嘉庆皇帝再次禁烟
But Britain continued smuggling opium into China.
但英国不断向中国走私鸦片
It was simply too profitable not to.
它的利润太大了
The opium monopoly out of India
1831年 印度垄断的鸦片
was worth £981,000 in 1831,
价值98.1万英镑
that’s the equivalent of about £100 million today.
相当于现在的1亿英镑
By the 1830s,
到19世纪30年代
people from every level of Chinese society were hooked on opium.
中国社会各个阶层的人都染上了毒瘾
After Emperor Daoguang received reports of mass addiction all over the country,
接到全国人口普遍染上毒瘾的报告后
he’d had enough.
道光皇帝受够了
Soldiers burned all the opium they found.
官兵们把搜查到的鸦片全部销毁
British traders lost 20,000 chests of opium,
英国商人损失了2万箱鸦片
equivalent to about £2 million.
价值200万英镑
This led to the First Opium War, in 1839.
这导致1839年第一次鸦片战争的爆发
The British were so angry that their drugs had been stolen
清缴鸦片的行为 让英国人非常生气
that they sent troops to the region to demand economic reparations
他们派兵到该地区要求经济赔偿
for the financial losses they’d incurred
用来弥补
while illegally trafficking narcotics into a foreign country.
非法向外国贩卖毒品造成的经济损失
They were also angry that China refused to open up more ports to British trade
同时 英国人对清政府拒绝开放更多通商口岸
and had disrespected their traders.
以及对商人无礼的行为也感到愤怒
Back in the UK, the press depicted the Chinese as barbarians
回到英国 报刊把中国人描述成野蛮人
who had insulted the honor of Brits abroad.
说他们在海外侮辱了英国人的尊严
In an act of war, Britain occupied Hong Kong,
这场战争使英国占领了香港——
then a sparsely inhabited island off the southeast coast of China.
中国东南部一个人烟稀少的小岛
In 1841, China ceded the island to Britain.
1841年 清政府割让香港岛给英国
A year later, the Treaty of Nanking was signed,
一年后 《南京条约》的签订
marking an end to the First Opium War.
标志第一次鸦片战争的结束
So, Britain got what it wanted:
就这样 英国得到了想要的东西:
money for illegally trafficking drugs into China,
向中国非法贩卖毒品的钱
and a shiny new island base to smuggle opium from Hong Kong.
以及从香港走私鸦片的新的岛屿基地
Opium remained illegal after the war,
战后走私鸦片依旧是非法的
but the Chinese authorities were basically forced to accept the drug trade into China.
但清政府差不多被迫接受了国内的鸦片贸易
Opium consumption ripped through Chinese society like never before.
鸦片席卷中国 真是前所未有
Chinese smugglers quickly realized that
中国的走私贩很快就意识到
if they registered their ships in Hong Kong as British ships,
如果船在香港注册 成为英国船只
they could keep smuggling opium into China.
他们就可以继续向中国走私鸦片
This triggered the Second Opium War in 1856,
当清政府查获一搜挂着英国国旗的中国船只时
when a Chinese ship flying the Union Jack was seized by the authorities.
导致了1856年第二次鸦片战争的爆发
The Chinese crew was arrested and the British flag was torn down.
他们逮捕了中国船员并扯落了英国国旗
The British navy, supported by the French troops,
在法国军队的配合下 英国海军进行了反击
retaliated by seizing Beijing
他们占领北京
and looting and burning down the Imperial Summer Palace.
掠夺并烧毁了圆明园
China was forced to legalize the import of opium.
清政府不得不将鸦片进口合法化
With the opium trade finally legal,
最终 随着鸦片贸易的合法化
imports from British-controlled India nearly tripled
从英属印度进口的鸦片数量提升了三倍
to hit 6,500 metric tons in 1880.
在1880年达到6500吨
Fed up with the British running drugs into their country,
清政府受够了英国把毒品运到他们国家
the Chinese authorities decided that if you couldn’t beat them,
决定既然打不过他们
you might as join them.
就加入他们
By around 1915,
1915年左右
moral and political opposition to the drug trade had grown.
道德 政治上 对鸦片贸易的反对声越来越大
Britain stopped importing opium to China.
英国不再往中国出口鸦片
It simply wasn’t profitable anymore.
仅仅因为没有利润了
It’s hard to quantify the scale of the misery that Britain caused in China,
很难去量化英国给中国带来了多大的灾难
or the mess they left behind.
或留下多少烂摊子
And I know personally
就我个人所知
because my own great grandfather was addicted to opium
因为我的曾祖父就染上了毒瘾
and eventually died of withdrawal in Hong Kong.
最后因为戒断在香港去世了
And it’s something my family still talks about all the time.
我的家人对此事一直无法释怀
The British Empire were one of the biggest drug pushers in history.
大英帝国是史上的大毒贩之一
But hardly anyone in the UK knows what we did in China.
但在英国几乎没人清楚我们在中国做过什么
Pablo Escobar?
Pablo Escobar
He’s got nothing on the British Empire.
他比大英帝国差远了

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译制信息
视频概述

英国为何在中国贩卖鸦片?有何影响?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Y_y

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbHAWNQRV70

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