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呼吸和新陈代谢有何联系

How breathing and metabolism are interconnected | Ruben Meerman | TEDxBundaberg

About seven years ago,
大概7年前
I saw this photo of myself
我看见了自己这张照片
and decided that I had to do something about this thing.
就决定必须要对我的肚子做些什么了
So I ate less food, moved around a bit more,
所以我少吃 多动
and lo and behold, this happened.
你瞧 变成了现在这样
I lost 16 kilograms.
我减了16公斤
And you’re probably wondering how did he do it?
大家可能会想怎么做到的?
But I was wondering,
而我也在好奇
Where did the 16 kilograms go?
这16公斤去了哪里呢?
And I’ve been infatuated with this question ever since.
从那时起 我就被这个问题迷住了
I ended up publishing a paper about it in the British Medical Journal,
最终 我在《英国医学期刊》上就此发表了一篇论文
very brief paper—850 words, two figures.
论文很短——850个单词 2份图表
And then, I published a book about it, which was no bestseller
为此我还出版了一本书 销量并不好
because it ended up telling you
因为它最终告诉你
that you had to eat less and move more to lose weight.
减肥必须要少吃多动
No one wants to hear that.
没人想听这种话
But it’s now a first-year subject at the University of New South Wales,
可它现在却成了新南威尔士大学一年级的教材
and so I better explain
我澄清一下
that I did not figure out where fat goes when you lose weight.
我不是解决了“减肥减掉的脂肪去哪了”这个问题
That was done a long time ago.
这很久前就被搞定了
In fact, here’s some time posts for you.
事实上 这里有几个时间点
When Captain Cook sailed past Bundaberg in 1770,
1770年 库克船长经过班达伯格
we did not know what happens to fat when you lose weight.
那时我们还不清楚 脂肪在减肥期的情况
But when the First Fleet sailed into Sydney Cove,
但到了“第一舰队”驶入悉尼湾时
we did know the answer,
我们就知道了答案
and it was all figured out by this bloke in between.
在此期间这个人全都弄明白了
His name’s Antoine Lavoisier.
他叫安托万·拉瓦锡
He figured out that respiration is a combustion.
他认为呼吸是一种氧化反应
You turn food into carbon dioxide and water.
大家把食物转化成了二氧化碳和水
And in the process, nothing is lost.
在这个过程中 没有任何东西损失
Nothing is created.
也没有创造什么
Everything is just transformed.
一切只是交换
And so, what did I do?
那么 我做了什么呢?
Well, when I lost weight and I first thought about this,
减肥期间我第一次想到这个问题
I was so infatuated.
完全无法自拔
I wanted to know if I lose 10 kilos,
我想知道如果我瘦了10公斤
where does the 10 kilos go precisely?
这10公斤到底会去哪呢?
And it took me months to figure this out.
我用几个月的时间弄清楚了这个问题
But it turns out that when you lose weight,
结果却是 减肥期间
8.4 kilos out of every 10 comes out of your lungs,
10公斤脂肪中有8点4公斤会在肺部代谢掉
which I think is the best fact I’ve ever heard.
我觉得 这是我听过最好的事情
So I gave…uh…I…
所以我在……额……
you’ve got to add oxygen to do this,
这个反应要加入氧气
so you can’t do it (snap) like that.
无法像这样弹指间就做到
It takes a while.
需要一点时间
So I gave a talk about this at TEDxQUT a long time ago now,
很久以前我在TEDxQUT也做了相关报告
and then I did a story for ABC TV Catalyst,
还为ABC电视节目《催化剂》做了报道
and I met this fellow, Professor Andrew Brown,
然后遇到这位安德鲁·布朗教授
who teaches biochemistry.
他是教生物化学的
And I showed him my calculations,
我给他展示了我的运算
and he said, “That’s pretty interesting.
他说:“相当有意思”
Let’s try and get that published.”
“试试发表它”
And so he helped me get it into the British Medical Journal.
然后就帮我在《英国医学期刊》上发表了
And the other thing we did was
我们做的另一件事是
we surveyed 150 doctors, dieticians and personal trainers
调查了150位医生 营养学家和私人教练
and asked them what they thought.
并询问他们的想法
And here’s the thing:
结果都在这
What they think happens is impossible.
他们想的事情不可能发生
You can’t turn fat into energy,
你无法把脂肪变成能量
because it’s made of atoms.
因为脂肪是由原子构成
And you would need antimatter atoms to annihilate them.
你要用反物质原子才能消灭它们
So that’s literally impossible.
那简直不可能
And since then, I’ve realised, well, hang on,
从那时起 我意识到 等等
this is part of a much bigger gap in health literacy.
这是健康知识普及中比较欠缺的一部分
I’ve asked literally thousands of kids this question:
事实上我问了上千孩子这个问题:
-When you breathe in, what are you inhaling? -Oxygen.
-你吸气时在吸入什么? -氧气
-And what are you exhaling? -Carbon dioxide.
-呼出的是什么? -二氧化碳
What they don’t realise is that they’re breathing in atoms,
他们没有意识到:他们吸进去的是原子
and two go in, but three come out.
而且吸进去两个 却出来三个
And it’s this atom here that is the gap in health literacy.
箭头下这个原子 就是健康知识普及中的空白
It’s also the secret to weight loss
也是减肥的秘诀
because it means
因为这意味着
that your exhaled breath is heavier than your inhaled breath.
你呼出的气体比吸入的更重
And when you ask around, so few people know this.
当你去问周边的人 几乎没有人知道这点
Well, have a listen to these people:
听听这些人说的:
Ruben Meerman: What’s the gas that you inhale in out of the air
鲁本·米尔曼:你从空气中吸入
that keeps you alive called?
可维持生命的气体是什么?
Oxygen.
氧气
Oxygen.
氧气
RM: And what’s the gas you breathe out because you’re alive?
鲁本:你活着时呼出的气体是什么?
Carbon dioxide?
二氧化碳?
Carbon dioxide?
二氧化碳?
RM: Now third question.
鲁本:第三个问题
Where did the carbon atoms in the carbon dioxide come from?
二氧化碳中的碳原子来自哪里?
Oh …
额……
I don’t know.
我不知道
No idea.
不知道
I’ve got no idea.
我不知道
I wouldn’t have a clue, mate.
兄弟 我不知道
Ooh, ahhhh.
哦 额……
Ummmm, wow! Good question.
嗯……哇哦!好问题
I should have concentrated more in chemistry.
我应该多花点心思在化学上
So where do carbon atoms come from? Or …
所以碳原子来自哪?
Umm, pollution?
嗯……污染?
Fumes? Gas?
尾气?还是煤气?
Cars and stuff? I don’t know.
汽车一类吗? 不知道
Yeah. Vehicles.
额 交通工具
Don’t know.
不知道
Cow poop?
牛粪?
Should know, but don’t know.
我应该懂但我没有
All right, so to be somewhere in the body, right?
所以是身体某个地方 是吗
Out of my lungs.
从我的肺里
My lungs?
我的肺部?
From the environment?
来自环境?
From your blood stream?
来自血液?
From living things?
来自某些生物?
Maybe from the blood?
可能是血液?
From plants?
来自植物?
My chemistry days are over. I’ve got nothing.
自从化学课结束我就什么都不知道了
From the food we eat?
来自我们吃的东西?
RM: You know that! You got there!
鲁本:你知道!你说对了!
-Really? -Yeah
-真的? -对
-So you eat it. -Yeah
-所以你吃了它 -是的
We eat it? From what?
我们吃下去了?吃的什么?
RM: Have you heard of carbohydrates?
鲁本:听过碳水化合物吗?
Yes.
听过
Oh, yes. Oh, OK.
哦 是的
RM: What do you think the carbohydrate means?
鲁本:你们觉得carbohydrate是什么意思?
Carbon dioxide.
二氧化碳
Probably carbon dioxide? Does it connect to somewhere?
可能是二氧化碳?与别的有关吗?
Like carbon and hydrogen and oxygen together?
类似碳 氢 氧的混合物?
-Yes. -Carbon…carbohydrate, yeah.
-是的 -碳……碳水化合物
It’s not the same word.
这不是同一个词
Never thought it’s C-H-A, says Carbon-hydrate.
从没想过会是CHA 也就是“碳水化合物”
OK, interesting.
好吧 挺有趣的
RM: What do you do for a crust?
鲁本:你是做什么的?
I’m a PDHPE teacher.
我是一名PDHPE教师
This is not a gap in health literacy.
这原子不只是健康素养的缺口
This is a gaping black hole in health literacy.
而是一个敞开的大黑洞
And the amazing thing is we supposedly learned all this stuff at school.
神奇的是 我们理应在学校就学完了这些
We learned all the dots, but no one ever teaches you how to connect them.
学了所有知识点 但没人教你把点连起来
So the word carbohydrates is the big clue,
“碳水化合物”就是一个大提示
and that’s because it stands for carbon atoms
因为它代表着
that have been hydrated by,
水合后的碳原子
well, if you’re dehydrated, you need to drink water.
嗯 如果你脱水了 就需要喝水
And water has a chemical formula, which stands for a bunch of atoms.
而水的化学式 包含一串原子
So where do these carbohydrates that you eat come from?
那么你吃下的碳水化合物来自哪里呢?
I mean what is this stuff?
我是指这个是什么?
And it all starts in plants.
一切都源于植物
So Step 1 in making carbohydrates is
所以 产生碳水化合物第一步:
plants suck water out of the soil.
植物要吸收土壤中的水分
They take the water molecules,
植物吸收了水分子
stick it into a molecule called chlorophyll, you’ve all heard of.
把水分子与叶绿素分子结合 应该都听过叶绿素吧
It takes a photon of sunlight to zap that bond and zap that bond,
再用太阳光子依次摧毁两个化学键
and now we have the atoms free.
然后就有了一些自由原子
You do that twice,
重复两遍这一过程
and you’ve got enough atoms now to make an oxygen molecule,
就有足够的原子来制作一个氧分子
which is the waste product of photosynthesis.
即光合作用下的“废料”
And by the way, you breathe that stuff.
顺便说一下 你吸入的也是这东西
So every oxygen molecule you inhale came from two water molecules.
你吸入的每个氧分子都来自于两个水分子
Step 2 is to take carbon dioxide out of the air into the leaf,
第二步:让空气中的二氧化碳被叶子吸收
and into a chemical process, which is called the Calvin Cycle.
进行被称为“卡尔文循环”的化学反应
And if you get six carbon atoms and stick them together,
如果你得到了六个碳原子 并连在一起
you can make glucose,
就可以生成葡萄糖
which is the most important carbohydrate in the cosmos.
也是宇宙中最重要的糖类
If you rearrange those atoms, then you can make fructose,
如果重新排列原子 那么就可以生成果糖
which is what sugarcane does,
即甘蔗中提炼出来的物质
which I have a stalk of over there,
我那边还有一根甘蔗呢
and if you stick it in sunlight,
如果把它放在阳光下
it will turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar.
它就会把二氧化碳和水转化成糖
If you stick glucose to fructose,
如果把葡萄糖和果糖结合
you get table sugar,
就能得到食用糖
and if you stick galactose to glucose,
如果把半乳糖和葡萄糖结合
you get another famous disaccharide.
就能得到另一种有名的二糖
It’s called lactose.
叫做“乳糖”
If you’re lactose intolerant,
如果你属于乳糖不耐受体质
you can’t break the bonds between this oxygen atom and its neighbours.
你就无法打破氧原子和它邻居间的化学键
So all of this stuff is pretty understandable if you know about atoms,
如果你了解原子 知道它来源于植物
and it all starts in plants.
一切就相当容易理解了
But you don’t just eat carbohydrates.
但你不只要吃碳水化合物
So here’s everything that you eat,
这是你要吃的所有东西
all the macronutrients.
所有常量营养素
We’ve looked at carbs.
我们已经看过糖类
Here’s fats.
这是脂肪
The three most common fatty acids in nature,
自然界中最常见的三种脂肪酸
palmitic acid gets its name from palm oil,
棕榈酸是由棕榈油而得名
oleic from olive oil.
油酸源于橄榄油
There’s only three atoms there though,
尽管里面只有三个原子
three kinds, three elements.
应该说三种原子 三个元素
And if you stick those three fatty acids to a glycerin molecule,
如果把这三种脂肪酸与甘油分子结合
you’ll make a triglyceride.
就会产生一种甘油三酯
This is what olive oil is;
即橄榄油的成分
this is what every fat in nature is.
自然界每种脂肪都是这样
It’s the fat in your fat cells that you want to lose
如果你想减肥
if you’re trying to lose weight.
这就是你在脂肪细胞中想减掉的部分
And when you burn it,
当你在消耗甘油三酯
what you’re really doing is turning it into carbon dioxide and water.
实际上是把它转化成了二氧化碳和水
You call it metabolism.
你们称之为“新陈代谢”
People say they’re burning fat.
人们说在燃烧脂肪
It means you’re turning it into carbon dioxide and water.
意思是在把它分解成二氧化碳和水
And there’re two ways to do it.
有两种方法完成
The main highway is called the beta oxidation pathway,
主途径为β氧化法
but there’s another way called the ketogenic pathway,
另一种叫做生酮法
and the low-carb people will be all over this.
低碳饮食的人都会使用生酮法
It’s taking fatty acids and turning them into smaller molecules – acetoacetate
它把脂肪酸分解成更小分子——乙酰乙酸
which can then be turned into acetone, and beta hydroxybutarate.
然后把乙酰乙酸转化成丙酮和β羟基丁酸
But the point is you still add oxygen
但关键是你还要加入氧气
and it still turns into carbon dioxide and water,
它还会转化成二氧化碳和水
so it doesn’t matter what kind of diet you’re on.
所以你吃什么食物都没关系
If you’re burning fat, you’re turning it into CO2 and H2O.
燃烧脂肪就是在把它变成CO2和H2O
And alcohol’s made of the same three atoms.
乙醇同样是由这三种原子组成
Protein’s an interesting one.
蛋白质也很有趣
It’s made out of 20 kinds of amino acids,
它由20种氨基酸构成
but there’s only two more kinds of atoms.
但只多了两种原子
So for all their complexity, there’s only five elements.
所以就复杂度而言 其实只有五种元素
And if you eat them – well, let’s take a look.
如果你要吃这些 我们先来看一看
Because to make a human, you need those 20 amino acids.
构成一个人 需要这20种氨基酸
All the protein in nature is made out of these 20 amino acids.
自然界的蛋白质也是这20种氨基酸构成
A baby, a human,
一个人类婴儿
is 60% water, 16% protein, 19% fat
由60%水 16%蛋白质 19%脂肪
and 5% a bit of other stuff.
和5%的其他物质组成
And when you burn protein,
当你消耗蛋白质时
if you eat a lot of it, you can’t store it.
如果吃太多蛋白质 就无法储存
So you’ll burn it, and you’ll turn it into carbon dioxide and water,
所以你会消耗它 分解成二氧化碳和水
a bit of urea and some sulfate.
还有一点尿素和硫酸盐
Those two things will end up in the toilet via your bladder,
这两样东西最终会通过膀胱排到马桶
and now you know where everything that you eat goes.
现在你明白吃下的东西去了哪里吧
You might be wondering, though,
不过 你可能在好奇
“I’m eating carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
“我在吃碳 氢 氧
What’s all this talk about diets?”
跟这场饮食讨论又有什么关系呢?”
Amazingly, this junk diet is also made of nothing but carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
意外的是 垃圾食品也是碳 氢 氧构成
but you’re not getting many vitamins and minerals.
但你没吸收很多维生素和矿物质
So let’s take a look at those.
接下来看看这些
Here’s all 14 vitamins that you need to eat.
这里有你要吃的所有14种维生素
If you don’t eat them, you’ll get scurvy, beriberi, rickets – you’ll go blind.
如果不吃 会得坏血病 脚气病 佝偻病 还会失明
But the amazing thing is
神奇的是
per day, you only need about half a gram of this stuff.
每天只需要0.5克就行
The 14 elements that you have to take, we call them minerals.
这14种必吃元素 被称为“矿物质”
Here they are.
就是这些
These are the recommended daily intakes,
这是建议每天摄入的量
and if you stick all that together, it’s seven grams worth of stuff.
如果把所有东西放一起有7克
It’s not very much.
并不多
That’s why we call them micronutrients.
因此 我们称之为“微量元素”
So when I tell people this,
当我告诉别人这件事
the first question I get asked is
他们问的第一个问题是:
“So what? I just have to breathe more?”
“所以呢?我只要多呼吸就可以了吗?”
And they’ll start hyperventilating.
然后他们就开始过度呼吸
So let’s talk about breathing.
所以 我们来讨论一下呼吸
Talk to anyone who works in an ICU unit,
如果和ICU工作人员交谈
and they’ll tell you that a human who’s lying perfectly still
他们会告诉你 一个完全躺着不动的人
needs 3.5 millilitres of oxygen,
每千克体重需要吸收3.5毫升氧气
and 2.6 to 2.9 millilitres of CO2 will come out of them per kilogram of that person.
排出2.6至2.9毫升CO2
Now, I weigh 72 kilos,
我现在72公斤
so that means I need about 252 millilitres of oxygen
这意味着我需要大约252毫升氧气
just to stay alive.
仅仅是为了活着
That’s 15 litres per hour.
也就是每小时15升
And over here, I have an hour’s worth of breathing.
这里 有我一个小时的呼吸量
This is how much air I have to breathe
这是我必须呼吸的气体量
just to get that one balloon of oxygen into my bloodstream.
只是为了将一个气球的氧气量摄入血液
A balloon is about 15 litres.
一个气球容量大约15升
So that’s how much oxygen I need per hour
这就是我每小时需要的氧气量
just to stay awake and alive –
仅仅为了保持“醒着”和活着
not awake, sorry – I mean alive.
抱歉 不是“醒着” 我是指“活着”
It’s my resting metabolic rate.
这是我休息时的新陈代谢率
And in that hour, when I breathe all this air back out again,
还是那一小时内 我再次呼出的所有气体
it’ll have a balloon worth of CO2 in it,
就相当于一个气球量的CO2
and these numbers just get better and better and better.
这些数只会变得越来越大 越来越大
If you add up all the carbon atoms in that much CO2,
如果把这么多CO2中所有碳原子加起来
it’s 136 to 151 grams a day of just carbon.
一天光碳就有136至151克了
It’s about a kilo a week.
一周大约一千克
It’s about 49 to 55 kilos a year.
一年大约49至55千克
If you want to lose weight, don’t eat that much carbon back in.
如果想减肥 就不要把那么多碳吃回去
That’s the whole key to breathing yourself thin.
这就是呼吸减肥的全部关键
Doctors will…
医生会……
if you are not breathing, they will monitor your breathing.
如果你不呼吸 医生会监控你的呼吸
If you’re having an operation,
如果你在动手术
the anaesthetist will look for your breaths.
麻醉师会检查你的气息
This is how much CO2 there should be in your breath.
这是你应该呼出的CO2量
If you hyperventilate, your body is not producing more CO2.
如果过度呼吸 体内不再产生更多CO2
You’re just breathing out more than you need to,
只会让实际呼出量超过需要呼出量
and so this will happen.
就会发生这种情况
You’re pumping out more than you’re making;
你排出的CO2多于所生成的
the amount in your body will go down.
身体内的CO2含量会下降
It’s called hypocapnia.
这叫做低碳酸血症
It will lead to a loss of consciousness if you do it for too long.
如果你用力呼吸太久 会导致失去意识
And some people ask me:
有些人问我:
“What about people who have COPD or emphysema?
患有慢性阻塞性肺病或肺气肿的人呢?
Could they get overweight because they can’t get rid of enough CO2?”
他们会因为不能释放足够CO2长胖吗?
Well, they can’t do the Calvin Cycle –
嗯 这类人不能做“卡尔文循环”
a plant can –
但植物可以
so you can’t turn the CO2 that you’re not breathing out back into fat.
你无法把没有排出去的CO2变回脂肪
It’s impossible.
这是不可能的
So, you know, there’s a lot of misconceptions about this business.
有很多人对这件事情产生了误解
Now, it takes a while to breathe out the carbon that you eat.
把吃下的碳排出去是需要时间的
So let’s have a look at how much carbon you can put in really quickly.
我们来看看你能快速吸收多少碳
I quite like this stuff,
我非常喜欢这东西
and there is a lot of sugar in lemon-flavoured soft drink.
柠檬味饮料中含有大量的糖
It’s one of the highest.
它是含糖量最高的食物之一
So, how much sugar are we talking about?
我们在讨论多少糖呢?
It’s – for one stick is 3 grams,
一根糖果含有3克糖
so there’s 23 and a third of a stick in there,
所以这瓶柠檬味饮料相当于23又1/3根糖
which looks like this.
就像这样
And if you want to turn that much sugar into carbon dioxide and water,
如果你想把这么多糖转化成二氧化碳和水
well, it’s going to take a while.
这需要一点时间
You’re going to need to breathe in that much oxygen.
你要吸入这么多(79克)氧气
You’ll make that much CO2.
产生那么多(108克)CO2
How much is that? It’s four balloons worth.
有多少呢? 4个气球的量
And it’s four balloons’ worth of CO2.
4个气球的CO2
So, how long is it going to take me to breathe out that much carbon?
我要花多久来排出那么多碳呢?
It’s going to take me four hours
我要花四个小时
because I only breathe out one balloon of carbon dioxide per hour if I stay still.
因为如果我保持不动 每小时只能呼出一气球量的二氧化碳
But if I go for a walk, I’ll breathe it out in an hour.
但如果我散散步 我可以在一小时内排出
If I run, it’ll only take me 30 minutes.
如果跑起来 就只要30分钟
That’s why they say eat less, move more.
这就是为什么他们建议少吃多动
Because when you’re moving more, you’re breathing more.
因为动得越多呼吸量越多
And there’s always CO2 in your breath.
而且会一直呼出CO2
What about if we compare it to something a bit healthier?
如果把它比作更健康一点的东西呢?
Because this has got vitamins and amino acids and all the good stuff in it.
它具备了维生素 氨基酸及所有有益成分
But if we take those ingredients,
如果我们记下这些成分
and we chuck it into the equation for food,
把它丢在食物等式中
then you discover that, actually, it’s four hours as well.
你会发现 事实上 也是四个小时
And so is this tuna salad sandwich on organic wholemeal bread,
就算由长于山北小麦制作的有机全麦面包
grown on the north side of the hill, blessed by a monk, all the things.
配上高僧赐福的金枪鱼沙拉三明治也如此
But it’s still four hours of breathing, right?
还是四小时呼吸量 不是吗?
So the point is they’re not equivalent in how healthy they are,
关键是食物和健康程度并不对等
but they are equivalent in how long they take to exhale.
但他们等同于呼气的时间
An apple takes an hour;
一个苹果一小时
a fine size chocolate bar, an hour, 10 minutes;
一块小号巧克力 要1小时10分钟
regular size, three and a half hours; and a king-sized, five and a quarter.
标准型号 3.5小时 特大号 5小时15分钟
If you’re trying to lose weight, don’t drink soft drink,
如果想减肥 别喝软饮料
because that’s got carbon atoms in it.
因为里面含有碳原子
Drink water.
要喝水
If you like this stuff – and who doesn’t? –
如果你喜欢这些东西 谁不喜欢呢?
a large coffee and a piece of cake.
早午餐期间的一大杯咖啡和一块蛋糕
That’s 10 hours of breathing between morning – between breakfast and lunch.
相当于10个小时的呼吸作用
So be careful.
所以 小心点
A large, lovely burger like this guy – 7 hours.
像这样又大又诱人的汉堡 要7个小时
Have a large fries with it, 13 hours;
再配上一大份薯条 13个小时
large drink, 16 hours;
再来一大杯饮料 16个小时
bang in a large sundae – it’s a whole day worth of breathing.
再干一大杯圣代 一整天的呼吸量
You can see why there’s an obesity epidemic,
你可能明白肥胖症蔓延的原因
but no one knows what really is going on in their body.
但没人知道他们身体里到底发生了什么
So, usually, we talk about calories in, calories out.
我们常常讨论卡路里摄入与消耗
How’s this information going to help you?
那这条信息怎么帮到你呢?
Well, I would like to talk about atoms in, atoms out.
我想谈谈原子的摄入与排放
And when you’re counting calories, you’re actually counting carbon atoms
当你计算卡路里 实际上算的是碳原子量
because the energy in food
因为食物的能量就位于
is wherever you see a carbon and a hydrogen atom stuck together.
你看到的碳氢键所在之处
And it’s in all food.
它存在于所有食物中
So just – and it’s sunlight that put that there.
只是光照让能量存放在那里
So my project that I really want to get up and running here at Bundaberg
“我真的想早起在班达伯格跑步”计划
is let’s teach your children this,
是让我们教你的孩子“食物转为了CO2”
and you can do it.
当然你也可以教
Little kids love learning about atoms.
小孩子喜欢学原子
Adults freak out at the idea.
而成年人对这个有点崩溃
But little kids absolutely love it.
但小孩子绝对喜欢
This is Ithaca Creek State School in Brisbane.
这是布里斯班市的伊萨卡溪州立学校
This is a school in India,
这是印度的一所学校
and these kids are using amino, and they’re making amino acids
这些孩子都在用氨基制作氨基酸
and sticking them together to build a protein.
再黏在一起制作蛋白质
You can do that with amazing resource that my friend Ian Stewart invented.
用我朋友伊恩·斯图尔特发明的神奇道具就可以制作
They’re called “sticky atoms”.
他们称之为“黏性原子”
He’s a retired physics and chemistry teacher.
伊恩是一位退休的物理和化学教师
He taught in Brisbane.
他在布里斯班教书
They have magnetic bonds,
黏性原子可以通过磁性粘在一起
so three-year-olds, even younger,
所以三岁小孩 甚至更小的
can play with these things and learn about atoms.
都能用这些边玩边了解原子
And for the educators in the room,
对那里的教育工作者而言
they conform to the concrete pictorial abstract way of teaching.
他们都遵从这种抽象概念具体化的教学法
It’s a fantastic pedagogy,
这种教学法很了不起
and Ian and I are hoping to work together.
伊恩和我都希望能一起工作
We took this out backstage, just moments ago.
几个月前 我们在后台留了这张合影
Because what we want to do is teach children
因为我们想做的是告诉孩子们
what’s actually going on in their bodies.
他们身体内到底发生了什么
And you can’t do that
如果我不谈组成他们的原子
if you’re not talking about the atoms that they’re made of.
就没办法教他们
Unfortunately,
不幸的是
the curriculum does not introduce the concept of atoms and molecules
课程设置直到九年级
until kids are in Grade 9,
才介绍原子和分子的概念
and they don’t see the periodic table until they’re in Grade 10.
直到10年级才看到元素周期表
Why?
为什么?
Because a fellow called Jean Piaget,
因为一个叫做让·皮亚杰的家伙
who was kind of a contemporary of Freud.
他有点像是当代弗洛伊德
He thought that kids can’t have these abstract thoughts
他认为孩子们直到14岁
until they’re about 14.
才可能有抽象思维
We don’t use Freud’s psychology anymore.
现在我们不再使用弗洛伊德的心理学
We still learn it, but we don’t use it.
虽然会学习但不再使用
But our curriculum
但我们的课程
is still under the spell of a person who died long ago,
还处在这个已故多年之人的魔咒下
whose ideas about education were, well, someone had to have those ideas,
他的教育学观点是人必须具备心理学知识
but they were wrong.
但这些理论错了
So I hope to see what happens
所以我期待看到 孩子们带着这个观念长大
if kids grow up with this knowledge.
那时会发生什么
In 10 years, what do obesity rates look like in a town like Bundaberg
10年后 在一个类似班达伯格的小镇
if all the children learn this at primary school?
如果所有孩子从小学就学这些 肥胖率会怎么样
Will they grow up to accept the advice
他们长大后会接受
that to lose weight, just eat less, move more and keep breathing?
“少吃多动 保持呼吸”的减肥建议吗?
Thank you.
谢谢大家

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视频概述

本视频主要介绍了呼吸与减肥的联系,如何通过呼吸来减肥。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

七七

审核员

审核员DKQ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nM-ySWyID9o

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