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动画方式讲解避孕药的工作原理

How Birth Control Pills Work, Animation

避孕药是一种避免怀孕的药物
birth control pills are medication used to prevent pregnancy
避孕药含有抑制排卵的激素
they contain hormones that suppress ovulation
最有效的类型是复合药
the most effective type is the combination pill
里面含有雌激素和孕酮
which contain both estrogen and progestin
即合成形式的孕酮
synthetic form of progesterone
这两种激素会干扰
these two hormones interfere with
正常的月经周期从而阻止排卵
the normal menstrual cycle to prevent ovulation
生理周期是一件
the menstrual cycle refers to the monthly events
每个女性身上都会发生的事情
that occur with in a woman’s body
生理期能反映出女性身体受孕的可能性
in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy
卵巢每个月释放一个卵子
each month an egg is released from an ovary
这个过程被称作排卵
in a process called ovulation
排卵的同时
at the same time
子宫内膜会为怀孕做准备而增厚
the lining of the uterus thickens ready for pregnancy
如果受精卵没有着床
if fertilization does not take place
子宫内膜剥落
the lining of the uterus is shed
产生经血并且月经开始
the menstrual bleeding and the cycle starts over
月经期受多种激素的影响
the menstrual cycle is under control of multiple hormones
这些激素来源于下丘脑 垂体和卵巢
secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries
一般下丘脑可以产生
basically the hypothalamus produces
促性腺激素释放激素GnRH
gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH
垂体释放卵泡刺激素FSH
the pituitary secretes follicle stimulating hormone FSH
和黄体生成素LH
and luteinizing hormone LH
而卵巢则合成雌性激素和孕酮
while the ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone
这些激素都处于一个调节网络中
these hormones are involved in a regulatory network that
从而产生由排卵而引起的月经周期
results into monthly cyclic changes responsible for ovulation
并为怀孕做准备
and preparation for pregnancy
排卵所需要的两种激素是FSH和LH
the two hormones that are required for ovulation are FSH
FSH通过促进未成熟卵泡的生长
which starts the cycle by stimulating immature follicles
来产生成熟的卵细胞
to grow and produce a mature egg
LH对卵巢释放卵子产生效应
and LH which is responsible for the release of the egg
也就是排卵作用本身
from the ovary the ovulation event itself.
另外两种激素 雌激素和孕酮
Two other hormones estrogen and progesterone
在排卵周期的后半段
are at high levels after ovulation
达到峰值
in the second half of the cycle.
它们在此期间抑制FH和LSH
they suppress FSH and LH during this time
防止释放出更多卵细胞
preventing the ovaries from releasing more eggs
如果发生了受精作用
If fertilization occurs
雌激素和孕酮在整个怀孕期间都保持较高水平
estrogen and progesterone levels remain high throughout pregnancy
以维持长时间的排卵抑制
providing a continuous suppression of ovulation.
另一方面 在没有怀孕的情况下
On the other hand in the absence of pregnancy,
它们的水平会降低
their levels fall
造成了月经来潮
causing menstrual bleeding
复合药物中雌激素和孕酮的水平
the levels of estrogen and progesterone in the combination pills
模仿了排卵后的激素水平
mimic the hormonal state after ovulation
欺骗了卵巢
tricking the ovaries into thinking that
使它觉得排卵已经发生了
ovulation has already occurred.
FSH和LH不断地被抑制
FSH and LH are constantly suppressed
因此没有卵细胞成熟或排放
No egg is matured or released
三个星期中的每一天都要吃药
the pills are taken every day for three weeks
随后一周内用不含激素的安慰剂药剂
Followed by one week of placebo pills containing no hormones
在服用安慰剂的一周内
during the week of placebos
雌性激素和孕酮的水平降低
estrogen and progesterone levels fall
引起所谓的撤退出血或假装时期
triggering a so called withdrawal bleeding or fake periods
出血作为一个恰当的象征
the bleeding serves as a convenient indication that
表明受精并没有发生
fertilization did not happen.
但是它不需要避孕
But it is not required for birth control.
实际上 持续使用
In fact, there exists continuous use contraceptive pills
不含或含有少量安慰剂的避孕药
with less or no placebos
会导致更少甚至没有月经周期
resulting in less or no menstrual periods
这种药物对于月经周期紊乱的女性
these pills are particularly beneficial for women
是非常有益处的
who suffer from menstrual disorders
比如经期过量出血
such as excessive menstrual bleeding
痛经
painful menstruation
和子宫内膜异位
and endometriosis
对于那些哺乳期妇女或不能耐受雌性激素的女性
For lactating women or those who can not tolerate estrogen
有只含孕酮的迷你药剂
there are mini pills that contain only progestin
它们抑制排卵的效果没有复合药物那么好
These are not as effective as combination pills at preventing ovulation.
它们更多地依赖于孕酮的作用
their effect relies more on the ability of progestin
来促进粘稠的宫颈粘液分泌
to promote secretion of a thick cervical mucus
从而阻止精子进入
to obstruct sperm entry
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视频概述

一般避孕药中有两种有效成分:孕酮和雌性激素,它们可以“欺骗”卵巢,让它以为进行过排卵从而达到避孕效果。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

尼吼吼

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hI2C7TsnSfk

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