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太阳系有多大?

How Big is the Solar System?

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[music]
我站在一座奥斯汀著名的月亮塔下 这些塔都位于城市的尽头
I’m standing here under one of Austin’s famous Moontowers. These were put in at the end of the 19th century
来为这发展中的城市创造月光
to recreate moonlight for this growing city.
月亮是夜空中最明亮的 但是没什么人会有这样的想法
The moon is the brightest thing in the night sky, but very few people have an idea just
月亮到底有多远 德里克在’真理元素’做了一个关于该问题的酷炫视频 所以你
just how far away it is. Derek from Veritasium did an awesome video about this, so you should
去看看吧
go check it out.
月亮实际上远在三十八万五千千米远 那确实很远
The moon is actually 385,000 km away. That’s really far.
距离是一个有意思的东西 你可以想象一下你的房子到街角的距离
Distances are a funny thing. You can picture the distance from your house to the corner,
或是从你的家到你外婆家的距离 但是 人类的大脑
or from your hometown to where your grandma lives. But beyond that, the human brain just
并不能理解太阳系的规模 有多么庞大 里面的一切又是多么渺小
can’t fathom the scale of the solar system . . . just how far apart and tiny everything is!
所以太阳系到底有多大呢 让我们把这只西柚当作太阳 它像太阳一样
So just how big is the Solar System? Let’s make this grapefruit the sun. It’s orangey
黄黄的圆圆的
and round like the sun is.
它的直径大约是110毫米 而实际上太阳的直径是十三亿公里
It’s about 110 millimeters in diameter, compared to 1.39 million kilometers for the actual sun.
我们把它放在这 当做太阳系的中心
We’ll put it here, at the center of our solar system.
然后这是我们的第一个行星 水星 关于行星运行轨道有一件事要注意
And here we are at our first planet, Mercury. One thing to note about the orbits of the planets,
它们并不是圆形 是椭圆形 也就是说它们有时候会离得近一点
they aren’t circles, they’re ellipses. That means sometimes they’re a little closer and
有时候会离得远一些
sometimes they’re a little farther.
我们地球在4.5米以外的地方或者说离葡萄柚太阳十五英尺处 根据这个标准
Here we are 4.5 meters or about 15 feet from the grapefruit sun back there. On this scale,
水星的直径就只有人类的四根头发那么大
Mercury is only the width of just 4 human hairs.
距离太阳五千九百万公里的地方温度是特别高的那里的温度足够
At 59 million kilometers from the sun, it’s really hot here. It’s close enough to burn
将附近的所有空气烧掉
away nearly all of its atmosphere.
然后我们到了金星 我们距离葡萄柚太阳大概8.5米
And here we come to Venus, we’re about 8.5 meters away from our grapefruit sun, which
也就是实际上的一亿零八百万公里
is 108 million kilometers.
在这里金星的直径只有不足一毫米 跟十张纸堆在一起
From here Venus is just under 1 mm wide, the same thickness as about ten sheets of paper,
一样的厚度
stacked together.
接着到了地球 就是这个一毫米的蓝点 就像卡尔 萨根说的那样 那里就是了 那里是家园
Next we come to Earth, This 1 mm blue dot, that’s here, that’s home, that’s us . . .
那里是我们
as Carl Sagan said.
我们已经离葡萄柚11.6米远了 也就是实际上的一亿五千万公里
We are about 11.6 meters from our grapefruit sun, which is the same as 150 million kilometers.
葡萄柚的光照到这里需要八分半钟
It takes light from the grapefruit 8 and a half minutes to get to this point.
我们把它称为一个天文单位这里还有个独特的区域 因为
We call that one astronomical unit. There’s something very special about this zone. Because of this
这里与太阳的特殊距离 还有地球的地质和大气质量
particular distance from the sun, and the geologic and atmospheric qualities of Earth,
就是这个可栖息区域让我们的星球有了生命的可能
this habitable zone is what makes life possible here on our planet.
下一个是红色星球 火星 我们在十八米开外的地方也就等于
Next we come to the red planet, Mars. We’re about 18 meters out now, which is the same
两亿两千万公里以外 坐在火星轨道上 在这个规模里 火星是一个小小的
as 229 million kilometers, sitting in the orbit of Mars. At this scale, Mars is a tiny
0.5毫米的红点 跟一个人类的卵细胞直径一样宽
0.5 mm red dot, the same width of a human egg cell.
接着我们处于小行星带 距离那里的葡萄柚太阳中心
Next we find ourselves in the asteroid belt, this stretches about 23-46 meters from our
23到46米远 电影里的小行星带都是错误的 如果你把它们集合
grapefruit center over there. Movies get the asteroid belt all wrong. If you clumped it
在一起 也只相当于我们月球质量的4%也就是说
all together, it would only be about 4% the mass of our moon. That means it would be the
差不多就是一粒盐被压碎了分布在整个轨道上
same as a grain of salt, crushed up and distributed around this entire orbit.
这里就是木星了 它是太阳系里最大的星球 直径超过十四万三千
Here we are at Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system. It’s 143,000 kilometers
公里 但在我们的模型里 只是比一厘米大一点 我们离葡萄柚61米远了
in diameter, but on our scale it’s just bigger than a centimeter. We are about 61 meters
也就是实际上的七亿七千九百万公里
out here, the same as 779 million kilometers.
现在是土星 这是我最爱的星球现在离葡萄柚112米
Here we are at Saturn, my favorite planet. Now we’re about 112 meters out here, and at
在这个模型里 土星只有一个乐高砖的高度
this scale, Saturn is only about the height of a Lego brick.
现在来到第一个冰态巨行星 天王星我们真的跑了好远啊 离开始的地方
Now we come to the first of the ice giants, Uranus. We are really far away. We are 226
226米远 也就是实际上距离太阳29亿公里
meters from where we started, which is the same as 2.9 billion kilometers from the sun.
它是我们刚刚到过的土星的两倍远在这 天王星只有3.7
That’s over twice as far as we just were at Saturn. Now, out here, Uranus is only 3.7
毫米宽 温度也非常低 甚至能达到摄氏零下224度
millimeters wide, and temperatures are so cold that they can reach down to -224 degrees Celcius.
这里是海王星 它是穿着冰铠甲的巨人我们现在距离开始的地方
Here we are at Neptune, the outer ice giant. Now we’re more than 350 meters from where
350米远 超过45亿公里站在这我都看不见太阳 也几乎看不见
we started, that’s more than 4.5 billion kilometers. Out here, I can’t see the sun, I can barel;y
海王星 这实际上也就是海王星的发现过程 我们看不见它
see Uranus. That’s actually how Neptune was discovered. We couldn’t see it, it looked
它看着就像天空中另一颗恒星 如果不是它对附近星球的
like another star in the sky, if it hadn’t been for it’s gravitational effect on its
引力效应 我们永远也发现不了它 它的运行轨道周期
neighboring planet, we never would have found it. It orbits so slowly out here that it’s
特别特别缓慢 从我们1846年发现它到现在 它只绕行了太阳一周
only circled the sun once since we discovered it in 1846.
恩 我想所有的星球都是这样 但是别忘了这家伙 冥王星
Well, I guess that’s all the planets! But we can’t forget about this guy, Pluto. Now
现在我们都知道它已经不再是九大行星 这是有原因的
we all know that Pluto’s not officially a planet anymore and there’s some good reasons
我们刚刚进入了太阳系的一个叫做科博带的区域
for that. We just entered a region of the solar system called the Kuiper Belt. These
这是早期太阳系冰岩的冰体残留物集合
are frozen remnants of the early solar system, icy rocks that have come together, frozen
包括冷冻的甲烷和氨气 在这里 冥王星太小了它其实只有
methane and ammonia. Pluto is so small, that out here, it would be the width of a single
一张美元纸币那么宽 而且不像其他运行轨道是平面的行星
dollar bill. And instead of being flat in its orbit like the rest of the planets, it’s
它几乎有一个倾斜的角度 就是个椭圆形的 它是一个250年的轨道周期
kind of tilted up on an angle. It’s so elliptical, that for 20 out of its 250 year orbit,
比海王星更靠近太阳 我知道你们对于冥王星的强烈感受
it’s closer to the sun than Neptune is. But I know how strongly you guys feel about Pluto, and
因为不能把它称为行星 我们撇开那个继续
while we can’t call it a planet, we’ll go ahead and put it out here.
如果你想自己弄个太阳系模型 我把链接放在下面了
If you’d like to play with your own solar system model, I put some links down in the
你可以完全自己计算自己做的很开心跟你们见面
description so you can do your own calculations and make your own. I’d love to see them, so
快给我脸书和推特发邮件吧 链接地址都在下面
email me, send them to me on Facebook, Twitter, all those links are down below too.
希望今天这个演示让你对真正的太阳系大小有个印象
Hopefully this gives you an idea of just how big the solar system really is. That might
可能会让某些人感觉到自己的渺小 但是大可不必因为我们才是
make some of you feel kind of small, but it shouldn’t, because we’re the ones that are
理解所有这些 探索更广阔太阳系的存在
able to figure all of this out, and explore to the farthest reaches of the solar system.
也许有一天 我们能超越这个宇宙呢这么一想 让我觉得自己好高大
And maybe one day, beyond. That makes me feel pretty tall.
还有件事 ‘航行者号’1977年发射升空 一个手工汽车模型被放进了
One more thing! Voyager was launched in 1977, a craft the size of a car, shot out to the
太阳系里 现在它离太阳已经185亿
outer reaches of the solar system. Right now it’s more than 18.5 billion kilometers from
多公里 就是这样 这是优势 相当于站在离葡萄柚
the sun. That’s it. This is the edge. It’s the equivalent of standing 1.4 kilometers
1.4公里的地方 它是距离地球最远的人造物 记住 我们可能
from our grapefruit. It’s the farthest manmade object from Earth. Remember, we may just be
只是存在于浮尘里的某个地方 但是’航行者号’证明我们也能够
floating around on a speck of dust back there somewhere, but Voyager proves that we’re capable
创造些相当神奇的事
of building some pretty amazing things.

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