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太阳系究竟有多大?

How Big is the Solar System?

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我现在就站在奥斯汀中著名的月亮塔中的一座下面 这座塔楼在19世纪的末期
I’m standing under one of Austin’s famous Moontowers. At the end of the 19th century
用于制造月光来照亮这片涨起来的海洋
to recreate moonlight for this growing sea.
月亮是夜空中最闪亮的事物 但是大部分人不是很了解
The moon is the brightest thing in the night sky, but very few people have an idea
到底月亮有离我们有多远 Veritasium的德雷克做了一个关于这方面的很棒的视频 所以你大可
just how far away it is. Derek from Veritasium did an awesome video about this, so you should
去看看它
go check it out.
月亮实际上离我们有385000公里 那确实有点远
The moon is actually 385,000 km away. That’s really far.
距离是一个很有趣的东西 你可以画出从你家到这个地方的距离
Distances are a funny thing. You can probably picture the distance from your house to the corner,
或者也可以是从你的家乡到你外婆居住的地方 但是除此之外呢 人类的大脑却
or maybe your hometown to where your grandma lives. But, the human brain just
不能测量太阳系的跨度 实在是距离太远并且我们周遭的事物太过微小
can’t fathom the scale of the solar system . . . just how far apart and tiny everything is!
所以太阳系到底有多大呢 让我们假设这个葡萄柚是太阳 它看起来橙橙的
So just how big is the Solar System? Let’s make this grapefruit the sun. It’s orangey
并且圆圆的 就像太阳一样
and round like the sun is.
它的直径大概有110毫米 与其相比真正太阳的直径达到了13.9亿公里
It’s about 110 millimeters in diameter, compared to 1.39 million kilometers for the actual sun.
我们将它放在这里 并且把这个点作为太阳系的中心
We’ll put it here, at the center of our solar system.
并且我们在这里遇到了我们的第一颗行星—水星 关于行星运动轨迹需要注意的是
And here we are at our first planet, Mercury. One thing to note about the orbits of the planets,
他们的轨迹不是标准的圆形 而是椭圆形的 这意味着有时候它们会挨得更近一点而
they aren’t circles, they’re ellipses. That means sometimes they’re a little closer and
有时候它们会离得更远一些
sometimes they’re a little farther.
现在我所站立的位置大概离葡萄柚太阳4.5米或者大概有15英尺那么远 在这样的刻度下
Here we are 4.5 meters or about 15 feet from the grapefruit sun back there. On this scale,
水星的直径仅仅只有4根人类头发那样的宽度
Mercury is only the width of just 4 human hairs.
在离太阳五千九百万公里的地方 那里真的十分炎热 水星是如此接近太阳 足以烧
At 59 million kilometers from the sun, it’s really hot here. It’s close enough to burn
掉水星上将近全部的的大气
away nearly all of its atmosphere.
现在我们来到了金星的位置 我们差不多离我们的葡萄柚太阳8.5米远 意味着金星离太阳
And here we come to Venus, we’re about 8.5 meters away from our grapefruit sun, which
一亿零八百万公里
is 108 million kilometers.
在这个比例下 金星的直径甚至小于一毫米的宽度 就差不多是十张纸叠在一起
This scale Venus is just under 1 mm wide, and that about thesame ten sheets of paper,
的厚度
stacked together.
接下来我们到达了地球的位置 这是一个直径只有1毫米的蓝点那个点就是这里 那个点就是我们的家园 那就是我们
Next we come to Earth, This 1 mm blue dot, that’s here, that’s home, that’s us . . .
就正如卡尔.萨根说的那样
as Carl Sagan said.
我们现在大概离我们的葡萄柚太阳差不多11.6米 就意味着地球离太阳有着一亿五千万公里
We are about 11.6 meters from our grapefruit sun, which is the same as 150 million kilometers.
光从那个葡萄柚出发需要八分半才能到达这个点
It takes light from the grapefruit 8 and a half minutes to get to this point.
我们把这段距离认做为一个基本的天文单位关于这段距离有一些非常特别的地方正是因为这
We call that one astronomical unit. There’s something very special about this zone. Because of this
个特殊的距离和地球上独特的地理环境和大气品质
particular distance from the sun, and the geologic and atmospheric qualities of Earth,
让地球变得适宜居住 也让生命在这个星球上的诞生存在可能
this habitable zone is what makes life possible here on our planet.
下一站我们来到了这颗赤红色的星球 火星我们现在已经离葡萄柚太阳十八米开外了
意味着
Next we come to the red planet, Mars. We’re about 18 meters out now, which is the same
我们已经离太阳两亿两千九百万公里远了 现在就位于在火星的轨道上在这个比例下 火星
as 229 million kilometers, sitting in the orbit of Mars. At this scale, Mars is a tiny
只是一颗0.5毫米大小的红色小球 和人类的卵细胞一般大小
0.5 mm red dot, the same width of a human egg cell.
接下来我们发现我们位于一个小行星带中了这个结构大概离我们的葡萄柚太阳中心
Next we find ourselves in the asteroid belt, this stretches about 23-46 meters from our
有23到46米远 电影中总是搞错小行星带的位置 如果你把它们聚到
grapefruit center over there. Movies get the asteroid belt all wrong. If you clumped it
一起 它的质量大概只有月亮质量的4% 这意味着它大概像
all together, it would only be about 4% the mass of our moon. That means it would be the
一小撮盐 碾碎后平均分布到整个轨道上
same as a grain of salt, crushed up and distributed around this entire orbit.
现在我们到了木星的位置 整个太阳系中最大的行星它的直径有143000公里
Here we are at Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system. It’s 143,000 kilometers
但是在我们现在的这种比例下 它仅仅比一厘米长一点点我们离原点
in diameter, but on our scale it’s just bigger than a centimeter. We are about 61 meters
有60米了 跟现实中七亿七千九百万公里一个意思
out here, the same as 779 million kilometers.
终于到了土星了 我最喜欢的行星现在我们已经在112米开外了 并且以
Here we are at Saturn, my favorite planet. Now we’re about 112 meters out here, and at
这个比例 土星的直径仅仅只有一块乐高积木的高度那么长
this scale, Saturn is only about the height of a Lego brick.
现在我们站在了第一个冰巨人—天王星的位置我们确实离葡萄柚太阳有点远了 我们
Now we come to the first of the ice giants, Uranus. We are really far away. We are 226
离我们的起点有226米了 就是说我们已经离太阳29亿公里远了
meters from where we started, which is the same as 2.9 billion kilometers from the sun.
这个数值超过了当时我们处在土星位置时的数值的两倍 现在 我们远道而来 天王星仅仅只有3.7
That’s over twice as far as we just were at Saturn. Now, out here, Uranus is only 3.7
毫米那么宽 并且它的温度甚至能达到-224摄氏度的那种严寒
millimeters wide, and temperatures are so cold that they can reach down to -224 degrees Celcius.
我们来到靠外的冰巨人—海王星的位置现在我们离起点的位置已经超过
Here we are at Neptune, the outer ice giant. Now we’re more than 350 meters from where
350米了 意味着这里已经是45亿公里开外了 我不能看见太阳 只能隐约
we started, that’s more than 4.5 billion kilometers. Out here, I can’t see the sun, I can barel;y
地看见天王星 实际上海王星是被发现的。我们不能看见它 它看起来
see Uranus. That’s actually how Neptune was discovered. We couldn’t see it, it looked
像夜空中的其他星星一样 如果它没有施加它的引力作用在
like another star in the sky, if it hadn’t been for it’s gravitational effect on its
它的相邻行星上 我们永远不会发现它 它的公转十分缓慢
neighboring planet, we never would have found it. It orbits so slowly out here that it’s
从我们在1846年发现它起 它仅仅绕太阳转了一圈
only circled the sun once since we discovered it in 1846.
好了 我想我们已经介绍完全部行星了!但是我们不能忘了这个小家伙—冥王星 现在
Well, I guess that’s all the planets! But we can’t forget about this guy, Pluto. Now
我们都知道冥王星不在是官方意义上的行星 当然这其中有许多
we all know that Pluto’s not officially a planet anymore and there’s some good reasons
有趣的原因 我们刚刚进入太阳系里一片叫柯伯伊带的区域 这片区域是
for that. We just entered a region of the solar system called the Kuiper Belt. These
是太阳系早期产生的残骸所冻结而成的结冰的岩石聚集到一起冰封住
are frozen remnants of the early solar system, icy rocks that have come together, frozen
上面的甲烷和氨气 冥王星是那么的小 在这里 它大概只有一张美元
methane and ammonia. Pluto is so small, that out here, it would be the width of a single
那么厚 并且它的轨道不像其他行星一样是水平的 它
dollar bill. And instead of being flat in its orbit like the rest of the planets, it’s
是稍微向上倾斜一个角度 它的轨迹是一个非常明显的椭圆形 意味着它250年的公转周期里有20年的时光
kind of tilted up on an angle. It’s so elliptical, that for 20 out of its 250 year orbit,
它比海王星离太阳更近 但是我知道 无论各位对冥王星的感觉多强烈
it’s closer to the sun than Neptune is. But I know how strongly you guys feel about Pluto, and
但我们仍然不能把它看成一颗行星 我们会接着往前走并把它放在这个位置
while we can’t call it a planet, we’ll go ahead and put it out here.
如果你有意向去设计你自己的太阳系模型 我在简介底下
If you’d like to play with your own solar system model, I put some links down in the
贴了许多链接 你可以以此来展开你的运算并创造属于你的模型 我很希望看到它们 所以
description so you can do your own calculations and make your own. I’d love to see them, so
希望你们能够通过脸书、推特和Tumblr上的邮件把它们发给我 下面同样有上述提及的所有链接
email me, send them to me on Facebook, Twitter, all those links are down below too.
希望这个模型能帮助你意识到太阳系到底有多大 它可能
Hopefully this gives you an idea of just how big the solar system really is. That might
让你们中的某些人觉得有点小 但这并不应该 因为我们能够自己算出这些
make some of you feel kind of small, but it shouldn’t, because we’re the ones that are
距离 并且探索我们在太阳系所能触及的最远的地方
able to figure all of this out, and explore to the farthest reaches of the solar system.
也许未来有一天 那会让我觉得 我很了不起
And maybe one day, beyond. That makes me feel pretty tall.
还有一件事 探索者号是1977年发射的一个汽车大小的飞行器 它被
One more thing! Voyager was launched in 1977, a craft the size of a car, shot out to the
发射到太阳系的外面 现在它和太阳的距离已经超过185亿
outer reaches of the solar system. Right now it’s more than 18.5 billion kilometers from
公里 那里是它 这里是太阳系的边界 相应的在这个模型里它离我们的葡萄柚有
the sun. That’s it. This is the edge. It’s the equivalent of standing 1.4 kilometers
1.4公里了 它是离地球最远的人造物体 记住 我们可能只是
from our grapefruit. It’s the farthest manmade object from Earth. Remember, we may just be
漂浮在它后面某个地方的一粒尘埃周围 但是探索者号证明了我们有能力
floating around on a speck of dust back there somewhere, but Voyager proves that we’re capable
去创造一些令人惊奇的事物
of building some pretty amazing things.

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视频概述

用一个简单的模型来告诉我们太阳系到底有多大

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收集自网络

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mD-ia6ng0A

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