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Coca-Cola is the world’s most valuable non-technology brand.
They make anything from soft drinks to bottled water,
牛奶 果汁 冰红茶 咖啡
milk, juices, ice tea and coffee.
They own 21 different billion-dollar brands.
Every single day, 2 billion servings of a Coke brand are served worldwide.
But how do they start?
And how do they grow to the massive size they are today?
Today, we’re going to look at how they made arguably
the most popular product on the planet,
and diversified across the beverage market
to creat over 500 brands and over 3,500 beverages.
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Coca-Cola was created by Dr. John Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist.
In 1885, he set up his own laboratory,
and started to patent and produce his own medicines,
such as hair dyes and liver pills.
He wasn’t very successful though.
Then, one day, while trying to creat a new tonic,
he combined the extracts of the coca leaf,
the main ingredient for cocaine,
the African kola nut, along with some sugar and some water.
Although the kola nut already contains caffeine,
he boosted the caffeine content even more.
His main idea was that he could sell this as a headache remedy.
After some testing, however,
he saw that it helped with indigestion and relieved exhaustion.
Pemberton and his partners were unsure
what to do with this new drink, now called Coca-Cola.
On the one hand, it seemed to have some medicinal qualities,
but on the other hand, the flavor was delicious.
And that alone should make it popular.
In the end, they went for both.
An early advertisement stated,
“makes not only a delicious and invigorating beverage”,
I wonder why?
“but a valuable Brain Tonic and a cure for all nervous affections.”
So in 1887, Coke went on sale.
From the get-go, it had that famous cursive logo
that was actually designed by Pemberton’s bookkeeper.
Coke was first sold as a syrup to pharmacies and other dispensaries
where they had soda fountains.
Soda fountains were the big thing.
It was like a gathering place
where people to discuss the topics of the day.
Here, from there, from everywhere they came,
attracted to the current counterpart of
the ends of watering places of colonial days.
The new gathering place of a new age,
the soda fountain, helping to make the 19th game.
This Coke serve was the very first Coca-Cola product.
Pemberton and his partners spent 74 dollars at advertising their new syrup,
but the response was slow.
They only made 50 dollars in sales in the first year.
So Pemberton sold most of his company
to another drug manufacture by the name of Asa Candler.
Three years later, Pemberton was dead.
And Mr. Candler owned Coca-Cola for just 2,300 dollars outright,
which is about 60,000 dollars in today’s money, and rarely saw it.
At the time, it seemed like an useless company.
But over the next 26 years,
Candler oversaw the company’s rapid early growth.
In 1892, the company started a promotional campaign,
that included giving out coupons of Coke for free sample.
Once people tried the free samples, they came back for more,
forking out 5 cents a glass thereafter.
The campaign was hugely successful.
It took Coke just 3 years
to enter every state of the United States.
不久 他们就越过了北边的边境 推广到了加拿大
And soon, they crossed over the border north to Canada.
This mass coupon initiative was a extremely forward-thinking for the time.
Back then, giving a product away sounded foolish.
But Candler showed confidence in the Coke product,
by knowing that people would come back for more.
The Cocaine Issue
But there was a problem, and was in the name.
At the start of the 20th century,
Candler was worried about the public perception towards cocaine.
This was going to harm sells.
However, he felt that he couldn’t remove the coca apply entirely,
as he may risk losing the Coca-Cola name.
So, they fixed the recipe,
so there was just the smallest trace of cocaine remained.
It wasn’t until 1929 that it was removed entirely.
Around this time, Candler also move the drink
with its original branding as a health tonic.
Although Candler was doing a good job,
he did make one major miscalculation though.
He thought the company’s future had been
heavily based on the soda fountains.
Other companies had been buying the syrup
and selling them in mixed soda bottles.
But Candler didn’t really see much value in this,
and allowed these other companies
to bottle the product just for 1 dollar.
This was a huge mistake.
And soon, there were knockoff brands of Coke everywhere.
The names were pretty funny, and some included:
Koca-Nola, My-Coca-Co, and Toka-Cola.
Pepsi-Cola was another such knockoff,
but it wouldn’t be noticed till the 1970’s.
More on this later.
The solution came in the form of
creating a bottle shape and design so unique,
that customers could tell it apart just by feeling it
when they stuck the hand in the cooler.
The result was the famous curvy glass bottle
that became so iconic in popular culture.
Candler was soon retired
and passed the reigns down to Robert Woodruff.
Robert streamlined the production process,
and managed to creat a product that tasted the same everywhere,
so all consumers can get the same experience.
World War II erupted in 1939,
but would actually prove to be hugely beneficial to the company.
As the US troops entered fighting,
Woodruff announced that every US soldier
would be able to buy a Coke for 5 cents,
no matter how much it cost the company.
The move would see Coke set up bottling plants around the world,
from Germany to North Africa,
in order to still make reasonable revenue,
and handle the demand of US soldiers around the world.
The German Coca-Cola plants had been set up before the war started.
But once fighting began and trade embargoes were set in place.
It became impossible to keep collecting Coca-Cola syrup,
so the plant was forced to make a new drink at what they could buy,
mainly apple leftovers from juicing
and leftover liquid from milk production.
They called this concoction – Fanta.
By the end of the war,
Coke became a part of America’s national identity,
and the rest of the world would be next.
Throughout the 50’s, they opened 15 to 20 plants a year,
dotted all over the planet.
Then in the 1960’s, they began to diversify
and started acquiring other successful beverage companies,
such as Minute Maid and Hi-C fruit drinks.
They would also launch Sprite, Tab,
as well as a diet version to the drink.
This was in part to attack the growing competition from Pepsi.
The company struggled through the late 1960’s and 70’s,
especially in Europe, where the beverage industry threatened to have them banned.
Blind tests in the early 1970’s were showing that
people liked the taste of Pepsi better.
Can you tell me which one you prefer?
You’re both sure you like L better.
What was your choice?
-好了 到底是哪个呢-百事 是百事
–Now, is what?–Pepsi. It’s Pepsi.
I drink a lot more.
事实上 在这样的测试中 全国范围内
Fact is, in tests like these, nationwide,
more people prefer the taste of Pepsi over Coca-Cola.
The sales of Pepsi began to climb.
And the Pepsi challenge was kicked off across America.
All across the America, people are taking the Pepsi challenge.
This scenario became known as the Cola Wars.
By 1975, Pepsi was number one.
At the start of the 1980’s, Roberto Goizueta became Chairman
and decided that changes needed to be made.
In 100 years, the company had grown hugely,
but had largely stuck to tradition.
Soon after he joined,
he heard those celebration that Coca-Cola had gained
45% of the soft drink market.
So he went crunching the numbers
and came back to tell everyone that,
sure, they were succeeding in soft drinks,
but they had less than 2% of entire liquid beverage market share.
That became the new target.
Roberto injected some much needed ambition into the company.
He also launched Diet Coke,
when no other head of the company was brave enough
to risk the classic Coca-Cola brand.
It was soon established as the world’s number 3 soft drink.
Diet Coke helped changed the tide,
but more needed to be done.
Secret labs were set up for Coke chemists
to find the perfect formula to beat Pepsi.
It was finally found in1985,
and put up against Pepsi and the original version of Coke
in 200,000 taste tests across the country.
It beat both of the other products and seemed to be a winner.
我的答案是 当然 我们一直在追求卓越
My answer to you is of course, the best always do.
Simply state it, my friends,
we have a new formula for Coke.
Consumers preferred the new taste over the original,
by a margin of 61 to 39.
The company was so confident that
they would scrap the original formula of Coke
after 100 years of success.
This new drink was called New Coke.
And the company got none other than Bill Cosby to promote it.
朋友们 你们了解我 我这么多年都爱可口可乐
Now, you know me, I always loved Coke for years and years.
I like this Coke better.
The new taste Coca-Cola, better than ever before.
Even though the test proved that New Coke was superior,
human psychology meant that the public just didn’t like change.
Why are you upset about it?
Because I’m 46 years old,
and I bought my first Coke with a nickle,
when I was 5 years old.
My oldest daughter is 22.
Her first word was “Coke”,
the second word was “Mommy”.
At one point, complaints raged over 8,000 per day.
The New Coke became one of the worst blunders in marketing history.
And Bill Cosby would later be the same.
At one point, communist dictator Fidel Castro stated that
the end of the original Coke formula was a sign of American decay.
Coke was more than just a sugary drink.
Coca-Cola stood for the American way of life.
In the end, the public had spoken.
The feeling of loyalty for Coke was so strong
that when Coke reverted back to the original formula,
people longed for what was about to be taken away from them.
Soon, Coke became No. 1 again,
and has stayed in that position ever since.
But what many people may not know is that
the New Coke was still offered to bottle distributors up until 2002.
By the time Roberto died in 1997,
he had taken Coca-Cola’s market share
from 4.3 billion to 147 billion.
His drive to do better paid off.
So, what does the Coca-Cola Company look like today?
They have a huge registered brands now, over 500,
and have a huge amount of diversity in the beverage industry,
with everything from Coke to water, to juices and dairy.
They also just launched their first alcoholic drink in Japan,
and it was an alcopop.
The revenues in 2017 were 35 billion dollars,
which continues the state of decline that would be seen
since they peaked at 48 billion in 2012.
And this was after consumers became more health conscious.
Still, at its current revenue,
Coke would be the 84th largest economy in the world.
All right, so let’s look at 12 interesting facts about Coke.
I’ll give you an idea of their size
and other interesting things about them as well.
And I ask you a question:
If you were to drink every single one of
Coke’s different beverages at a rate of one per day,
how long do you think it would take you?
Maybe a couple of months? Maybe a year?
Well, not really.
It would take you over 9 years to try them all.
The Coca-Cola brand itself
is estimated to be worth 74 billion dollars,
比百威 百事 星巴克和红牛加起来还要多
as more than Budweiser, Pepsi, Starbucks and Red Bull combined.
If every drop of Coke ever produced were put in
8-ounce bottles laid end-to-end,
they would reach to the Moon and back over 2,000 times.
The red and white Coca-Cola logo is recognized
by 94% of the world’s population.
It’s the second most recognized brand on earth, behind Nike.
There are 33 non-alcoholic brands
that generate over 1 billion dollars revenue,
and Coca-Cola owns 15 of them.
Coke also sells more than 1,000 kinds of juice drinks.
Coca-Cola spends more money on advertising
than Microsoft and Apple combined.
And their secret to long-term advertising success:
Always associating their product with a good feeling.
#Coca-Cola is always the one#
#whenever there’s fun, there’s always Coca-Cola, yeah~#
This establishes a positive emotional connection,
whenever a consumer sees the product.
They were one of the first companies to do this.
American digest 1.7 million tons of Coke,
or about 11 pounds, 5 kilos, per person
each year from Coca-Cola alone.
And on that note, Coke is actually pretty terrible for you.
They can cause obesity and metabolic disease.
The company has been caught paying millions of dollars
to fund research papers playing down these effects.
In the mid 2000’s, it was revealed that
some of the water being sold under the Coke brand
was simply purified tap water.
The average Mexican drinks more Coke products than
比平均美国人 英国人 印度人 中国人加起来喝的还多
the average American, British, Indian and Chinese combined.
Coke uses 300,000 tons of aluminium for its cans every year
just for its US operations.
That’s equal to about 17.4% of
what the entire US aluminium industry produces.
There are only two countries in the world
where Coca-Cola isn’t sold: Cuba and North Korea.
Coke is the reason why Santa is fat and wears red suit.
Prior to 1931, Santa was the depicted as everything
from a tall gaunt man to a spooky-looking elf.
He was often donned in a bishop’s robe
and wore an animal skin.
A popular Coke advert in 1931 made Santa
look more wholesome, realistic and joy.
And this was the origin of the Santa we imagine today.
So there you go.
And that just about runs to the end of the video.
The story of Coca-Cola is a pretty interesting one:
From a chemist’s mistake all the way to
one of the most recognized brands on the planet
and a cultural icon.
So thanks for watching. This has been Dagogo.
You’ve been watching ColdFusion.
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And I’ll see you again soon for the next video.
Cheers guys! Have a good one!
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