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可口可乐公司有多大|规模 历史以及真相 – 译学馆
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可口可乐公司有多大|规模 历史以及真相

How BIG is Coca-Cola? | Size, History, Facts

您正在观看的是《冷流科技》频道
You’re watching ColdFusion TV.
大家好 欢迎观看本期《冷流科技》视频
Hi, welcome to another ColdFusion video.
可口可乐是世界上最有价值的非科技型品牌
Coca-Cola is the world’s most valuable non-technology brand.
他们的产品覆盖了软饮料 瓶装水
They make anything from soft drinks to bottled water,
牛奶 果汁 冰红茶 咖啡
milk, juices, ice tea and coffee.
他们拥有21个不同的价值数十亿美元的子品牌
They own 21 different billion-dollar brands.
每个子品牌每天可以卖出20亿份产品
Every single day, 2 billion servings of a Coke brand are served worldwide.
但是可口可乐是如何创建的?
But how do they start?
又是如何成长为如此庞大的产业?
And how do they grow to the massive size they are today?
今天 我们将要探寻可口可乐公司是怎样制造出
Today, we’re going to look at how they made arguably
可能是这个世界上最受欢迎的产品的
the most popular product on the planet,
又是怎样多元化饮料市场
and diversified across the beverage market
创造出超过500个品牌和超过3500种饮料的
to creat over 500 brands and over 3,500 beverages.
在我们开始之前 简短地介绍一下今天的赞助商
But before we get to that, a quick word from today’s sponsor.
感谢Squarespace赞助我们
I just wanna give a shout-out to Squarespace
完成这个视频
for helping make this video possible.
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Does nothing to patch or upgrade ever, and it’s flexible.
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and the whole prices make building a website easy.
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If you’re looking to build your own website,
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start your free trial today.
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to get 10% off of your first purchase.
[序曲]
Prelude
可口可乐的创始人是约翰·彭伯顿 亚特兰大的药剂师
Coca-Cola was created by Dr. John Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist.
1885年 他开设了自己的实验室
In 1885, he set up his own laboratory,
获取专利 生产自己的药物
and started to patent and produce his own medicines,
例如染发剂 利肝丸等等
such as hair dyes and liver pills.
然而生意并不是很好
He wasn’t very successful though.
有一天 当他尝试制作一种新型补品的时候
Then, one day, while trying to creat a new tonic,
他把古柯叶提取物
he combined the extracts of the coca leaf,
即可卡因的主要成分
the main ingredient for cocaine,
与非洲可乐果和一些糖和水掺在了一起
the African kola nut, along with some sugar and some water.
尽管可乐果本身就含有咖啡因
Although the kola nut already contains caffeine,
他还是加了更多的咖啡因
he boosted the caffeine content even more.
他的想法是他可以把这种新药当做头痛药来卖
His main idea was that he could sell this as a headache remedy.
然而经过试验后
After some testing, however,
他发现这种药可改善消化不良 也可缓解疲惫
he saw that it helped with indigestion and relieved exhaustion.
彭伯顿和他的伙伴不确定
Pemberton and his partners were unsure
要如何处理这种新型饮料 也就是现在的可口可乐
what to do with this new drink, now called Coca-Cola.
一方面 它似乎有一些医疗功效
On the one hand, it seemed to have some medicinal qualities,
另一方面 它的味道又很棒
but on the other hand, the flavor was delicious.
单这一点就会使它很受欢迎了
And that alone should make it popular.
最后 他们利用了这两个优点
In the end, they went for both.
早期的一个广告这样描述
An early advertisement stated,
“不仅是好喝提神的饮料”
“makes not only a delicious and invigorating beverage”,
我想知道是何原因
I wonder why?
“并且还有健脑和缓解精神紧张的功效”
“but a valuable Brain Tonic and a cure for all nervous affections.”
1887年 可口可乐开始销售
So in 1887, Coke went on sale.
从一开始 它就有那个著名的草体商标
From the get-go, it had that famous cursive logo
这个商标其实是彭伯顿的会计员设计的
that was actually designed by Pemberton’s bookkeeper.
可口可乐一开始被当做糖浆卖给药店和
Coke was first sold as a syrup to pharmacies and other dispensaries
有冷饮柜台的药房
where they had soda fountains.
冷饮柜台在当时很重要
Soda fountains were the big thing.
它就像一个聚集地
It was like a gathering place
人们在这里可以谈论当天的大事
where people to discuss the topics of the day.
他们从各个地方
Here, from there, from everywhere they came,
受新饮水处的吸引而来
attracted to the current counterpart of
这些新饮水处取代了殖民时期的旧饮水处
the ends of watering places of colonial days.
新时期 新聚集地
The new gathering place of a new age,
冷饮柜台帮助形成了19世纪的新潮流
the soda fountain, helping to make the 19th game.
这些可口可乐饮料是可口可乐公司的第一个产品
This Coke serve was the very first Coca-Cola product.
彭伯顿和合伙人花了74美元给新糖浆做广告
Pemberton and his partners spent 74 dollars at advertising their new syrup,
但是反响很差
but the response was slow.
他们第一年只赚了50美元
They only made 50 dollars in sales in the first year.
于是彭伯顿把他大部分公司
So Pemberton sold most of his company
卖给了另一个名为阿萨·坎德勒的制药商
to another drug manufacture by the name of Asa Candler.
三年后 彭伯顿去世了
Three years later, Pemberton was dead.
坎德勒先生一共用2300美元收购了可口可乐
And Mr. Candler owned Coca-Cola for just 2,300 dollars outright,
大约相当于今天的6万美元 这很稀奇
which is about 60,000 dollars in today’s money, and rarely saw it.
在当时 可口可乐似乎是一家无用的公司
At the time, it seemed like an useless company.
但是在接下来的26年间
But over the next 26 years,
坎德勒见证了这个公司早期的迅速发展
Candler oversaw the company’s rapid early growth.
1892年 公司发起了一个促销活动
In 1892, the company started a promotional campaign,
包括分发可口可乐优惠券 让人们品尝免费试饮
that included giving out coupons of Coke for free sample.
人们一尝过试饮后 都会购买更多饮料
Once people tried the free samples, they came back for more,
从那以后 可口可乐就定价为5美分
forking out 5 cents a glass thereafter.
这个活动取得了巨大的成功
The campaign was hugely successful.
可口可乐只花了三年时间
It took Coke just 3 years
就在美国各州遍地开花
to enter every state of the United States.
不久 他们就越过了北边的边境 推广到了加拿大
And soon, they crossed over the border north to Canada.
这个大型赠券方案在当时是一种极其前卫的思想
This mass coupon initiative was a extremely forward-thinking for the time.
在那时 免费赠送产品听起来很蠢
Back then, giving a product away sounded foolish.
但是坎德勒显然对可口可乐很有自信
But Candler showed confidence in the Coke product,
因为他知道人们会回头购买更多这种饮料
by knowing that people would come back for more.
[可卡因问题]
The Cocaine Issue
但是当时有个事关品牌名字的问题
But there was a problem, and was in the name.
那是20世纪初
At the start of the 20th century,
当时坎德勒很担心公众对可卡因的看法
Candler was worried about the public perception towards cocaine.
因为这将有损可口可乐销售额
This was going to harm sells.
然而他觉得他不能完全停止古柯叶的使用
However, he felt that he couldn’t remove the coca apply entirely,
这样就有可能失去可口可乐这个名字
as he may risk losing the Coca-Cola name.
于是 他们调整了配方
So, they fixed the recipe,
在可口可乐中只保留极少量可卡因
so there was just the smallest trace of cocaine remained.
直到1929年 可口可乐里才完全不含可卡因
It wasn’t until 1929 that it was removed entirely.
在这期间 坎德勒仍然以最初
Around this time, Candler also move the drink
健康补品的名头出售可口可乐
with its original branding as a health tonic.
尽管他做得很不错
Although Candler was doing a good job,
但也确实做出了一个错误的判断
he did make one major miscalculation though.
他认为公司的未来
He thought the company’s future had been
很大程度上取决于冷饮柜台
heavily based on the soda fountains.
其他公司已开始购买这种糖浆
Other companies had been buying the syrup
然后把它们放在通用饮料瓶中出售
and selling them in mixed soda bottles.
但是坎德勒并没有看到这种做法中的价值
But Candler didn’t really see much value in this,
他以一美元的价格售出
and allowed these other companies
这种饮料的装配特许经营权
to bottle the product just for 1 dollar.
这是个大错误
This was a huge mistake.
不久 市面上到处都是仿冒品
And soon, there were knockoff brands of Coke everywhere.
这些冒牌货取的名字也很有意思
The names were pretty funny, and some included:
什么“可口奥拉”“可可乐”“托卡可乐”等等
Koca-Nola, My-Coca-Co, and Toka-Cola.
百事可乐也是其中一个
Pepsi-Cola was another such knockoff,
但是它直到70年代才开始崭露头角
but it wouldn’t be noticed till the 1970’s.
我们之后会做详细说明
More on this later.
可口可乐公司想出了一个解决办法
The solution came in the form of
他们要设计一个形状特别的瓶子
creating a bottle shape and design so unique,
以便顾客把手伸进冰桶拿饮料的时候
that customers could tell it apart just by feeling it
仅凭触觉就能辨认出可口可乐
when they stuck the hand in the cooler.
最终成品就是著名的弧形瓶
The result was the famous curvy glass bottle
这种瓶子后来成了流行文化的标志
that became so iconic in popular culture.
坎德勒不久便退休了
Candler was soon retired
罗伯特·伍德鲁夫接管了可口可乐公司
and passed the reigns down to Robert Woodruff.
罗伯特精简了生产过程
Robert streamlined the production process,
并且设法使各地可口可乐的口味保持一致
and managed to creat a product that tasted the same everywhere,
这样所有顾客都能获得相同体验
so all consumers can get the same experience.
1939年 二战爆发了
World War II erupted in 1939,
后来证明这是公司发展的一个契机
but would actually prove to be hugely beneficial to the company.
美国军队参战之初
As the US troops entered fighting,
伍德鲁夫宣布每个美国军人
Woodruff announced that every US soldier
都能用5美分买到一瓶可口可乐
would be able to buy a Coke for 5 cents,
不管其成本为多少
no matter how much it cost the company.
这一举措使可口可乐装瓶厂遍布全世界
The move would see Coke set up bottling plants around the world,
从德国到北非
from Germany to North Africa,
为了持续创造可观的收益
in order to still make reasonable revenue,
并满足全世界美军的需求
and handle the demand of US soldiers around the world.
德国的可口可乐工厂在二战前就建好了
The German Coca-Cola plants had been set up before the war started.
但是战争开始后贸易禁运也开始了
But once fighting began and trade embargoes were set in place.
持续售卖可口可乐原浆变成了天方夜谭
It became impossible to keep collecting Coca-Cola syrup,
因此工厂被迫用他们能买到的材料生产新饮料
so the plant was forced to make a new drink at what they could buy,
这些材料大多是榨苹果汁剩下的果渣
mainly apple leftovers from juicing
还有奶制品生产过程中剩下的液体
and leftover liquid from milk production.
他们称这种混合物为“芬达”
They called this concoction – Fanta.
二战末期
By the end of the war,
可口可乐已获得美国民众的认同
Coke became a part of America’s national identity,
他们的下个目标就是进军全球
and the rest of the world would be next.
纵观50年代 他们每年新建15到20个装瓶厂
Throughout the 50’s, they opened 15 to 20 plants a year,
遍布整个星球
dotted all over the planet.
20世纪60年代 他们开始多样化发展
Then in the 1960’s, they began to diversify
并且开始并购其他成功的饮料公司
and started acquiring other successful beverage companies,
例如如今的“美汁源”和“Hi-C”果汁饮料
such as Minute Maid and Hi-C fruit drinks.
他们还推出了“雪碧”“Tab”
They would also launch Sprite, Tab,
还有“健怡可乐”
as well as a diet version to the drink.
部分目的是打击日渐成长的竞争对手百事
This was in part to attack the growing competition from Pepsi.
百事艰难渡过了60年代末和70年代
The company struggled through the late 1960’s and 70’s,
特别是在欧洲 在那里甚至遭到了禁售的威胁
especially in Europe, where the beverage industry threatened to have them banned.
[百事崛起]
Pepsi Rising
70年代初的盲测数据表明
Blind tests in the early 1970’s were showing that
人们更喜欢百事的味道
people liked the taste of Pepsi better.
告诉我你更喜欢哪一个?
Can you tell me which one you prefer?
你们都确定更喜欢L的那一款?
You’re both sure you like L better.
那么你们的选择是什么呢
What was your choice?
-好了 到底是哪个呢-百事 是百事
–Now, is what?–Pepsi. It’s Pepsi.
百事
Pepsi.
这个我喝得更多
I drink a lot more.
事实上 在这样的测试中 全国范围内
Fact is, in tests like these, nationwide,
更多的人喜欢百事可乐而不是可口可乐
more people prefer the taste of Pepsi over Coca-Cola.
百事可乐的销售量开始攀升
The sales of Pepsi began to climb.
“百事挑战”活动席卷了全美
And the Pepsi challenge was kicked off across America.
全国各地的人都在参加“百事挑战”
All across the America, people are taking the Pepsi challenge.
这种情景后来被叫做“可乐之战”
This scenario became known as the Cola Wars.
到1975年 百事成为了销量第一的品牌
By 1975, Pepsi was number one.
[可乐之战]
Cola Wars
80年代初 罗伯特·戈伊苏埃塔成为公司总裁
At the start of the 1980’s, Roberto Goizueta became Chairman
他决定可口可乐必须做出改变
and decided that changes needed to be made.
在过去的100年内 可口可乐迅猛发展
In 100 years, the company had grown hugely,
但很大程度上拘泥于传统
but had largely stuck to tradition.
他加入后不久
Soon after he joined,
听到那些庆祝可口可乐已经占据
he heard those celebration that Coca-Cola had gained
软饮料市场份额45%的说法
45% of the soft drink market.
就研究了一下这些数据
So he went crunching the numbers
然后告诉所有人
and came back to tell everyone that,
他们是在软饮料市场很成功
sure, they were succeeding in soft drinks,
但在整个饮料市场占有不到2%的份额
but they had less than 2% of entire liquid beverage market share.
这成为了他们的新目标
That became the new target.
罗伯特给这个公司注入了亟需的动力
Roberto injected some much needed ambition into the company.
在公司其他首脑都畏首畏尾的时候
He also launched Diet Coke,
他冒着砸了经典可乐招牌的风险
when no other head of the company was brave enough
推出了健怡可乐
to risk the classic Coca-Cola brand.
这种饮料很快就成为了世界第三大软饮料
It was soon established as the world’s number 3 soft drink.
健怡可乐帮助改变了颓势
Diet Coke helped changed the tide,
但要做的还有很多
but more needed to be done.
为了找到完美配方打败百事
Secret labs were set up for Coke chemists
他们给公司的化学家设立了秘密实验室
to find the perfect formula to beat Pepsi.
新配方最终于1985年研制成功
It was finally found in1985,
并被用于与百事和老版可乐进行竞争
and put up against Pepsi and the original version of Coke
在全国20万次口味测试中
in 200,000 taste tests across the country.
它打败了这两种产品 似乎成了赢家
It beat both of the other products and seemed to be a winner.
我的答案是 当然 我们一直在追求卓越
My answer to you is of course, the best always do.
简单来说 朋友们
Simply state it, my friends,
我们研发出了一种可乐新配方
we have a new formula for Coke.
试验结果以61比39的比例证实了
Consumers preferred the new taste over the original,
消费者喜欢新版可乐多于老版
by a margin of 61 to 39.
可口可乐公司如此自信
The company was so confident that
他们决定废弃老配方的可乐
they would scrap the original formula of Coke
尽管它有百年的辉煌历史
after 100 years of success.
这种新饮料被称为“新可乐”
This new drink was called New Coke.
他们还请来了比尔·考斯比做宣传
And the company got none other than Bill Cosby to promote it.
朋友们 你们了解我 我这么多年都爱可口可乐
Now, you know me, I always loved Coke for years and years.
我更喜欢这款可乐
I like this Coke better.
新口味的可口可乐 最好喝的一款
The new taste Coca-Cola, better than ever before.
尽管口味测试证明了“新可乐”很棒
Even though the test proved that New Coke was superior,
人类心理上就是不喜欢改变
human psychology meant that the public just didn’t like change.
你为什么不喜欢“新可乐”呢?
Why are you upset about it?
因为我已经46岁了
Because I’m 46 years old,
我五岁时 用五美分买了
and I bought my first Coke with a nickle,
人生中第一瓶可口可乐
when I was 5 years old.
我大女儿现在22岁
My oldest daughter is 22.
她开口说的第一句话就是“可乐”
Her first word was “Coke”,
第二句才是“妈妈”
the second word was “Mommy”.
他们一度每天收到8000多条投诉
At one point, complaints raged over 8,000 per day.
“新可乐”成了可口可乐营销历史中最大的错误
The New Coke became one of the worst blunders in marketing history.
比尔·考斯比紧随其后成了另一个错误
And Bill Cosby would later be the same.
共产主义独裁者菲德尔·卡斯特罗一度宣称
At one point, communist dictator Fidel Castro stated that
老式可乐时代的终结是美国衰落的标志
the end of the original Coke formula was a sign of American decay.
可口可乐并不仅仅是一种软饮料
Coke was more than just a sugary drink.
它代表着美国人的生活方式
Coca-Cola stood for the American way of life.
最终 公众意见发挥了作用
In the end, the public had spoken.
人们对于可口可乐的感情如此深厚
The feeling of loyalty for Coke was so strong
以至于当可口可乐恢复原始配方时
that when Coke reverted back to the original formula,
人们更加珍惜差点就要失去的东西
people longed for what was about to be taken away from them.
不久 可口可乐又成为了销量第一
Soon, Coke became No. 1 again,
并且从那以后一直占据这个位置
and has stayed in that position ever since.
但很多人不知道的是
But what many people may not know is that
“新可乐”持续被提供给瓶装分销商 直到2002年
the New Coke was still offered to bottle distributors up until 2002.
罗伯特死于1997年 到那时
By the time Roberto died in 1997,
他已经把可口可乐的市场份额
he had taken Coca-Cola’s market share
从43亿美元提高到了1470亿美元
from 4.3 billion to 147 billion.
他的付出获得了回报
His drive to do better paid off.
[现状]
Present Day
那么现在可口可乐公司发展的怎么样呢?
So, what does the Coca-Cola Company look like today?
他们现在旗下有超过500个注册品牌
They have a huge registered brands now, over 500,
生产的饮品也五花八门
and have a huge amount of diversity in the beverage industry,
从可乐到矿泉水 再到果汁和奶制品
with everything from Coke to water, to juices and dairy.
不久前还在日本推出了第一款酒精饮料
They also just launched their first alcoholic drink in Japan,
一种预调鸡尾酒
and it was an alcopop.
可口可乐公司2017年的收入是350亿美元
The revenues in 2017 were 35 billion dollars,
自2012年达到480亿美元的高峰以来
which continues the state of decline that would be seen
公司收入就持续下滑
since they peaked at 48 billion in 2012.
这是因为消费者提高了健康意识
And this was after consumers became more health conscious.
然而以可口可乐目前的收入
Still, at its current revenue,
它仍是世界第84大经济体
Coke would be the 84th largest economy in the world.
好了 现在来看看关于可口可乐的12个有趣的真相
All right, so let’s look at 12 interesting facts about Coke.
这会让你了解到它的规模
I’ll give you an idea of their size
以及其他一些有趣的事
and other interesting things about them as well.
问你一个问题
And I ask you a question:
如果以每天喝一种的速度
If you were to drink every single one of
你觉得你得花多长时间才能喝完
Coke’s different beverages at a rate of one per day,
可口可乐旗下所有种类的饮料
how long do you think it would take you?
也许几个月?或者一年?
Maybe a couple of months? Maybe a year?
不见得
Well, not really.
你得用超过九年的时间才能全试一遍
It would take you over 9 years to try them all.
单可口可乐这一个饮料品牌
The Coca-Cola brand itself
估值就在740亿美元
is estimated to be worth 74 billion dollars,
比百威 百事 星巴克和红牛加起来还要多
as more than Budweiser, Pepsi, Starbucks and Red Bull combined.
如果把已生产的所有可乐装在
If every drop of Coke ever produced were put in
8盎司的瓶子里 首尾相接放在一起
8-ounce bottles laid end-to-end,
能往返月球至少2000次
they would reach to the Moon and back over 2,000 times.
世界上94%的人能辨认出
The red and white Coca-Cola logo is recognized
红白相间的可口可乐商标
by 94% of the world’s population.
是在耐克之后第二个最广为人知的商标
It’s the second most recognized brand on earth, behind Nike.
世界上有33个年产值
There are 33 non-alcoholic brands
超过10亿美元的软饮料品牌
that generate over 1 billion dollars revenue,
可口可乐拥有其中15个
and Coca-Cola owns 15 of them.
他们还有超过1000种果汁饮料
Coke also sells more than 1,000 kinds of juice drinks.
可口可乐花在广告上的钱
Coca-Cola spends more money on advertising
比微软和苹果加起来还多
than Microsoft and Apple combined.
他们长期成功营销的秘诀就是:
And their secret to long-term advertising success:
总是把产品和积极向上的感觉联系起来
Always associating their product with a good feeling.
#永远都选可口可乐#
#Coca-Cola is always the one#
#有欢乐的地方就有可口可乐#
#whenever there’s fun, there’s always Coca-Cola, yeah~#
#可口可乐#
#Coca-Cola#
#永远的可口可乐#
#always Coca-Cola#
这让消费者无论何时看到可口可乐
This establishes a positive emotional connection,
都会产生积极的情感
whenever a consumer sees the product.
他们是最早这样做的公司之一
They were one of the first companies to do this.
美国人每年消耗170万吨可乐
American digest 1.7 million tons of Coke,
每人每年消耗11磅 也就是5千克
or about 11 pounds, 5 kilos, per person
而这只是可口可乐这一种饮料的数据
each year from Coca-Cola alone.
关于这一点 可乐实际上对身体很不好
And on that note, Coke is actually pretty terrible for you.
它们会导致肥胖以及代谢疾病
They can cause obesity and metabolic disease.
据称可口可乐花费了上百万美元
The company has been caught paying millions of dollars
资助研究论文降低这些影响
to fund research papers playing down these effects.
21世纪初期中叶 有人揭露
In the mid 2000’s, it was revealed that
可口可乐品牌下的一些在售矿泉水
some of the water being sold under the Coke brand
其实就是净化自来水
was simply purified tap water.
墨西哥人平均喝的可乐产品
The average Mexican drinks more Coke products than
比平均美国人 英国人 印度人 中国人加起来喝的还多
the average American, British, Indian and Chinese combined.
可口可乐的美国制造商每年使用30万吨铝
Coke uses 300,000 tons of aluminium for its cans every year
制造饮料罐
just for its US operations.
这大致相当于全美
That’s equal to about 17.4% of
铝工业产量的17.4%
what the entire US aluminium industry produces.
世界上只有两个国家
There are only two countries in the world
不出售可口可乐:古巴和朝鲜
where Coca-Cola isn’t sold: Cuba and North Korea.
可乐是圣诞老人肥胖以及穿红色外套的原因
Coke is the reason why Santa is fat and wears red suit.
早在1931年 圣诞老人被描绘成各种模样
Prior to 1931, Santa was the depicted as everything
从一个瘦高个到长得阴森可怕的精灵
from a tall gaunt man to a spooky-looking elf.
他总是穿着主教长袍
He was often donned in a bishop’s robe
披着动物皮毛的外套
and wore an animal skin.
1931年的一则大热的可口可乐广告
A popular Coke advert in 1931 made Santa
设计了一个更美好 真实而欢乐的圣诞老人形象
look more wholesome, realistic and joy.
这就是我们今天所知的圣诞老人形象的起源
And this was the origin of the Santa we imagine today.
大概就是这样了
So there you go.
这个视频到这就要结束了
And that just about runs to the end of the video.
可口可乐的故事很有趣:
The story of Coca-Cola is a pretty interesting one:
从药剂师的一个错误
From a chemist’s mistake all the way to
发展为地球上最有名的品牌之一
one of the most recognized brands on the planet
也成了一个文化标志
and a cultural icon.
感谢观看 我是Dagogo
So thanks for watching. This has been Dagogo.
您正在观看的是《冷流科技》频道
You’ve been watching ColdFusion.
如果你只是偶然发现这个频道 欢迎订阅
If you just stumbled across this channel, feel free to subscribe.
我们下个视频见
And I’ll see you again soon for the next video.
谢谢大家 祝你们生活愉快
Cheers guys! Have a good one!
冷流科技 新思潮
ColdFusion, it’s new thinking.
订阅新思潮
Subscribe to new thinking.
[音乐]
#music#

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译制信息
视频概述

可口可乐是怎样从一个小错误发展成大公司的呢?历代领导人又做了哪些贡献?

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

小怪

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezLyvK4mbFY

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