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摩尔有多大?(不是鼹鼠也不是痣的那个mole) – 译学馆
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摩尔有多大?(不是鼹鼠也不是痣的那个mole)

How big is a mole? (Not the animal, the other one.) - Daniel Dulek

好的,今天我们讨论讨论有关摩尔的话题
OK, today we’re going to talk about the mole.
现在,我知道你们一定在想:我知道什么是摩尔
Now, I know what you’re thinking: ‘I know what a mole is,
它是一个毛绒绒的小生物,爱打洞和破坏花园.
it’s a small furry creature that digs holes in the ground and destroys gardens.’
而有些人可能会认为它是长在你阿姨脸上的带毛的东西。(痣)
And some of you might be thinking that it’s a growth on your aunt’s face with hairs sticking out of it.
在这种情况下,摩尔是我们用于在化学上计量分子,
Well, in this case, a mole is a concept that we use in chemistry to count molecules,
原子等一系列极小的事物的一个概念
atoms, just about anything extremely small.
你是否曾想过到底有多少个原子在宇宙中
Have you ever wondered how many atoms there are in the universe?
或者在你的身体里,甚至一粒沙子里?
Or in your body? Or even in a grain of sand?
科学家曾想解释这一问题
Scientists have wanted to answer that question,
但是如何去计量像原子这么小的东西呢?
but how do you count something as small as an atom?
在1811年,有个人提出一个主意,如果拥有等体积
Well, in 1811, someone had an idea that if you had equal volumes
的气体,在同样的温度和压强下
of gases, at the same temperature and pressure,
他们会包含等量的粒子数
they would contain an equal number of particles.
他的名字叫洛佐伦.罗曼诺.阿莫迪欧.卡洛.阿伏加德罗
His name was Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro.
我在想他签自己的名字到底要花多长时间
I wonder how long it took him to sign autographs.
对于阿伏加德罗来说,不幸的是大部分的科学家并不接受原子论
Unfortunately for Avogadro, most scientists didn’t accept the idea of the atom,
也没有方法证明他的理论是正确的
and there was no way to prove he was right.
那时原子和分子没有明显的差别
There was no clear difference between atoms and molecules.
大部分的科学家把阿伏加德罗的工作看作是纯粹假设,
Most scientists looked at Avogadro’s work as purely hypothetical,
也没有给出太多的想法
and didn’t give it much thought.
但是直到1860年末,才证明他是对的
But it turned out he was right! By late 1860,
阿伏加德罗的理论被证明是正确的,他的工作为原子理论的建立提供了帮助,
Avogadro was proven correct, and his work helped lay the foundation
不幸的事阿伏加德罗死于1856年
for the atomic theory. Unfortunately, Avogadro died in 1856.
现在我们所知的情况是,即使小样本的粒子数也是
Now the thing is that the amount of particles in even small samples
巨大的。例如,
is tremendous. For example,
如果你一个气球里面有装有任意气体,在零摄氏度,
If you have a balloon of any gas at zero degrees Celcius,
一个大气压强下,你能拥有
and at a pressure of one atmosphere, then you have precisely
6.02E+23的空气粒子
six hundred and two sextillion gas particles.
也就是容器里拥有6后面23个0的空气粒子
That is, you have six with 23 zeros after it particles of gas in the container.
或者按科学记数法来说,6.02乘以10的23次方个粒子
Or in scientific notation, 6.02 times 10 to the 23rd particles.
这个例子有点令人误解
This example is a little misleading,
由于空气粒子的高动能性,空气可以占据很大的空间
because gases take up a lot of space due to the high kinetic energy
这让你想到原子比它们事实要更大
of the gas particles, and it leaves you thinking atoms are bigger than they really are.
想一下水分子
Instead, think of water molecules.
如果你将18.01克的水倒入玻璃杯中
If you pour 18.01 grams of water into a glass,
那是十八毫升水,是三勺半的水
which is 18.01 milliliters, which is like three and a half teaspoons of water,
你将有6.02E+23个的水分子
you’ll have 602 sextillion molecules of water.
因为阿伏加德罗是首个提出这个主意的人
Since Lorenzo Romano – uh, never mind – Avogadro was the first one to come up with this idea,
科学家把这个数字6.02E+23以他的名字命名
scientists named the number 6.02 times 10 to the 23rd after him.
它被称为阿伏加德罗常数
It is simply known as Avogadros’s number.
现在,让们回到摩尔,不是那个摩尔(鼹鼠)
Now, back to the mole. Not that mole.
这个摩尔,有第二个名字。
This mole. Yep, this number has a second name.
化学家使用摩尔这个术语
The mole. Chemists use the term mole
用来表示6.02e+23的数量
to refer to the quantities that are at the magnitude of 602 sextillion.
这就是所谓的摩尔量
This is known as a molar quantity.
原子和分子都那么小,以至于化学家将它们统称为摩尔
Atoms and molecules are so small, that chemists have bundled them into groups called moles.
学生很难理解摩尔,因为他们
Moles are hard for students to understand because they have a hard time
很难想象一个摩尔的大小
picturing the size of a mole,
或者6.02E+23的大小
or of 602 sextillion.
这太大了以至于大脑无法记住
It’s just too big to wrap our brains around.
还记得我们的18.01毫升水吗
Remember our 18.01 milliliters of water?
恩,那就是一个摩尔的水。
Well, that’s a mole of water.
但是那又是多少呢
But how much is that?
6.02E+23究竟看上去有多大呢?
Exactly what does 602 sextillion look like?
这个也许会帮到你
Maybe this’ll help.
将水粒子换成甜甜圈
Exchange the water particles for donuts.
你如果有一摩尔的甜甜圈,它们将覆盖整个地球
If you had a mole of donuts, they would cover the entire earth
8千米厚
to a depth of eight kilometers,
或者说5英里厚
which is about five miles.
你真的需要很多咖啡去搭配它
You really need a lot of coffee for that.
你如果有一摩尔的篮球,你能创造一个新的星球
If you had a mole of basketballs, you could create a new planet
和地球同样大小
the size of the earth.
如果你在出生那天收到一摩尔的便士,
If you received a mole of pennies on the day you were born and spent a million dollars
你每一秒花一百万美金直到你100岁去世的那天,你还剩下超过99.99%
a second until the day you died at the age of 100, you would still have more than 99.99%
的钱在银行里
of your money in the bank.
好了,我们大体上了解摩尔到底有多大了吧
OK. Now we sort of have an idea how large the mole is.
那我们怎么使用它
So how do we use it?
你会惊讶地发现化学家使用它
You might be surprised to know that chemists use it the same way
就正如你用英镑买葡萄,熟肉,或鸡蛋一样
you use pounds to buy grapes, deli meat, or eggs.
当你去食品杂货铺时,你不必去柜台
When you go to the grocery store, you don’t go to the deli counter
问要买43片腊肠,你只需要买一英镑的腊肠即可。
and ask for 43 slices of salami, you buy your salami by the pound.
当你买鸡蛋时,你会买一打鸡蛋。
When you buy your eggs, you buy a dozen eggs.
到你听到一打这个词时,我们可能会想到数字12
When we hear the word dozen, we probably think of the number 12.
我们也同样知道一对是两个
We also know that a pair is two,
面包店的一打是13
a baker’s dozen is 13,
一箱(冰箱)是144,一令纸是 – 有人知道吗?
a gross is 144, and a ream of paper is – anybody?
一令纸是500
A ream is 500.
一摩尔也是同样的计量单位
Well, a mole is really the same thing.
对于化学家来说,1摩尔相当于6.02乘以10的23次方数字
For a chemist, a mole conjures up the number 6.02 times 10 to the 23rd,
不是那个毛茸茸的小动物。唯一的差别是
not a fuzzy little animal. The only difference is
其它的数量对我们来说更加的熟悉。
that the other quantities are more familiar to us.
那么,这就是摩尔,阿伏伽德罗,篮球,还有去超市买腊肠的故事。
So there you have it – the story of the mole,Avogadro, basketballs, and how to buy salami at the grocery store.

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