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海啸有多大?

How Big do Tsunamis Get?

Tsunamis are some of the most powerful and deadliest forces of nature.
海啸是最凶猛 最致命的自然灾害
Within recent memory,
关于海啸最近的记忆
you may recall 2004 India Ocean Tsunamis
你可能会想起2004年的印度洋海啸
and the 2011 Japan Tsunami,
和2011年日本海啸
both of which in resulted catastrophic damage and loss of life.
两场海啸都造成了灾难性破坏和人员伤亡
The Indian Ocean Tsunami happened after a massive earthquake
印度洋上的强震引发了
struck here in the Indian Ocean.
印度洋海啸
The earthquake itself released more energy
地震释放的巨大能量
than every single explosive detonated
比整个二战期间任何一次轰炸
in the entire Second World War,
释放的能量都要大
including the nuclear bombs.
包括原子弹爆炸释放的能量
This enormous amount of energy
这些巨大的能量
created a tsunami that reached heights of
在一些地方掀起了
30 meters high in some places,
高达30米的巨浪
or about the height of 17 people stacked on top of each other.
相当于17个人的叠加高度
The wave smashed into Indonesia,
海浪席卷了印度尼西亚
South Asia, and the east coast of Africa,
南亚和非洲东海岸
punching as deep as two kilometers inland
在一些地区 海水灌进了离海岸线
from the coast in some places.
2000米的内陆
As you can see from photos like this one,
正如在这张照片上看到的那样
the damage in these places was often extensive.
海啸带来的破坏是通常是大范围
The tragedy claimed the lives of around 250 thousand people,
这场悲剧夺去了约25万人的生命
making it the deadliest tsunami in all of history,
是历史上伤亡人数最多的海啸
while the 2011 Japan Tsunami
而2011年的日本海啸
was the costliest in terms of damage.
是史上造成损失最严重的海啸
That tsunami was also generated by an earthquake
日本海啸也是由地震引发的
that created waves as high as 40.5 meters;
形成的海浪有40.5米高
just about five meters shorter than the status of Liberty
比自由女神像只矮了约5米
that came slamming into the Japanese east coast
海浪席卷了日本东海岸
traveling up to ten kilometers inland away from the coast.
冲进了离海岸10公里远的内陆
As you can see from photos like this
你见到的这张照片
that look like something straight out of a Hollywood blockbuster,
看起来特别像好莱坞大片的场景
with what used to be a road stretching out into the endless ocean,
这曾是一条路 延伸到一望无际的大海
the economic cost of Japan was enormous:
海啸后日本的经济损失是巨大的
an estimated 300 billion dollars in damages was done,
损失评估约为3000亿美元
more than the entire GDP of South Africa.
比南非整个国家的GDP还高
But these are what are called “regular” tsunamis
但这两场海啸都只是常规海啸
and there is an entire other class of gigantic waves
还有一种会引发巨浪的海啸
that are simply called “megatsunamis”.
我们简单地称之为超级海啸
Unlike a regular tsunami that is created by an earthquake,
常规海啸由地震引发 超级海啸却不是
a megatsunami is usually created
它的发生通常是由于
when a massive amount of material suddenly falls into water,
巨大物体突然落入水中
which displaces that water into a huge wave.
从而激起巨大的海浪
The most tragic and possibly terrifying instance of
近年来发生的超级海啸中
this happening in recent times
最惨烈最可怕的是
was back in 1963, here in Italy,
1963年 发生在意大利
just 100 kilometers north of Venice.
威尼斯以北仅100公里处的那次
The Italian government and a construction company were building what at the time
意大利政府和一家建筑公司正在修建
was going to be the largest dam on Earth;
当时全球最大的水坝
the only problem was that
遇到的唯一困难是
they were building this dam with a huge water reservoir
水坝有着大小相当于一个湖的
the size of a large lake,
大型蓄水池
right next to one of the most unstable mountain on the planet
但旁边却是地球上最不稳定的山体之一
For months leading up to the completion of the dam,
大坝竣工前的几个月
there were several minor landslides
曾发生过几处轻微的山体滑坡
and other signs that there could be a catastrophe coming,
还出现了一些预示灾难即将降临的迹象
but rather than heed the numerous warning signs,
意政府非但没有重视这些警示
the Italian government actually decided to sue
反而决定起诉
the few journalists reporting on the issue
报道了该事件的一些记者
for quote:”…undermining the social order”.
理由是“破坏社会秩序”
The government and company continued to
政府和建筑公司继续
ignore all the warning signs
忽视这些危险信号
until it was obvious that the mountain was actually going to collapse
直到山体有了明显的坍塌迹象
directly into the dam’s reservoir.
坍塌的山体将径直落入水库
The engineers calculated the landslide that would likely occur,
工程师计算了可能发生的滑坡
lowered the water in the reservoir
并把水位降至了
to what they believed was a safe level,
他们认为的安全水位
and then actually stood on top of the dam
在预测会发生塌方的那一晚
the night that they expected the landslide to occur
他们站在大坝的顶部
to watch it all go down.
计划看着山体滑落
The only problem was,
但问题是
the landslide ended up being over
山体滑坡最终形成的威力
10 times more powerful than what their calculations had predicted!
是他们计算预测的10倍还多
This is a view of that mountain today:
这是那座山今天的样子
this right here used to be the reservoir,
这里是曾经的水库
and all the land that’s there now
现在这里所有的泥土
came crashing off the mountain from these areas
都是从这些裸露着白色岩石的
that are now exposed white rock.
区域坍塌下来的
This tremendous amount of earth and rocks
大量的泥土和岩石
fell into the reservoir in a matter of seconds,
在几秒的时间里落入了水库
completely filled the entire reservoir
填满了整个水库
and generated a wave 250 meters high
激起了高达250米的巨浪
that flew over the top of the dam,
巨浪越过了水坝
and into the villages below.
冲向了下面的村庄
The wave was almost the same high
用旧金山泛美大厦作为参考的话
as the TransAmerica building in San Francisco for some reference,
巨浪的高度和它几乎一样高
and caused an impact crater 60 meters deep
巨浪冲向大坝另一侧时
and 80 meters wide
与地面撞击形成了
when it slammed into the ground on the other side of the dam!
一个60米深 80米宽的坑
If you were standing from this angle looking up at the dam
巨浪袭来的那一刻
at the exact moment that the wave came over it,
如果你站在这个角度看大坝
the entire sky that you see in this picture
这张照片中天空的地方
would be completely covered by water!
将全部被水浪覆盖
This photo was taken in the town of Longarone,
这张照片是在隆加罗内拍摄的
which before the megatsunami looked like this,
超级海啸前 隆加罗内是这样的
but afterwards looked like this:
海啸后却是这样的
completely destroyed.
一切都被摧毁了
Around 2,000 people lost their lives in the accident,
约有2000人在这次灾难中丧生
but it’s not actually the largest mega tsunami
但在近代历史中 这还不是
even in recent history.
最大的超级海啸
That distinction would have to go to a megatsunami
最大的一场超级海啸
that happened here in Lituya Bay, Alaska, back in 1958.
发生在1958年 阿拉斯加图亚湾
A powerful earthquake caused a massive landslide
强震致使海湾后方的山体
to occur here at the back side of the bay.
发生了大规模塌方
The huge amount of land that came crashing into the bay
大量泥土落入海湾
created a titanic wave 525 meters high
形成了525米高的巨浪
that slammed into this part of the bay,
巨浪冲击到了这个区域
completely went over it,
并越过了这里
and smashed into the other side here,
冲击到了海湾另一侧
causing huge amounts of damage to the rest of the bay
对海湾的其他地区也造成巨大破坏
and destroying millions of trees.
成千上万的树木被摧毁
The height of this wave was over 100 meters
这次形成的巨浪高度超过100米
higher than the tip of the Empire State Building,
比美国帝国大厦还要高
and just 16 meters short
比新落成的纽约世贸大厦
of the recently built One World Trade Center in New York City,
仅仅低了16米
but even this is tiny in comparison
但和史前的超级海啸相比
to some prehistoric megatsunamis.
这次海啸仍然显得微不足道
The largest tsunami generated from a landslide
山体滑坡引起的最大的一次海啸
happened around 1.5 million years ago in Hawaii,
发生在150万年前夏威夷的
on the specific island of Molokai.
莫洛凯岛上
At some point around that time,
150万年前的某天
about one-third of the northern portion of the volcano
火山北部大约三分之一的山体
collapsed into the ocean
发生坍塌掉进了海里
and generated a wave 600 meters high,
激起了600米高的巨浪
which would have completely inundated the entire island of Molokai
巨浪淹没了整个莫洛凯岛
and wreaked havoc on the rest of the island chain.
对周围相连的岛屿也造成了严重破坏
This wave would have been about the height of
这场巨浪的高度
four Great Pyramids of Giza stacked on top of each other
有4个金字塔叠起来那么高
but even that pales
但即便如此
in comparison to the largest ever known megatsunami,
和迄今已知最大的超级海啸相比仍不值一提
which was caused by an asteroid.
世界上最大的海啸是陨石引起的
About 66 million years ago,
在6600万年前
the same asteroid that likely killed the dinosaurs
那颗可能造成了恐龙灭绝的行星
also caused possibly the largest megatsunami
在坠入现在的墨西哥湾的时候
in all of Earth’s history
很有可能还引发了
when it crashed into the modern-day Gulf of Mexico.
地球历史上最大的一次超级海啸
The asteroid was ten kilometers in diameter
这颗小行星的直径达10公里
and released an unbelievable 100 TERATONS of TNT worth of energy.
释放出了惊人的100兆吨TNT能量
For comparison,
对比一下
the Tsar Bomba which is the largest nuclear bomb ever detonated
沙皇炸弹是迄今为止引爆过的最大的核弹
released only 1/2,000,000th of that same amount of energy.
但它释放的能量仅为那颗小行星的1/200万
You would need 2 million Tsar Bombs
要释放和小行星相等的能量
to release this same amount of energy,
就需要2百万颗沙皇炸弹
which caused an equally unbelievable wave of up to
这样才能激起同样高达
5 KILOMETERS high,
5000米的骇人巨浪
that would have smashed into the Gulf Coast states
巨浪猛烈撞击着今天美国
of the modern-day United States
墨西哥湾沿岸的各州
That’s higher than the Matterhorn in the Alps
高度比阿尔卑斯山还高
by about 500 EXTRA METERS.
并且还高出了约500米
In fact the height is higher than
事实上 阿尔卑斯山脉中
all of the mountains in the entire Alpine Mountain Range.
没有一座山峰的高度能与之匹敌
These waves were so big
巨浪很大
that if they were to have happened in the Indian Ocean,
如果发生在印度洋
the entire island of Madagascar would have been
整个马达加斯加岛
completely submerged underwater for a time.
都将被淹没在水下一段时间
Imagine being on an island
想象你在一个
the size of Madagascar in this scenario,
大小和阿拉斯加差不多的岛
with absolutely no escape
海浪来袭时
from the clutches of the ocean’s waves
无论你站得有多高
no matter how high on the land that you can get to!
你都难逃一劫
It’s a weird thought,
这是个奇怪的想法
but at least it happened 66 million years ago
这次海啸发生在至少6600万年前
and there’s really no fear something like that
如今像这样的灾难
ever happening again, right?
应该不会发生了 对吧
Unless the 0.00001 percent chance
除非在有生之年 概率只有0.00001%的
of one of the Canary Islands
加那利群岛发生坍塌
collapsing into the ocean during your lifetime happens,
并掉入大海这件事情发生了
which would cause a tsunami about 1 kilometer high
才会掀起高达1千米的巨浪
and would probably wipe out the entire East Coast of the United States
并且还可能会冲毁整个美国东海岸
unless that happens then no,
除非真的发生了 否则……
probably not.
但大概不会
But, it’s still fun to think about.
不过 了解一下还是很有趣的
This video has been brought to you by “audible.com”,
本视频由 “audible.com”提供
with over 180,000 audiobooks and
网站上有18万本有声读物
almost every genre you can imagine.
内容应有尽有
You can get a free 30-day trial today
现在开始 登陆audible.com/RealLifeLore.
by going to audible.com/RealLifeLore.
即可免费试用30天
You can get a completely free audiobook of your choice,
还可获赠一本免费的有声读物
and if you liked the video that you just watched,
如果你喜欢本期视频
then why not read a little more about
为什么不读一读
how insane tsunamis can get by picking up a copy of
《喀拉喀托:世界爆炸的那一天》这本书
“Krakatoa:The Day the World Exploded”.
了解海啸还可以多么疯狂
I didn’t have enough time
时间有限
to cover every tsunami related story in this short video,
视频中未能详尽讲述与海啸相关的故事
so give it a listen with your free 30-day trial
所以登录audible.com/RealLifeLore
by going to audible.com/RealLifeLore.
获取免费试听30天便可收听到相关内容
Audible has a near endless library
Audible上有海量图书
of interesting things to listen to
可以收听到很多有趣的故事
so if you’d rather listen to something else for free with this,
所以 如果你想在上面收听免费内容
then that’s completely fine, too.
这里也是不错的选择
Thanks to Audible for supporting the channel.
感谢Audible对该频道的支持
And if you’d like to watch another video about natural disasters,
如果你还想看关于自然灾害的视频
you can go check out this video by Second Thought here on YouTube.
登陆You Tube点击Second Thought 观看本视频
You can subscribe to my channel by clicking here,
点击这里订阅我的频道
and you can visit my Patreon by clicking here.
点击这里访问我的赞助者
Thanks so much for watching, and we’ll see you next time.
感谢收看 下期见

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视频概述

2004年印度洋海啸夺去了25万人的生命,2011年日本海啸造成了3000亿美元的经济损失。海啸威力最大的自然灾害,海啸究竟能有多大?海啸究竟能有多疯狂?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Claudia

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7oaGUg7ik_c

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