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黑洞能变大到何种程度?

How Big Can a Black Hole Get?

black holes only seem to come in two radically different sizes
看起来黑洞只有两种大小
they’re either around five to a hundred times the mass of our sun
一种是太阳质量的约5到100倍
what are called stellar mass black holes
被称为恒星质量黑洞
or they’re millions to billions of times more massive than our sun
另一种是太阳质量的百万到十亿倍
aptly named supermassive black holes
被贴切的称为超大质量黑洞
so what is going on here
那么发生了什么
where are all the in-between sized black holes
这两种大小之间的黑洞去哪里了呢
and why does the scale range stop there
为什么质量区间不再变化了呢
could black holes be really tiny
黑洞有没有可能极小
or even as new research suggests stupendously large
或者像最新研究说的那般巨大?
you may remember when the large hadron collider was first coming online
网上首次出现大型强子对撞机的信息时
some alarmists claimed
一些危言耸听的人宣称
it would create a black hole that would destroy the earth
它会造出毁灭地球的黑洞
while microscopic black holes seem far-fetched
虽然极小的黑洞看起来不切实际
there are some theoretical ways they could exist
在一些理想条件下 它们还是能存在
but you’d need extra dimensions to do it
只是这时需要更多维度
gravity as we know
像我们知道的
it isn’t strong enough to compress subatomic particles small enough
重力没有强到能将亚原子粒子压缩到足够小
to make them collapse into a black hole
以致于坍塌成黑洞
because that size is smaller than
因为塌缩后的大小比
the smallest meaningful measurement of distance – the planck length
比最小的可测量长度——普朗克长度还要小
if discovered
如果能够发现极小的黑洞
microscopic black holes would change our understanding of
那么就会改变我们对于
how gravity works at the quantum scale
量子尺度下重力作用方式的理解
and even imply the existence of extra dimensions that amplify gravity’s force
甚至 意味着解释重力的多维空间的存在
so microscopic black holes could be made in particle accelerators
那么极小的黑洞就可能在粒子加速器中被制造出来
but they would also exist for only the briefest moments
不过它们只能存在极短的片刻
decaying in an octillionth of a nanosecond
这些黑洞会在1048分之一纳秒内衰减
not exactly enough time to devour the entire planet
没有足够时间去吞噬整个行星
so if they do exist, they are nothing to lose sleep over
所以即使极小黑洞真的存在 也没有什么值得太过操心
stellar mass black holes though are very much real and
恒星级质量黑洞是并非编造的
we have a pretty solid understanding of how they form
人们对它形成的了解得非常清楚
when large stars run out of fuel
巨大的恒星在燃料耗尽时
they collapse and go supernova
它们会塌缩 成为超新星
if the core they leave behind is more than about three solar masses
如果剩下的核心是太阳质量的大约三倍多
the star’s remnants collapse in on themselves
恒星剩余部分会自行塌缩
and a black hole is born
黑洞就形成了
these black holes can grow by devouring nearby material
这些黑洞可以吞噬附近的物质
or merging with neutron stars or other black holes
或者融合中子星或其他黑洞 借此变得更大
you might imagine
可以想象
if a stellar mass black hole was allowed to just keep accumulating matter
恒星级质量黑洞 如果只是不断吞噬物质的话
eventually it would balloon to the size of
最后就会达到 人们认为几乎所有大型星系中心
the super massive black holes that we think are at the center of almost all large galaxies
都存在的超大质量黑洞的规模
but there’s an upper limit to how fast matter can fall into a black hole
但是物质掉入黑洞是有速度上限的
so growing that large would take billions of years
所以要增大到超级质量黑洞大小需要几十亿年的时间
since we’ve observed
因为我们已经观测到
black holes with billions of solar masses
数十亿倍于太阳质量的黑洞
that was within hundreds of millions of years of the big bang
在大爆炸后的数亿年内就形成了
something else must be at work
肯定是其他什么东西 在发挥作用
The mechanism for how supermassive black holes come to be
超大质量恒星形成原理
is one of the great mysteries of astronomy
是天文学中最大的迷之一
there are a few competing ideas, each with their own strengths and weaknesses
一些对立的观点各有其长处与短势
for example maybe they formed from
例如 一种观点是它们可能形成于
large seed black holes that are already very massive when they form
本就非常巨大的巨型种子黑洞
and then they continue to grow as they suck in matter
种子黑洞继续吞噬物质增大
these large seeds would be
这些大型种子黑洞会是
the remnants of stars as big as 250,000 solar masses
太阳质量250000倍的恒星的残余物
stars that large should be rare
而这样大的恒星很罕见
making large seeds less likely
这就使得巨大的种子黑洞几乎不可能
another idea is they’re the product of several intermediate-sized black holes
另一种观点是黑洞是几个中等大小黑洞的产物
these intermediate-sized black holes could form in dense star clusters as stars collide
中等黑洞 可能是在稠密的星云中 由恒星相互撞击而形成
after formation they sink toward the center of a galaxy where they merge
然后 它们朝着星系中心移动 并在那里融合
as I said before though,
像之前说的
there seems to be a gap in the sizes of black holes
虽然黑洞大小区间看起来有空白
there is very little evidence
但几乎没有证据表明
that intermediate-sized black holes exist beyond supermassive black holes
有中等大小黑洞的存在 除超大质量黑洞外
there could be even more jumbo cosmic pits
可能还有更为巨大的宇宙黑洞
one recent suggestion is
最近的一个观点是
there could be black holes larger than a trillion solar masses
可能有一万亿倍于太阳质量的黑洞存在
more than 10 times larger than even the very biggest black hole we’ve discovered
是我们已发现的最大黑洞的十多倍
the researchers who proposed their existence dubbed them stupendously large black holes
提出此项提议的研究人员称它们为巨大黑洞
even our explanations for supermassive black holes won’t count for these giants
对于超大质量黑洞的解释 对这些庞然大物没有任何意义
their existence would require us to rethink how black holes form
它们的存在要求人们重新思考黑洞的形成原理
or maybe there just is an upper limit to how big black holes can get
也许对于黑洞大小的最大值有上限
black holes could run the gamut from the microscopic to the mind meltingly massive
可能从极小到超级大的全部范围的黑洞都存在
but so far the only thing we know for sure is
但是目前为止我们肯定的唯一的事是
they exist in two size ranges
黑洞有两种大小规格
and we’re not even certain how the larger size is possible
我们不能确定更大的黑洞是否可能存在
there’s no doubt scientists are going to keep probing for black holes at all scales
毫无疑问 科学家们会继续探究各个大小的黑洞
because black holes have not only captured light but our imaginations too
因为黑洞不仅吸收光 也让我们着迷
you might think that stupendously large black holes
你可能会认为巨型黑洞
are the result of when supermassive black holes combine
是由超大质量黑洞结合形成的
but something called the final parsec problem makes their merger impossible
但是秒差距问题使得结合过程不可能发生
check out my video on that here
点击观看这个主题的视频
all right

wild hypothesis time
疯狂假说时间
where you think all the intermediate-sized black holes are
你认为中等大小黑洞在哪里
let us know your thoughts in the comments
在评论里说出你的想法
be sure to subscribe and i’ll see you next time on seeker
不要忘了订阅哦 下次见

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视频概述

有没有很小很小的黑洞?黑洞可以有多大?黑洞是如何形成的?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

琥珀

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7AWIpZX1yg

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