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科技如何帮助我们专注 – 译学馆
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科技如何帮助我们专注

How better tech could protect us from distraction | Tristan Harris

充分利用时间意味着什么?
What does it mean to spend our time well?
我曾花费大量时间
I spend a lot of my time
来思考如何利用我的时间
thinking about how to spend my time.
也许我花了太多时间
Probably too much,
我可能是对此过度着迷了
I probably obsess over it.
我的朋友们也是这么觉得
My friends think I do.
不过从某种意义上说 我觉得我一定得这样做 因为最近
But I feel like I kind of have to, because these days,
我感觉我的时间一小块一小块地溜走了
it feels like little bits of my time kind of slip away from me,
我的生命就这样 一点一点被浪费掉了
and when that happens, it feels like parts of my life are slipping away.
具体点说
Specifically,
我觉得我的时间流失在
it feels like little bits of my time get slipped away
各种各样的事情上
to various things like this,
比如科技 我会不断查看更新的消息
like technology — I check things.
我举个例子
I’ll give you an example.
假如这个邮件出现了
If this email shows up —
你们中的不少人收到过这样的邮件 对吧?
how many of you have gotten an email like this, right?
我在一张照片中被圈出来了
I’ve been tagged in a photo.
当这个出现的时候
When this appears,
我情不自禁就要立刻点开
I can’t help but click on it right now.
是吧?因为这如果是一张不好的照片怎么办?
Right? Because, like, what if it’s a bad photo?
所以我一定要立刻点开
So I have to click it right now.
但我不仅仅是点击 “看照片”
But I’m not just going to click “See photo,”
我实际上是把接下来的 二十多分钟都花在上面了
what I’m actually going to do is spend the next 20 minutes.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是更坏的是我明知道会发生这种事
But the worst part is that I know this is what’s going to happen,
但即使是知道将会发生什么
and even knowing that’s what’s going to happen
也不能阻止我下一次再这样做
doesn’t stop me from doing it again the next time.
或者 我发现自己正处于这样的情况
Or I find myself in a situation like this,
当我在检查邮箱时 我总会下拉刷新
where I check my email and I pull down to refresh,
但问题是60秒之后
But the thing is that 60 seconds later,
我又会再次下拉刷新
I’ll pull down to refresh again.
我为什么要这样做?
Why am I doing this?
完全没意义啊
This doesn’t make any sense.
但我会给你们一点提示为什么会发生这种事情
But I’ll give you a hint why this is happening.
你们认为在美国什么东西
What do you think makes more money in the United States
比电影 主题公园和棒球业加起来还要赚钱?
than movies, game parks and baseball combined?
老虎机
Slot machines.
为什么老虎机能赚这么多钱 在
How can slot machines make all this money
我们每个人都只投了 很少量的钱进去的时候?
when we play with such small amounts of money?
我们投进去的是硬币
We play with coins.
这怎么可能呢?
How is this possible?
好吧 事情是这样的……
Well, the thing is …
我的手机就是一部老虎机
my phone is a slot machine.
每次我检查自己的手机
Every time I check my phone,
我就像在玩老虎机
I’m playing the slot machine to see,
我能得到什么?
what am I going to get?
我能得到什么?
What am I going to get?
每当我检查自己的邮箱的时候
Every time I check my email,
我就是在玩这个老虎机
I’m playing the slot machine,
想着 “我会得到什么?”
saying, “What am I going to get?”
每一次我滚动去看新闻提要的时候
Every time I scroll a news feed,
我就是在玩这个老虎机 看看
I’m playing the slot machine to see,
我下次能得到些什么?
what am I going to get next?
就是这样的事情反复发生
And the thing is that,
这次 知道了这些工作原理之后我是这个设计者
again, knowing exactly how this works — and I’m a designer,
我明确地知道 这背后的心理活动
I know exactly how the psychology of this works,
我确切地知道在发生什么
I know exactly what’s going on —
但是我除了盯着手机屏幕 别无选择
but it doesn’t leave me with any choice,
我现在依然深陷其中
I still just get sucked into it.
那么我们该怎么办呢?
So what are we going to do?
是因为科技才让我们陷入了 这样极端的关系之中
Because it leaves us with this all-or-nothing relationship
对吧?
with technology, right?
你要不就沉浸其中
You’re either on,
一直被其分散注意力
and you’re connected and distracted all the time,
要不你就隔离它们
or you’re off,
但这时候你会好奇:
but then you’re wondering,
我是不是错过了什么重要的消息?
am I missing something important?
换句话说 你要么总是被它们吸引
In other words, you’re either distracted
要么就因害怕错过什么而备受煎熬
or you have fear of missing out.
对吧?
Right?
所以我们需要重新选择
So we need to restore choice.
我们希望和科技建立一个联系这个科技
We want to have a relationship with technology
能够在我们花时间使用科技方面为我们做出让步
that gives us back choice about how we spend time with it,
而且我们需要设计者的帮助
and we’re going to need help from designers,
因为仅仅知道这个事实 并没有什么用
because knowing this stuff doesn’t help.
我们需要设计来帮忙
We’re going to need design help.
那么具体是怎么样的呢?
So what would that look like?
让我举一个普遍的例子:
So let’s take an example that we all face:
聊天——发短信
chat — text messaging.
那么假设这里有两个人
So let’s say there’s two people.
屏幕左边的是南希 她正在写文件
Nancy’s on the left and she’s working on a document,
屏幕右边的是约翰
and John’s on the right.
约翰突然想起来
And John suddenly remembers,
“我得赶紧找南希要这份文件 不然就忘了
“I need to ask Nancy for that document before I forget.”
所以他给她发了这个短信
So when he sends her that message,
这分散了她的注意力
it blows away her attention.
这就是我们经常做的事情互相分散对方的注意力
That’s what we’re doing all the time, bulldozing each other’s attention,
正如屏幕左右边的人
left and right.
这里有一个不可忽视的成本
And there’s serious cost to this,
因为每一次我们互相干扰
because every time we interrupt each other,
我们就需要大约 23 分钟
it takes us about 23 minutes, on average,
去重新集中注意力
to refocus our attention.
在我们重新集中注意力之前
We actually cycle through two different projects
我们实际上是在交替 进行两个不同的事情
before we come back to the original thing we were doing.
格罗里亚(加州大学尔湾分校信息学教授) 和微软合作的研究
This is Gloria Mark’s research combined with Microsoft research,
说明了这一点
that showed this.
而且她的研究也表明 这实际上培养了坏习惯
And her research also shows that it actually trains bad habits.
我们受到外部的干扰越多
The more interruptions we get externally,
外部的干扰越容易干扰我们自己
it’s conditioning and training us to interrupt ourselves.
实际上我们每三分半钟 就会自我干扰一次
We actually self-interrupt every three-and-a-half minutes.
就是这么夸张
This is crazy.
那么我们要怎么解决这个问题?
So how do we fix this?
因为南希和约翰 在这个极端的关系中
Because Nancy and John are in this all-or-nothing relationship.
南希可能希望避开干扰
Nancy might want to disconnect,
但这样的话她会担心
but then she’d be worried:
如果我错过了一些重要的事情怎么办?
What if I’m missing something important?
而设计就可以解决这个问题
Design can fix this problem.
再次假设屏幕左边的是南希
Let’s say you have Nancy again on the left,
右边的是约翰
John on the right.
约翰想起了 “我需要把这个文件发给南希。”
And John remembers, “I need to send Nancy that document.”
但是这一次
Except this time,
南希可以标记 她正处于专注状态
Nancy can mark that she’s focused.
比如说她标记
Let’s say she drags a slider and says,
我需要专注30分钟
“I want to be focused for 30 minutes,”
那么 她保持专注了
so — bam — she’s focused.
现在当约翰想给她发短信时
Now when John wants to message her,
他能够摆脱掉这个想法——
he can get the thought off of his mind —
因为他有这个需要 他有这个想法 并且
because he has a need, he has this thought,
他需要在他忘记之前 把这个想法付诸实践
and he needs to dump it out before he forgets.
但是这一次除外
Except this time,
这个设计在收到约翰消息的同时 会晚一点把消息发给南希 那么南希就可以保持专注
it holds the messages so that Nancy can still focus,
而约翰也可以处理掉这个想法
but John can get the thought off of his mind.
但这只在最后一件事成为事实的时候可行
But this only works if one last thing is true,
也就是南希需要知道 如果事情真的很重要的时候
which is that Nancy needs to know that if something is truly important,
约翰依然可以立即打断南希
John can still interrupt.
但是 我们现在仅允许有意识的干扰
But instead of having constant accidental or mindless interruptions,
而不是频繁的没用的干扰
we’re now only creating conscious interruptions,
所以我们想做两件事
So we’re doing two things here.
一是我们为南希和约翰 创造一个新的选择
We’re creating a new choice for both Nancy and John,
但与此同时我们也在 做一件很细节的事情
But there’s a second, subtle thing we’re doing here, too.
那就是我们改变 我们正在回答的问题
And it’s that we’re changing the question we’re answering.
我们这次上台演讲的目的不是:
Instead of the goal of chat being:
“让我们设计一个让发信息更方便的东西”
“Let’s design it so it’s easy to send a message” —
那是方便他人聊天的目的
that’s the goal of chat,
科技这么发达 发信息给某人是很容易的
it should be really easy to send a message to someone —
现在我们的目的变成了去探索更深层次的东西和人性的价值
we change the goal to something deeper and a human value,
也就是说 让我们在人和人之间创造
which is: “Let’s create the highest possible quality communication
尽可能高的交流质量
in a relationship between two people.
所以我们更新了我们的目标
So we upgraded the goal.
然而 设计者们真的关心这个吗?
Now, do designers actually care about this?
我们真的想去讨论人性 更深层的目标是什么吗?
Do we want to have conversations about what these deeper human goals are?
我给你们讲个故事吧
Well, I’ll tell you one story.
一年多以前
A little over a year ago,
我去协助组织一个
I got to help organize a meeting
由顶级技术设计者和 释一行禅师参加的会议
between some of technology’s leading designers and Thich Nhat Hanh.
释一行禅师是正念禅修的国际倡导者
Thich Nhat Hanh is an international spokesperson for mindfulness meditation.
这是我经历过的最有趣的会议
And it was the most amazing meeting.
你可以想象成一个房间
You have to imagine — picture a room —
在房间的一边有一群技术宅;
on one side of the room, you have a bunch of tech geeks;
房间的另一边
on the other side of the room,
是一群穿着褐色长袍剃了头的佛教僧侣
you have a bunch of long brown robes, shaved heads, Buddhist monks.
会议探讨的问题是 人性最深处的价值观
And the questions were about the deepest human values,
未来的科技是什么样子
like what does the future of technology look like
当你为最深层次的问题
when you’re designing for the deepest questions
和人性最深处的价值观设计时
and the deepest human values?
我们的谈话聚焦在更深入地
And our conversation centered on listening more deeply
倾听那些价值观会是什么样
to what those values might be.
他在谈话时开了玩笑
He joked in our conversation
他说假如 我们不进行拼写检查
that what if, instead of a spell check,
而且改成一个同情心的检查
you had a compassion check,
也就是 你可能会强调一个会无意间冒犯他人的词——
meaning, you might highlight a word that might be accidentally abrasive —
被他人视为冒犯的词(每当你干扰到别人时从口中说出的第一个词)
perceived as abrasive by someone else.
那么这样的对话会 发生在现实生活中
So does this kind of conversation happen in the real world,
而不仅仅在设计者会议中吗?
not just in these design meetings?
答案是肯定的
Well, the answer is yes,
我最喜欢的例子之一就是沙发客网站
and one of my favorites is Couchsurfing.
先介绍一下沙发客网站是一个
If you didn’t know, Couchsurfing is a website
帮助借宿者和愿意提供住宿的人
that matches people who are looking for a place to stay
进行匹配的网站
with a free couch, from someone who’s trying to offer it.
这服务很不错
So, great service —
他们的设计理念会是什么?
what would their design goal be?
假如你在沙发客网站工作的话你的设计目标是什么呢?
What are you designing for if you work at Couchsurfing?
可能你会觉得是 帮助主人和客人配对
Well, you would think it’s to match guests with hosts.
对吧?
Right?
这是一个挺好的目标
That’s a pretty good goal.
但这就有点像我们之前提到的 那个发信息的目标
But that would kind of be like our goal with messaging before,
那时我们的目标只是传递消息
where we’re just trying to deliver a message.
那么 更深层次的人性化的目标是什么呢?
So what’s the deeper, human goal?
沙发客员工把自己的目标设定为
Well, they set their goal
在从未见面的陌生人之间创造持续的 积极的
as the need to create lasting, positive experiences and relationships
经历和关系的需求
between people who’ve never met before.
有关的最有趣的事情发生在 2007 年
And the most amazing thing about this was in 2007,
他们推出一种评估的方法
they introduced a way to measure this,
真的很棒
which is incredible.
它的工作原理是这样:
I’ll tell you how it works.
你的每一个设计目标
For every design goal you have,
都一定要有相应的评估方法
you have to have a corresponding measurement
才能知道你做的好不好
to know how you’re doing —
这是一种评估成功的方式
a way of measuring success.
所以他们做的是
So what they do is,
假设有两个即将见面的人
let’s say you take two people who meet up,
他们会取出这两个人 共同相处的天数
and they take the number of days those two people spent together,
然后估算这几天中
and then they estimate how many hours were in those days —
这两人共同相处了多少个小时?
how many hours did those two people spend together?
然后在他们共处的那一段时间之后
And then after they spend that time together,
工作人员询问他们两人:
they ask both of them:
你觉得这段经历有趣吗?
How positive was your experience?
你和你遇到的这个人相处得融洽吗?
Did you have a good experience with this person that you met?
然后他们从这些愉快的时间中
And they subtract from those positive hours
减去人们在网站上花费的时间
the amount of time people spent on the website,
因为后者是人们生活的成本
because that’s a cost to people’s lives.
我们为什么要把这段时间视为每次匹配成功的关键呢?
Why should we value that as success?
其实两个时间相减后剩下的时间
And what you were left with
就是他们所称的 “净快乐”
is something they refer to as “net orchestrated conviviality,”
或者说 是一个被创造的净“快乐时光”
or, really, just a net “Good Times” created.
假如沙发客不存在 这些净快乐时光也根本不会存在
The net hours that would have never existed, had Couchsurfing not existed.
你能想象这件事有多振奋人心吗?当你每天来到这里工作
Can you imagine how inspiring it would be to come to work every day
并评估你的成就
and measure your success
评估存在人们生活中的“净贡献时间”——
in the actual net, new contribution of hours in people’s lives
那些如果你今天没有做好本职工作
that are positive, that would have never existed
就不会存在的积极成就
if you didn’t do what you were about to do at work today?
你能想象如果整个世界都这样运作会如何吗?
Can you imagine a whole world that worked this way?
你能想象一个社交网络——
Can you imagine a social network that —
假设你很喜欢做饭
let’s say you care about cooking,
那么衡量这个社交网络是否成功的标准是你做晚餐的天数
and it measured its success in terms of cooking nights organized
和你喜欢读的烹饪文章的数量
and the cooking articles that you were glad you read,
减去你不喜欢读的文章
and subtracted from that the articles you weren’t glad you read
或者你浪费在看 你不喜欢的东西上的时间
or the time you spent scrolling that you didn’t like?
想象一个专业的社交网站
Imagine a professional social network
它不再以创造人与人之间的联系 作为成功的标准
that, instead of measuring its success in terms of connections created
或者是发出多少信息
or messages sent,
而是以人们得到的工作机会
instead measured its success in terms of the job offers that people got
那些他们非常渴望的工作机会
that they were excited to get.
并且再减掉人们在网站上花费的时间
And subtracted the amount of time people spent on the website.
或者想象一个约会服务
Or imagine dating services,
就像 Tinder 或者其他的应用
like maybe Tinder or something,
它们不以人们更喜欢往左滑还是往右滑为评估方法
where instead of measuring the number of swipes left and right people did,
也就是它们现在评估成就的方法
which is how they measure success today,
而是以人们创造的深入的、浪漫的、令人满足的关系作为评估方法
instead measured the deep, romantic, fulfilling connections people created.
无论这种关系对他们来说意味着什么
Whatever that was for them, by the way.
但是你能想象一下 整个世界都这样运转
But can you imagine a whole world that worked this way,
从而能帮助你更好地利用时间的样子吗?
that was helping you spend your time well?
为了达成这个目的 你也需要一个新的系统
Now to do this you also need a new system,
因为你可能在想
because you’re probably thinking,
现在的互联网经济
today’s Internet economy —
现在的总体经济
today’s economy in general —
是以花费的时间来衡量的
is measured in time spent.
更多的用户
The more users you have,
更多的使用量
the more usage you have,
人们花的更多的时间
the more time people spend,
那就是我们如何衡量成功的方式
that’s how we measure success.
但我们之前也解决过这个问题
But we’ve solved this problem before.
我们以有机概念来解决的
We solved it with organic,
当我们说我们需要 以不同的标准去衡量事情的价值
when we said we need to value things a different way.
我们说的是一种不同的食物
We said this is a different kind of food.
所以我们不能 单纯通过价钱来比较
So we can’t compare it just based on price;
这是完全不同种类的食物
this is a different category of food.
我们也用 LEED 认证解决问题
We solved it with Leed Certification,
我们说这是不一样的建筑
where we said this is a different kind of building
在环境的可持续性上 代表不同的价值
that stood for different values of environmental sustainability.
假如我们在科技上 也引入类似的标准呢?
What if we had something like that for technology?
假如我们有一些东西它们全部目的和目标
What if we had something whose entire purpose and goal
是去为人类的生活创造一个新的积极的贡献?
was to help create net new positive contributions to human life?
假如我们能以一个 不同的标准来测量价值
And what if we could value it a different way,
让这种标准真正起作用呢?
so it would actually work?
想象在应用商城 提供与众不同的至尊货架空间
Imagine you gave this different premium shelf space on app stores.
想象网络浏览器能帮助引导你
Imagine you had web browsers that helped route you
找到这些设计产品
to these kinds of design products.
你能想象创造和生活在 这样的世界有多令人兴奋吗?
Can you imagine how exciting it would be to live and create that world?
我们今天就可以创造一个这样的世界
We can create this world today.
公司的领导们 你们要做的
Company leaders, all you have to do —
只有优先选择一个新的衡量机制
only you can prioritize a new metric,
去衡量为人类生活所做的那些 积极的净贡献
which is your metric for net positive contribution to human life.
同时要在这个话题上要保持坦诚
And have an honest conversation about that.
也许你一开始做得不会很好
Maybe you’re not doing so well to start with,
但是我们不要回避这个话题
but let’s start that conversation.
设计者们 你们可以重新定义成功; 重新定义设计
Designers, you can redefine success; you can redefine design.
证明你们比组织里的很多人都更有能力
Arguably, you have more power than many people in your organization
去创造我们赖以生存的选择
to create the choices that all of us live by.
也许就像在医疗行业
Maybe like in medicine,
我们有希波克拉底誓词
where we have a Hippocratic oath
去认识到医生的责任
to recognize the responsibility and this higher value
并以医治病人为目标的 更高的价值
that we have to treat patients.
假如设计者也有像这样的
What if designers had something like that,
关于新设计的誓言呢?
in terms of this new kind of design?
用户们 我们所有人
And users, for all of us —
我们可以呼吁这样的科技
we can demand technology that works this way.
这看起来也许很困难
Now it may seem hard,
但是麦当劳在顾客提出要求之前它们也并不提供沙拉
but McDonald’s didn’t have salads until the consumer demand was there.
沃尔玛在顾客需求产生之前也 没有有机食物
Walmart didn’t have organic food until the consumer demand was there.
我们需要对这样的新科技表达需求
We have to demand this new kind of technology.
而且我们能做到
And we can do that.
通过这样
And doing that
就可能把以时间为代价和尺度
would amount to shifting from a world that’s driven and run
运转的世界转变成 一个被合理
entirely on time spent,
高效利用的时间推动的世界
to world that’s driven by time well spent.
细菌
XC
我想生活在这样的世界
I want to live in this world,
而且我想引发坦诚的对话
and I want this conversation to happen.
让我们现在就开始这样的对话吧
Let’s start that conversation now.
谢谢!
Thank you.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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视频概述

科技是不是经常使我们从真正想做的事情中分心呢?无论在工作中还是在休息时,我们有大量的时间都被突然跳出来的推送和通知占用了——感觉上,科技没有帮助我们更好地安排时间,反而正在偷走我们的时间。设计者崔斯坦 • 哈里斯提供了关于科技的发人深省的新观念,他相信这能创造更多有价值的互动。他问,“当设计者为了满足更深层的人类需求,未来的科技会是什么样呢?”

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D55ctBYF3AY

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