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细菌是如何占领我们的身体的?

How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome

微生物无处不在
Microbes are everywhere,
手机上
on your phone,
水瓶里
in your water bottle,
洗手前在你的手上
on your hands before you wash them,
洗手后也在你的手上
on your hands after you wash them,
不夸张的说 细菌在你体表的每个地方
and literally everywhere else on top of you too.
微生物无时不在 无所不在
Microbes are omnipresent at any moment,
人类对它无能为力
and there is nothing we can do about it.
几百万年以前 我们跟它们达成约定
So, millions of years ago we made a pact,
人类提供庇护所和食物
we give them shelter and food,
微生物则反过来为我们工作
and in turn they work for us.
但人类越了解跟微生物之间的关系
But the more we learn about this partnership,
就越觉得这种关系更像一场冷战
the more it looks like a cold war.
在母亲的子宫里 我们处于无菌状态
Inside our mother’s womb, humans start out sterile.
而当我们出生 穿过产道时
When we are born and traveling through the birth canal,
母亲体内的几百万个细菌将我们团团包围
billions of our mother’s bacteria cover every single part of our bodies.
这个过程对人类健康至关重要
This is an essential part of human health.
剖腹产降生的婴儿 更易患哮喘
Children born via C-section have a higher rate of asthma,
免疫性疾病 甚至白血病
immune diseases and even leukemia.
因此我们的身体不仅接受微生物入侵
So our bodies do not onlyaccept the invasion of microorganisms,
还十分欢迎它们
they welcome it.
经过几百万年
Over millions of years,
我们共同进化 关系也更好了
we co-evolved to make the best of our relationship.
以母乳为例 其中有特殊糖类
Mother’s milk for example, contains special sugars
用于给养某些菌群
that are meant to feed and support certain groups of microbes,
让其成为其他菌群的诱饵
work as a decoy for others,
帮助调节免疫系统
and help to modulate the immune system.
两年后
It takes up to two years,
身体就会构建起健康的微生物群落
until a healthy microbe community has formed.
每个人都有其独特的微生物群
Every human has their own unique microbiome,
由细菌 病毒 真菌及其它有机体构成
made up by bacteria, viruses, fungi and other organisms.
在体表和体内 我们有三种客人
We have three categories of guests, on and in our bodies.
第一种 只顾做自己的事情的安静乘客
One: quiet passengers that do their own thing,
被我们礼貌地忽略
and are politely ignored.
它们会占据空间
By being there, they take up space
将不怀好意的入侵者控制起来
and keep more aggressive intruders in check.
第二种 伤害我们
Two: guests that harm us,
却也让我们学会生存的客人
but with whom we’ve learned to live.
比如 如果我们没有仔细刷牙
for example, bacteria that literally create acid
细菌就会分泌腐蚀牙齿的酸性物质
that melts our teeth, if we don’t brush enough.
它们想尽可能多的占据空间
They want to take up as much space as they can,
而我们却不愿如此
and we don’t want them to.
可我们也无法彻底摆脱它们
But, we can’t get rid of them entirely.
第三种 身体乐意接纳的伙伴
Three: friendly fellows that our bodies want to have around,
它们大多是380万亿个菌群的成员之一
most of them are a community of 380,000 billion bacteria,
分别来自肠道内5000余个不同的菌种
from up to 5,000 different speciesthat live in our gut.
这些肠道菌群帮我们消化食物
These gut microorganisms help us digest food,
从我们无法自行消化的物质中带走卡路里
and pull additional calories from things that we can’t digest ourselves.
不幸的是 我们的肠道也是入侵者的必争之地
Unfortunately, our gut is also the perfect point of attack for intruders,
所以它被好斗的军队守卫着
so it’s guarded by an aggressive army,
即我们的免疫系统
our immune system.
为了生存 体内的细菌与我们共同进化
To survive here, our microbiome co-evolved with us
得以与我们的身体进行交流
to be able to communicate with our body.
交流的重中之重
The most important part of that
就是请求免疫系统不要杀死它们
is to ask the immune system to not kill them.
然而 它们也有实在的动机保护我们的肠道健康
But, they also have a real motivation to keep our gut healthy,
所以部分细菌会生产信使物质
so some of them produce messenger substances,
以帮助训练免疫系统
that help to educate the immune system,
其他细菌则会刺激肠道细胞更快再生
and others stimulate the gut cells to regenerate faster.
但经过近几年的研究 有证据表明
But, over the last few years, evidence has emerged that
肠道菌群所产生的影响
the influence of our gut microbiome,
远非于此
goes much much further.
肠道菌群甚至可以直接与大脑对话
It might even talk directly to our brain.
科学家们发现了一些稀奇事
We’ve observed a few curious things,
身体中有九成的血清素
90% of our body’s serotonin,
(血清素是神经细胞重要的信使物质)
an important messenger substance for nerve cells,
来源于肠道
is produced in the gut.
一些科学家认为 肠道菌群这样做
Some scientists think the microbiome does this,
是为了与迷走神经交流
to communicate with the vagus nerve,
(迷走神经是神经系统的信息高速公路)
the information highway of our nervous system.
再比如 细菌会刺激肠道内的免疫细胞
Other examples are bacteria that stimulate immune cells in the gut,
使之向大脑发出报警信号
so they send a kind of alarm signal to the brain.
瞧 它激活了免疫细胞
Here, it activates immune cells,
帮助大脑从伤害中恢复
help the brain recover from injuries.
因为大脑决定了我们吃什么
Since the brain decides what we eat,
菌群偏爱健康的大脑
the microbiome is interested in a healthy brain.
全新的科学领域正在兴起
A new field of science is opening up here,
我们还差临门一脚就能明白
and we’re just on the verge of understanding
我们体内的这些复杂系统是如何相互影响的
how these complex systems inside our bodies interact.
但我们已经可以观察到
But we are starting to see
微生物菌群如何影响了我们和我们的行为
how much our microbiome actually influences us and our behavior.
以抑郁症为例
Take depression for example,
被喂养抑郁人群的肠道细菌的健康大鼠
healthy rats fed microbes from the guts of depressed people,
开始表现出类焦虑行为
began showing anxiety-like behavior,
其症状与抑郁相似
and symptoms that look like depression.
2017年初
And in early 2017,
有研究证明微生物菌群与智力相关
a study linked the microbiome to intelligence,
研究发现 携带特定细菌的新生儿
by connecting a certain set up of bacteria in newborns,
有更强的运动和语言天赋
with better motor and language skills.
微生物菌群也会影响到我们的日常生活
But it might also influence our daily lives.
一项针对果蝇的实验
Tests with fruit flies,
证明其微生物菌群影响了它们的食物偏好
showed that their microbiome, influenced what kinds of food they craved.
这也意味着你体内的细菌能告诉你的大脑
This could mean your microbes are able to tell your brain,
应该吃什么样的食物
which food it should get them.
但这种沟通并不是单方面的
Although, this is not a one-way street.
我们体内的微生物来自于我们的母亲
The seed for our microbiome comes from our mother,
但它们将如何发展变化
but how it develops and changes,
取决于我们吃的食物
is determined by what we eat.
肠道细菌的食物各不相同
The organisms in our gut feed on different things,
有的喜欢纤维和绿叶蔬菜
some like fibers and leafy greens,
有的喜欢糖分和淀粉
others go for sugars and starches,
还有的喜欢油炸薯条和黄油
and some love greasy fries and butter.
我们的肠道就像花园
Our gut is like a garden,
由我们不断决定
in which we constantly decide,
开什么花 结什么果
what will grow and blossom.
如果我们膳食健康
If we eat healthily,
就会繁殖出喜爱健康食品的细菌
we breed bacteria that like healthy food.
如果我们吃太多快餐
If we eat a lot of fast food,
就会繁殖出喜爱快餐的细菌
then we breed fast-food-loving bacteria.
生活不易 我们会陷入恶性循环
Life is hard, so we can get trapped in a vicious circle.
你在压力大时
You have a stressful time,
吃掉很多汉堡 薯条和披萨
and eat lots of burgers and fries and pizza.
对喜爱快餐的细菌来说 这是盛宴
This is awesome for fast food bacteria,
它们繁殖得越来越多
they multiply and multiply,
最终占据了喜爱蔬菜的细菌的生存空间
and take up space from vegetable loving bacteria.
更糟的是 它们向大脑发送信号
But even worse, they send signals to the brain
继续正在进行的动作
to continue what it’s doing.
这让你渴望更多快餐食品
This makes you want more fast food
繁殖出更多喜爱快餐的细菌
which breeds more fast food bacteria,
让你更渴望快餐食品 不停循环
which makes you crave fast food, and so on.
这种自我加强的循环
This kind of self-reinforcing cycle,
是导致肥胖的主因
could play a huge role in obesity.
但要重点强调的是 你可以对抗这个过程
But, it’s important to stress that you can fight this process,
并通过摄入健康食品 繁殖有益菌改变结果
and reverse it, by eating healthilyand breeding more good bacteria.
除了肥胖
Beyond weight gain,
微生物菌群还与其他严重的疾病相关
our microbiome has also been linked to other serious diseases
如孤独症 精神分裂 以及癌症
like autism, schizophrenia, and cancer.
帕金森的早期症状之一
One of the earliest symptoms of Parkinson’s,
实际是肠道问题
is actually gut problems.
如果你体内的有害细菌泛滥成灾
If your body is overrun with bacteria that harm you,
通常就只有一个解决方案
there is often only one solution.
增加有益菌兵团
You bring in an army of good guys.
很简单
That’s very easy,
移植健康的粪便即可
you just transplant some healthy poop.
方法就是把健康人的粪便
You do that by literally transferring poopfrom a healthy person
移植进你的肠道
into your gut.
该方法已被用于治疗
This method is already used to cure diarrhea
因艰难梭菌控制肠道菌群引起的腹泻
that’s caused when C. difficile bacteria, take over a gut microbiome.
但我们仍无法勘破菌群之间复杂的相互作用
But we just don’t know enough about the complex interplay at work here yet.
比如 移植自超重者的菌群
For example, a transplant from an overweight donor
治愈了某女士的腹泻
cured a woman’s diarrhea,
却也导致她患上肥胖症
but contributed to her obesity down the line.
这一现象提供了方法
This caused some ways
也有其他研究试图逆转这一影响
and another study tried to reverse the effect:
将纤瘦人群的粪便移植给肥胖人群
poop transplants from slim people to obese ones,
给予后者更多不同种类的菌群
gave them a more diverse microbiome,
并降低他们对胰岛素的敏感度
and made them less sensitive to insulin,
这两种现象都发生在减肥的过程中
both things that also happen when people lose weight.
我们需要更多科学实验才能真正理解
We need to do a lot more science to really understand
细菌是如何让我们健康或生病的
how our microbes make us healthy or sick.
然而 不管喜欢与否
But, whether we like it or not,
我们都要与体内的细菌相依为命
we need our microbiome, and it needs us.
我们永远无法将身体据为己有
We’ll never have our bodies to ourselves.
可我们却收获了一个强大的战友
But we have gained a powerful ally,
只要彼此能够和平共处
if we can just keep the peace.

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视频概述

细菌无处不在,带来疾病的同时,却又与我们的健康息息相关。人体内的细菌都是从何而来的?为什么对健康有如此重要的影响?它们有时还能直接与大脑对话,其中又有何深层次的原因?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Hermes赫斯

审核员

ZY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VzPD009qTN4

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