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敬畏之情是如何改变你的

How Awe Changes You

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[INTRO ♪]
敬畏可能产生在
Maybe it was when you saw
你第一次看到美国大峡谷时
the Grand Canyon for the first time,
或者发现自己离《星月夜》的漩涡
or when you found yourself standing 20 centimeters
只有20厘米时
from the whorls of Starry Night,
或听纽约爱乐乐团演奏《星空大战》主题曲时
or listening to the New York Philharmonic play the Star Wars theme.
或观看瓦坎达的日落时
Maybe watching a Wakandan sunset.
不管情境如何 敬畏的感觉是差不多的
No matter what causes it, being awestruckfeels much the same.
你会张口结舌
Your mouth drops open.
感觉时间停滞
Time stops.
会忘了呼吸
You forget to breathe.
敬畏是最强大 最具变革性的情绪之一
Awe is one of the most powerful, transformativeemotions we have,
在我们发展
and it ’ s a key part
对世界的认知中起着重要作用
of how we develop our understanding of the world.
但事实证明这种联系是双向的
But it turns out that connection goes both ways.
因为感知敬畏可能会让你更了解这个世界
Because feeling awe might tell you a lot aboutthe world,
但是敬畏心理学能让你更了解人本身
but the psychology of awe can tell you a lot about humans.
大多数心理专家都认为敬畏会在
Most psychologists agree that awe is a feelingthat happens
某件物体过于庞大
when something is so vast
难以融入你当前思考的方式的时候产生
that it ’ s hard to fit into your current way of thinking.
“庞大”这个词在这里可以表示
“ Vastness ” in this context can be something
只是体型大的物体
that ’ s just plain old big,
比如一颗红杉树
like a redwood tree,
但也可以代表各方面都比你强的东西
but it can also mean something that ’ s larger than yourself
举例来说 更高的社会地位
in all kinds of ways—a higher social standing,
甚至是一个概念
for example, or even just a concept.
当你面对它时 它就是……融入不了你的思维
When you’re confronted with this thing,it just … doesn’t fit.
它太多 太大了
It ’ s too much, too vast,
让人甚至难以理解
in a way that makes it hard to even comprehend.
当你有这些感觉时:你就是感到敬畏了
And that’s when you feel it: You are awestruck.
这个定义相当新 至少是在心理学家中是这样
This definition is pretty new, at least amongpsychologists.
哲学家和诗人从一千年前就谈论敬畏
Philosophers and poets have talked about awefor millennia,
但是心理学家直到近期才开始研究它
but psychologists didn’t really start studyingit until recently,
部分原因是在实验室
partly because it ’ s hard to find
不管自动移液管多么神奇
ways to inspire awe in a lab,
都很难找到激发敬畏之情的方法
no matter how amazing those automatic pipettesare.
敬畏这个领域真正开始是在2003年
The field really kicked off in 2003,
一群研究人员
when a group of researchers
发表了一个关于
published a study
认知与情绪的研究 第一次提出了
in Cognition & Emotion where they first proposed the idea
敬畏这个概念是一种处理某些
of awe as a way of processing something
太大又难理解的事物的方式
that seems too vast to comprehend.
他们也提出了5种所谓的可能会影响敬畏感的
They also came up with five so-called “ flavors ”
“调料”:
that might affect our sense of awe: threat,
威胁 美丽 技能 品德和超自然感
beauty, ability, virtue, and a senseof the supernatural.
列表包括“威胁” 一开始可能使你感到惊讶
Including “threat” in that list mightbe surprising at first,
因为人们不认为敬畏
because people don ’ t talk about awe
是消极的或者威胁标志
as a negative thing or a sign of a threat,
但它可能是
but it can be.
“敬畏”这个词实际上来源于中世纪的
The word “awe” actually comes from MiddleEnglish words
表示害怕 恐惧 可怕的英语词汇
for fear, dread, and terror. Uh,
很惊讶吧?
yikes?
如今 好的和坏的“awe”都包含在现代英语语言中
And good and bad awe are both part of the English language today.
这就是单词“awesome”与“awful”的共同之处
It’s what the words “awesome” and “awful”have in common.
消极的敬畏是你在看到飓风或地震
Negative awe is the type of feeling you mightget from
造成的毁灭场景时可能得到的感觉
looking at pictures of horrible destruction after a hurricane or an earthquake.
这肯定和水杉以及彩虹不是同一类
It’s definitely not in the same categoryas sequoias and rainbows,
但你很难以类似的方式认真思考它
but it ’ s hard to wrap your head around in a similar way.
无论感觉是积极的还是消极的
But whether the feeling is positive or negative,
敬畏的进化之源能告诉你很多
the evolutionary roots of awe can tell you a lot about
起初我们会感受敬畏的原因
why we experience it in the first place.
正如很多情绪一样
Like a lot of emotions,
一切都归根于我们作为一种物种的社会性
it all comes down to how social we are as a species.
在那份描写敬畏“调味”的2003年的论文里
In that 2003 paper about the “flavors”of awe,
研究人员也提出了这种进化感觉
the researchers also proposed that the feelingevolved as a way
以下属对有能力的领导作为反应的方式进化
for underlings to react to a powerful leader.
这似乎有点……让人不安
That … might seem kind of unsettling thesedays,
因为我们已经见识过法西斯主义 都知道这是怎么回事
because we’ve seen fascism and we all knowhow that goes.
但是在面对强大的组织成员时 感到恐惧和服从
But fear and submission in the face of powerfulgroup members
这种情况实际上在灵长类动物中很常见
are actually common in lots of primates,
在以前 这是避免冲突最简单的方式
and back in the day, it was the simplest way to avoid conflict.
同时 敬畏也有很多暖心的社会利益
And there are some heartwarming social benefitsto awe, as well—
让我们更好地对待彼此
it makes us treat each other better.
2015年研究人员对近2000名参与者
One 2015 study on this involved a series ofexperiments
做了一系列实验
with a total of nearly 2,000 participants.
发现当人们想起
It found that when people thought
他们体验敬畏的那一刻时
about a time that they experienced awe,
他们往往会变得更慷慨无私
they tended to become more generous and selfless,
做出更多有道德的决定
and make more ethical decisions.
因此 当涉及到小组合作时
So awe would’ve had plenty of evolutionaryadvantages
敬畏有很多进化上的优势
when it comes to cooperating as a group.
但是其他研究人员提出了
But other researchers have proposed that the evolution
敬畏的进化与智力紧密相连
of awe is more closely tied to intelligence.
观点是 若一种情境对于习得以后可能用到的信息很重要
The idea is that you experience awe in situations
那么你就会感受到敬畏
where it ’ s important to be acquiring information that you can use later.
这是有道理的:如果某事因为不符合
It makes sense: if something is awe-inspiringbecause
你对这个世界的理解而令人敬畏
it doesn’t fit with your understanding ofthe world,
如果你想活下去的话 那件事可能
that ’ s probably something that you should know more
是你应该了解更多的东西
about if you wan na survive.
敬畏的感觉使你将你的注意力从自己
The feeling of awe directs your attentionaway from yourself
转移到环境中来
and toward your environment,
所以你可以从这个
so you can acquire more information about this new,
可能改变一生的新事物中习得更多信息-不管它积极还是消极
possibly life-changing thing—whether it’spositive or negative.
因此敬畏可能给我们
So awe might have given us
社会优势或智慧优势
a social advantage or an intellectual advantage,
或者可能两者兼而有之
or maybe some combination of both.
但不管这种情绪为何进化
But no matter why the emotion evolved,
我们知道敬畏的效果非常强大
we know that it ’ s incredibly powerful—
关键是它能完全
to the point that it can, like,
影响你的大脑和身体
totally hack your brain and body.
一方面 它可能改善你的身体健康
For one thing, it can improve your physicalhealth.
与在多种疾病中都起重要作用的
It ’ s been linked to lower levels of inflammation,
低水平炎症相关
which plays a role in all sorts of illnesses.
敬畏也可能改变你看待事物起因的视角
Awe can also change your perception of what ’ s causing events to unfold.
研究发现敬畏让人们更容易理解
Studies have found that it makes people morelikely to interpret
一系列的事件是有意的结果
a series of events as the consequence of somethingintentional,
而不是偶然发生的
as opposed to random chance.
这些都是解释大脑难以
It’s all part of the search for an explanationfor something
理解某物的探究过程
your brain is struggling to comprehend,
这能帮助我们解释为何宗教是件大事
which could help us explain why religion isa thing. Oh,
同样 敬畏可以停止时间
and also awe can basically stop time.
2011的研究发现 经历过敬畏的被试
A 2011 study found that subjects who experiencedawe
更倾向于报告时间是“无限的”
were more likely to report feeling that timewas “boundless”
似乎他们有足够的时间完成事情
and like they had enough time to get things done.
他们也更愿意奉献出时间帮助他人
They were also more willing to volunteer their time to help others.
因此 改变我们对时间的认知
So altering our perception of time might be part
可能是敬畏带给我们的社会利益之一
of how awe leads to those social benefits.
我们很难知道大多数的影响是怎样或者是否
It’s hard to know how or whether most ofthese effects
适用于消极类型的敬畏
apply to the negative type of awe,
因为关于消极敬畏的实验还很少
because there ’ s much less research on it.
但是 一项研究确实发现消极敬畏
But one study did find that negative feelingsof awe
并没有产生与积极敬畏一样的健康利益
didn’t produce the same health benefitsas positive awe did,
因此 影响也貌似并不完全相同
so the effects don’t seem to be exactlythe same.
但是 有件事是很明确的:
One thing is clear, though: these experiences,
巨大又不可理解的事物
where something is so huge and incomprehensible that
会使人重新思考对世界的理解
it makes you rethink your understanding ofthe world,
这些经历是我们作为物种的一部分角色
are part of how we function as a species.
不管是受到大峡谷还是自然灾害启发的敬畏
Whether it’s inspired by the Grand Canyonor a natural disaster,
它都改变了你-这种改变超出你的理解
awe changes you—maybe more than you know.
多谢观看本期《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych,
也同时感谢众筹网站的
and thank you to all of our patrons
所有支持本频道的赞助者
on Patreon for helping support this channel.
我们是一个人类社群
We are a community
都想了解更多关于人类-特别是
of humans who want to understand more about humans— specifically,
大脑部分的知识-如果这点对你来说很酷
the brain parts—and if that,to you, sounds like something
可以登陆“youtube.com/scishowpsych”并订阅
that’s cool, you can go to youtube.com/scishowpsychand subscribe.
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[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

敬畏是什么?它可以给人们带来什么改变?快点进来

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翻译译者

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审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPh98ciWClI

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