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艺术是如何发展至今的? – 译学馆
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艺术是如何发展至今的?

How Art Arrived At Jackson Pollock

When should you start the story of this painting?
这幅画的故事该从何时谈起呢?
Here in 1910 or
1910年的这幅画
here in 1844? Maybe
还是1844年的这幅画?
here in Cezanne’s studio at the close of the 19th century,
或是19世纪末的塞尚画室
or maybe the only place you can really find the genesis of this canvas
又或者这幅画的真正源头要追溯到
is in Jackson Pollock’s mind the day he began to drip.
杰克逊·波洛克发明滴画时的想法
I’m drawn to ask these questions
我忍不住要问这些问题
because this painting, “One: Number 13 [31], 1950″is the only abstract work of art
因为他的《一:第13号 1950年作》
that has ever floored me in person.
是唯一一幅让我感到惊艳的抽象画
As soon as my eyes caught it, it made me feel something.
一看到这幅画 我就感觉到了什么
I don’t know that I could describe the feeling,
我不知道自己能否描述这种感觉
but I didn’t have to go searching for it either,
但我也不一定要去寻找这种感觉
a problem I often have with non-figurative paintings,
我观赏非具象画时常出现这个问题
where I’m standing in front of a canvas,
站在一幅画前面
trying to figure out the reaction I’m having to it,
尝试弄明白自己对这幅画的反应
feeling guilty because nothing’s coming.
但又因为没啥想法而感到内疚
I don’t think the power of this Pollock depends
我并不认为波洛克这幅画的力量
on its place in the history of art.
取决于它在艺术史上的地位
Its style, its use of color, its hyperactivity are intrinsic qualities.
它的风格 颜色和动态感都是其固有的价值
But I do think the history of art has a lot to say through Pollock’s drip paintings
但我认为 波洛克的滴画在很大程度上揭示了艺术史
which he’d been making by this point for about four years.
他画了四年滴画
In many ways, they’re the culmination of something that has a foggy beginning about a century or two before,
在许多方面 它们都促使了一两个世纪前某种艺术观念的形成
with the gradual end of church and noble patronage of the Arts
那时 教堂和贵族逐渐停止对艺术的赞助
and the dawn of painters painting what was important to them.
画家们开始画对他们而言重要的东西
There’s no fixed point where you could mark the beginning of modern art.
现代艺术的开端没有一个明确的时间节点
Some find it in this painting by Manet from 1863
有人认为它始于莫奈在1863年画的这幅画
with its flattened image and scandalous subject
图像扁平并有讽刺贵族之意
that flouted the values of the Paris salon.
质疑了巴黎沙龙的价值
And I think it’s as good a moment as any.
这个时期意义重大
That year, fully 2/3 of submissions to the salon were rejected,
那一年 足足有2/3想参加官方艺术沙龙的申请被拒绝
and after a public outcry,
引起公众强烈抗议后
Emperor Napoleon the third authorized a second salon to feature them called,
皇帝拿破仑三世批准为他们建立第二个沙龙
appropriately, the”Exhibition of Rejects”.
这个沙龙被形象地称为“落选者沙龙”
It was a massively popular event.
它非常受欢迎
And though these paintings were criticized as much as they were praised,
虽然这些画毁誉参半
it marked a moment of legitimacy for art that stood outside the Academy’s hierarchy of quality.
但“落选者沙龙” 标志着不被学院派接受的艺术 也可以正当存在了
Once the cat was out of the bag, things started moving very quickly.
事情一旦有了苗头 马上就会势如破竹
Less than ten years later, Claude Monet and his compatriots launched into impressionism.
还不到十年 克劳德·莫奈和他的伙伴就开创了印象主义
Concerning themselves not with the objects they see in the world,
他们关注的不是眼中的客观世界
but how the light plays off them.
而是光是如何跟客观世界互动的
Impressionism in turn starts a chain reaction of, well, reaction.
印象主义引发了一系列连锁反应 呃……变革
The post-impressionists begin to dispense with the effects of light and the reality of color,
后现代主义者不再运用光效应和光的真实颜色作画
and paint according to subjective experience and emotional vision
他们根据主观体验和情感来作画
Then the fauvists take the arbitrariness of color to kaleidoscopic extremes
接着野兽派画家在20世纪的前10年将颜色的任意性
in the first decade of the 20th century.
发展到了千变万化的极致
I mean, just look at the transformation that’s happened to painting in just 40 short years.
看看短短40年间 绘画发生的巨大变化
Art has unravelled.
艺术分崩离析了
Its centuries long aim of reproducing the physical world in perspective, color, and form
几个世纪以来 通过透视 颜色 形态 再现客观世界的艺术目标
is rapidly being abandoned.
已经被快速摒弃了
Wassily Kandinsky, influenced by the impressionists, by the fauvists,
瓦西里·康定斯基在印象派 野兽派
by music, and by the geometric spirituality of theosophy
音乐和通神学几何精神的影响下
starts pulling away from representation entirely.
开始完全远离具象
In a groundbreaking book, he writes,
在其开创性的著作中 他写下
“ The more abstract is form,
“形式越抽象
the more clear and direct its appeal.”
越会给人清晰与直接的吸引力”
And in 1910,
在1910年
he paints this,
他画了这幅画
in which no objects from our world can be recognized at all.
画里都是我们完全无法识别的物品
It’s the first fully abstract painting.
那是第一幅完全抽象的画作
Except it turns out
结果发现
that Hilma af Clint was actually painting abstracts at least three years prior to this
其实赫尔玛·克林特至少比康定斯基早三年画抽象画
but no one knew that until many years later.
可人们多年后才知晓
Meanwhile, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque
同时 巴勃罗·毕加索和乔治·布拉克
were shaking up painting in their own way,
也开始以自己的方式作画
by formalizing Cezanne’s experiments with multiple perspectives into”cubism”.
利用多种透视将塞尚的创新发展为“立体主义”
The Cubists used geometry to show reality from many angles simultaneously.
立体主义者运用几何 从多种角度同时展现现实
Kandinsky takes inspiration from this,
康定斯基从中获得灵感
but is more interested in abstracting geometry from its representational source.
但他更感兴趣的是抽象几何而非具象几何
The sparks that fly from these investigations create several other movements:
这些创新引发了几项其他的运动
“Futurism” in Italy, “De Stijl” in the Netherlands,
意大利的“未来主义” 荷兰的“风格派”
“Suprematism”, then”Constructivism” in Russia,
俄罗斯的“至上主义”和“建构主义”
“Dada” in Switzerland,
瑞士的“达达主义”
and eventually “Surrealism” in the 1920s and 1930s.
最终引发了20世纪20 30年代的“超现实主义”
A key aspect of the surrealist manifesto is the focus on automatic creation:
超现实主义的关键在于无意识的创造
writing or speaking without forethought as a way to access the unconscious mind.
即不加思考地说和写 从而抵达无意识的思维状态
Painters like Andre Masson applied this to the visual arts,
安德烈·马森等画家将其运用到了视觉艺术中
letting ink run free across paper creating fluid dreamlike drawings
任凭墨汁在纸上自由流动从而创造出梦幻般的画作
prefiguring the work of Jackson Pollock.
预示着杰克逊·波洛克作品的到来
As World War Two ravaged Europe,
第二次世界大战席卷欧洲
several of the Surrealists and other European artists escaped to New York City
一些超现实主义艺术家和其他欧洲艺术家逃到了纽约
and began to mix with a new school of American painters.
并开始同新派美国画家结交
The Americans synthesized and reacted to all the various European styles.
那些美国画家吸收并融合了各种各样的欧洲风格
The”Abstract Expressionists”, as they were called,
这些被称为“抽象表现主义者” 的画家
made work that was deeply personal, formally inventive, and confrontational.
创造出非常个性化 形式高度创新且具有冲突性的作品
Exiled surrealist Wolfgang Paalen put it best:
流亡的超现实主义画家沃尔夫冈·帕伦 精辟地讲到
“画作不再有所象征
时至今日已经变成画望着观赏者 问:
你想要表达什么?”
Pollock’s drip paintings push abstraction to its furthest limit.
波洛克的滴画将抽象发挥到了极致
Even in Kandinsky, lines still bound recognizable shapes.
即使是康定斯基的画里 都是有明显的线条存在的
In Pollock, there are no shapes;
但波洛克的画中不存在具体的形态
no suggestions to grab onto.
根本抓不到作者的意图
The line itself dancing across the canvas is set free,
线条自由地在画布上舞动
containing nothing, separating nothing.
不包含任何事 也不排斥任何事
There is no inside, no outside, nowhere for your eyes to rest.
没有里面 没有外面 你的眼睛也无处停歇
All that remains is energy.
剩下的只有能量
Wild, emotional energy that peers into you,
狂野的 情绪化的能量笼罩着你
not the other way around.
让你无处可逃
I think that’s why I reacted so strongly to this painting in person.
我想这就是我自身对这幅画有强烈反应的原因
I could feel it looking at me.
我能感觉到它在看着我
You know, like I said before these drip paintings have intrinsic value.
就像我之前说的 这些滴画有固有的价值
But I also think they speak to something deep in human nature,
但我同时认为它们能诉说人性深处的某种东西
that we are…obsessive.
那就是 我们总是……过分执着
In the same way that we won’t stop until we’re flying among the stars,
就像我们不断发展 渴望在群星间遨游
it took less than a hundred years for this to become this.
从这幅画到这幅画用时不到一百年
A fast changing world contributed hugely, of course.
当然 瞬息万变的世界肯定也在很大程度上促成了艺术的转变
But beyond that I do believe there’s a drive in us,
但我仍坚定地认为人类内心有种驱动力
to take things as far as they can go,
让事情前进到不能再往前为止
and this century of modern art is an exhilarating example of that.
本世纪的现代艺术就是最振奋人心的例子
It’s just inspiring how irrepressible human creativity can be.
它证明了人类不可遏制的创造力能给我们多少启发
Hey everybody, thank you so much for watching.
大家好 感谢大家收看该视频
This episode was brought to you by Squarespace.
本期视频由Squarespace赞助
If you don’t know
如果你还不知道
you can use Squarespace to make sharp, beautiful websites for anything you might need.
你可以用Squarespace制作任何你需要的网站
A personal site, a wedding website,
个人网站 婚庆网站
a site for your business or portfolio.
商业或系列产品网站
Their design team has crafted these really professional looking templates
他们的设计团队制作了非常专业的模版
that work on computer browsers and on mobile, switching perfectly between the two.
能在电脑和手机间自由切换
You can integrate your own photos and videos with just a few clicks,
点击几下 你就能合成图片和视频
and you can even link your social account
还能关联到社交网络账号
so that you can auto post to Twitter and Facebook all from within Squarespace.
这样你就能把Squarespace的内容自动发布到推特和脸书
Head over to squarespace.com for a free trial,
你准备好的时候
and when you’re ready to launch,
请来squarespace.com免费体验
don’t forget to go to squarespace.com/nerdwriter
别忘了点击squarespace.com/nerdwriter
for 10% off your first purchase.
首次购买打九折
Thanks guys. I’ll see you next time.
谢谢大家 我们下次再见

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视频概述

人类的创造力是如何促使艺术发展的,滴画对于当今艺术又怎样的影响?一起来感受艺术之美吧!

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